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Hotels of Rotterdam

A hotel in Rotterdam is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Rotterdam hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Rotterdam are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Rotterdam hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Rotterdam hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Rotterdam have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Rotterdam
An upscale full service hotel facility in Rotterdam that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Rotterdam hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Rotterdam
Full service Rotterdam hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Rotterdam
Boutique hotels of Rotterdam are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Rotterdam boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Rotterdam may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Rotterdam
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Rotterdam travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Rotterdam focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Rotterdam
Small to medium-sized Rotterdam hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Rotterdam traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Rotterdam hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Rotterdam
A bed and breakfast in Rotterdam is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Rotterdam bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Rotterdam B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Rotterdam
Rotterdam hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Rotterdam hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Rotterdam
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Rotterdam hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Rotterdam lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Rotterdam
Rotterdam timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Rotterdam often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Rotterdam on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Rotterdam
A Rotterdam motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Rotterdam for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Rotterdam motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Rotterdam

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For other uses, see Rotterdam (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Rotherham.
Rotterdam
City and Municipality
Erasmusbrug seen from Euromast.jpg
Laurenskerk, Rotterdam.jpg Rotterdam zadkine monument.jpg Overzicht - Rotterdam - 20358120 - RCE.jpg
2003-03-04 rotterdam 15 cubic houses.JPG Rotterdam feyenoord stadion 1.jpg
Rotterdam stadhuis.jpg Schielandshuis Rotterdam cropped.jpg Rotterdam hotel newyork.jpg
Rotterdam aelbrechtskolk wallekant.jpg Maasvlakte, containeropslag foto1 2014-03-09 11.12.jpg
From top down, left to right: Rotterdam at dusk,
Lawrence Church, The Destroyed City sculpture, Euromast,
Cube houses, De Kuip; stadium of Feyenoord,
City Hall of Rotterdam, Schieland House, Hotel New York,
Historic town centre of Delfshaven, Port of Rotterdam
Flag of Rotterdam
Flag
Coat of arms of Rotterdam
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Rotown, Roffa, Rotjeknor, Nultien
Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through struggle)
Highlighted position of Rotterdam in a municipal map of South Holland
Location in South Holland
Coordinates:  / 51.917; 4.500  / 51.917; 4.500
Country Netherlands
Province South Holland
Boroughs
Government
• Body Municipal council
• Mayor Ahmed Aboutaleb (PvdA)
• Aldermen
Area
• Municipality 325.79 km (125.79 sq mi)
• Land 208.80 km (80.62 sq mi)
• Water 116.99 km (45.17 sq mi)
• Randstad 3,043 km (1,175 sq mi)
Elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (Municipality, May 2014; Urban and Metro, May 2014; Randstad, 2011)
• Municipality 619,879
• Density 2,969/km (7,690/sq mi)
• Urban 1,015,215
• Metro 1,181,284
Metropolitan region 2,261,844
• Randstad 7,100,000
Demonym(s) Rotterdammer
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postcode 3000–3099
Area code 010
Website www.rotterdam.nl

Rotterdam (/ˈrɒtərdæm/ or /ˌrɒtərˈdæm/; Dutch: [ˌrɔtərˈdɑm]) is a city in the Netherlands, located in South Holland, within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea. Its history goes back to 1270 when a dam was constructed in the Rotte river by people settled around it for safety. In 1340 Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland and slowly grew into a major logistic and economic centre. Nowadays it is home to Europe's largest port and has a population of 633,471 (2014, city proper), ranking second in the Netherlands, just behind Amsterdam. The Greater Rijnmond area is home to approximately 1.4 million people and the Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area makes for the 168th most populous urban area in the world. Rotterdam is part of the yet larger Randstad conurbation with a total population of 7,100,000.

The city of Rotterdam is known for the Erasmus University, riverside setting, lively cultural life and its maritime heritage. The near-complete destruction of Rotterdam's city centre during World War II (known as the Rotterdam Blitz) has resulted in a varied architectural landscape including sky-scrapers, which are an uncommon sight in other Dutch cities. Rotterdam is home to some world-famous architecture from renowned architects like Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom, Ben van Berkel and others. Recently Rotterdam was listed eighth in The Rough Guide Top 10 Cities to Visit and fifth in Lonely Planet's Best in Travel 2016 and was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism.

The port of Rotterdam is the largest cargo port in Europe and the 10th largest in the world. Rotterdam's logistic success is based on its strategic location on the North Sea, directly at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas (New Meuse) channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. The rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the highly industrialized Ruhr region. The extensive distribution system including rail, roads, and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nickname "Gateway to Europe", and, conversely; "Gateway to the World" in Europe.

Rotterdam: History

See also: Timeline of Rotterdam
Map of Rotterdam by Willem and Joan Blaeu (1652)

The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte (or Rotta, as it was then known, from rot, "muddy" and a, "water", thus "muddy water") dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk ("Schieland’s High Sea Dike") along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte or "Rotterdam" was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day Hoogstraat ("High Street").

On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, which then had approximately 2,000 inhabitants. Around the year 1350, a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the Netherlands, England and Germany, and to urbanize.

The Delftsevaart in c. 1890–1905

The port of Rotterdam grew slowly but steadily into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), the Dutch East India Company.

The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872. The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success. When completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m (147.64 ft).

Rotterdam centre after the 1940 bombing of Rotterdam. The ruined St. Lawrence' Church has been restored
Tower blocks in the Kop van Zuid neighbourhood

During World War I the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between Great-Britain, Germany and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents operating from Rotterdam. MI6 had its main European office on de Boompjes. From there the British coordinated espionage in Germany and occupied Belgium. In WWI an average of 25,000 Belgian refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters and escaped Allied POW's.

During World War II, the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance. The Dutch army was finally forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following Hitler's bombing of Rotterdam on 14 May and threatening to bomb other Dutch cities. The heart of Rotterdam was almost completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe. Some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed; a relatively low number given that many had fled the city because of the warfare and bombing going on in Rotterdam since the start of the invasion three days earlier. The City Hall survived the bombing. Ossip Zadkine later attempted to capture the event with his statue De Verwoeste Stad ('The Destroyed City'). The statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas.

Rotterdam was gradually rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s. It remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more 'livable' city centre with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a new business centre. Rotterdam was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism.

Rotterdam: Geography

Topographic map image of Rotterdam (city), as of Sept. 2014

'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by (from west to east): the Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the Erasmusbrug ('Erasmus Bridge'); a subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel ('Willems railway tunnel'); the Willemsbrug ('Willems Bridge'); the Koninginnebrug ('Queen's Bridge'); and the Van Brienenoordbrug ('Van Brienenoord Bridge'). The former railway lift bridge De Hef ('the Lift') is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland ('North Island') and the south of Rotterdam.

The city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid ('the Head of South', i.e. the northern part of southern Rotterdam). From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbour area.

Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the Rotterdam are below sea level. For instance, the Prins Alexander Polder in the northeast of Rotterdam extends 6 metres (20 ft) below sea level, or rather below Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) or 'Amsterdam Ordnance Datum'. The lowest point in the Netherlands (6.76 metres (22.2 ft) below NAP) is situated just to the east of Rotterdam, in the municipality of Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel.

Satellite image of Rotterdam and its port

The Rotte river no longer joins the Nieuwe Maas directly. Since the early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam’s second subway line interfered with the Rotte’s course, its waters have been pumped through a pipe into the Nieuwe Maas via the Boerengat.

The 24 municipalities of the Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area

Between the summers of 2003 and 2008, an artificial beach was created at the Boompjeskade along the Nieuwe Maas, between the Erasmus Bridge and the Willems Bridge. Swimming was not possible, digging pits was limited to the height of the layer of sand, about 50 cm (20 in). Alternatively people go the beach of Hoek van Holland (which is a Rotterdam district) or one of the beaches in Zeeland: Renesse or the Zuid Hollandse Eilanden: Ouddorp, Oostvoorne.

Rotterdam forms the centre of the Rijnmond conurbation, bordering the conurbation surrounding The Hague to the north-west. The two conurbations are close enough to be a single conurbation. They share the Rotterdam The Hague Airport and a light rail system called RandstadRail. Consideration is being given to creating an official Metropolitan region Rotterdam The Hague (Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag), which would have a combined population approaching 2.5 million.

On its turn, the Rijnmond conurbation is part of the southern wing (the Zuidvleugel) of the Randstad, which is one of the most important economic and densely populated areas in the north-west of Europe. Having a population of 7.1 million, the Randstad is the sixth-largest urban area in Europe (after Moscow, London, Paris, Istanbul, and the Rhein-Ruhr Area). The Zuidvleugel, situated in the province of South Holland, has a population of around 3 million.

Rotterdam: Climate

Rotterdam experiences a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to all of the Netherlands. Located near to the coast, its climate is slightly milder than locations further inland.

Climate data for Rotterdam The Hague Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.1
(57.4)
16.7
(62.1)
21.2
(70.2)
26.7
(80.1)
30.5
(86.9)
32.8
(91)
33.1
(91.6)
34.9
(94.8)
29.0
(84.2)
24.8
(76.6)
18.3
(64.9)
15.1
(59.2)
34.9
(94.8)
Average high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
6.6
(43.9)
9.9
(49.8)
13.5
(56.3)
17.5
(63.5)
19.9
(67.8)
22.2
(72)
22.1
(71.8)
18.9
(66)
14.7
(58.5)
9.9
(49.8)
6.6
(43.9)
14.0
(57.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
3.7
(38.7)
6.4
(43.5)
9.1
(48.4)
12.9
(55.2)
15.5
(59.9)
17.8
(64)
17.6
(63.7)
14.8
(58.6)
11.2
(52.2)
7.3
(45.1)
4.2
(39.6)
10.4
(50.7)
Average low °C (°F) 0.8
(33.4)
0.5
(32.9)
2.6
(36.7)
4.3
(39.7)
7.8
(46)
10.6
(51.1)
13.1
(55.6)
12.8
(55)
10.6
(51.1)
7.5
(45.5)
4.2
(39.6)
1.4
(34.5)
6.4
(43.5)
Record low °C (°F) −17.1
(1.2)
−13.8
(7.2)
−11.4
(11.5)
−6.0
(21.2)
−1.4
(29.5)
0.5
(32.9)
3.6
(38.5)
4.6
(40.3)
0.4
(32.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
−7.5
(18.5)
−13.3
(8.1)
−17.1
(1.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 69.1
(2.72)
57.9
(2.28)
64.9
(2.555)
42.6
(1.677)
58.3
(2.295)
65.2
(2.567)
74.0
(2.913)
81.0
(3.189)
87.1
(3.429)
90.1
(3.547)
87.1
(3.429)
78.3
(3.083)
855.6
(33.685)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 12 10 12 9 9 10 10 10 12 12 13 13 131
Average snowy days 6 5 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 22
Average relative humidity (%) 88 85 83 78 77 79 79 80 84 86 89 89 83.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.5 83.8 124.0 174.9 213.9 203.6 213.1 196.6 137.6 106.9 60.4 46.7 1,623.8
Source #1: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1981–2010 normals, snowy days normals for 1971–2000)
Source #2: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1971–2000 extremes)

Rotterdam: Demographics

Historical population
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1398 2,500 -
1477 5,738 +1.06%
1494 4,374 −1.58%
1514 5,116 +0.79%
1622 19,532 +1.25%
1632 29,500 +4.21%
1665 40,000 +0.93%
1732 56,000 +0.50%
1795 53,212 −0.08%
1830 72,300 +0.88%
1849 90,100 +1.17%
1879 148,100 +1.67%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1899 318,500 +3.90%
1925 547,900 +2.11%
1965 731,000 +0.72%
1984 555,000 −1.44%
2005 596,407 +0.34%
2006 588,576 −1.31%
2007 584,046 −0.77%
2010 603,425 +1.09%
2011 612,502 +1.50%
2012 617,347 +0.79%
2014 624,799 +0.60%
Source: , pp. 116–117 (1398–1795)

Overall the demographics differ per city area. According to a recent area analysis, the city centre has a singles population of 70%, between the ages of 20 and 40, considerably more than other city areas. Also the city centre has a much larger population of people with higher education and higher income. Nonetheless, 80% of the homes are rented, not owned. The city centre also has a higher percentage (51% vs 45%) of foreign-born citizens. The majority (70%) of shops are also run by foreign-born citizens.

Rotterdam: Composition

Rotterdam's City Hall

On 1 January 2015 (source: Statistics Netherlands), the municipality covered an area of 319 km (206.44 km of which is land) with a population of 623,956. It is part of the Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area with a total population of approximately 2.3 million. In 1965, the municipal population of Rotterdam reached its peak of 731,000, but by 1984 it had decreased to 555,000 as a result of suburbanization.

Rotterdam consists of 14 submunicipalities: Centrum, Charlois (including Heijplaat), Delfshaven, Feijenoord, Hillegersberg-Schiebroek, Hoek van Holland, Hoogvliet, IJsselmonde, Kralingen-Crooswijk, Noord, Overschie, Prins Alexander (the most populous submunicipality with around 85,000 inhabitants), and Rozenburg. One other area, Pernis, does have an official submunicipality status since 3 March 2010.

The current size of the municipality of Rotterdam is the result of the amalgamation of the following former municipalities, some of which now are a submunicipality:

  • Delfshaven (added on 30 January 1886)
  • Charlois (added on 28 February 1895)
  • Kralingen (added on 28 February 1895)
  • Hoogvliet (added on 1 May 1934)
  • Pernis (added on 1 May 1934)
  • Hillegersberg (added on 1 August 1941)
  • IJsselmonde (added on 1 August 1941)
  • Overschie (added on 1 August 1941)
  • Schiebroek (added on 1 August 1941)
  • Rozenburg (added on 18 March 2010)

Rotterdam: Ethnic make-up

City of Rotterdam population by country of origin (2016)
Country/Territory Population
Suriname Suriname 52,584
Turkey Turkey 47,778
Morocco Morocco 43,064
Netherlands Dutch Caribbean 23,941
Cape Verde Cape Verde 15,475
Indonesia Indonesia 12,274
Germany Germany 9,653
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 9,333
Poland Poland 8,431
China China 7,008

In the Netherlands, Rotterdam has the highest percentage of foreigners from non-industrialised nations. They form a large part of Rotterdam's multi ethnic and multicultural diversity. 47.7% of the population are of non Dutch origins or have at least one parent born outside the country. There are 80,000 Muslims, constituting 13% of the population. The mayor of Rotterdam, Ahmed Aboutaleb, is of Moroccan descent and is a practicing Muslim. The city is home to the largest Dutch Antillean community. The city also has its own China Town at the West-Kruiskade, close to Rotterdam Centraal.

Rotterdam: Religion

Christianity is the largest religion in Rotterdam and comprises the 31,1% of the population. The second and third largest religions are Islam with 13,3% and Hinduism with 3,3%, respectively.

Circle frame.svg

Religions in Rotterdam (2013)

No affiliation (51.7%)
Roman Catholic (14.7%)
Protestant Church in the Netherlands (9.5%)
Other Christian denominations (6.9%)
Islam (13.3%)
Hinduism (3.3%)
Buddhism (0.5%)
Judaism (0.1%)

Rotterdam: Economy

Gebouw Delftse Poort, one of the tallest office buildings in the Netherlands

Rotterdam has always been one of the main centres of the shipping industry in the Netherlands. From the Rotterdam Chamber of the VOC, the world's first multinational, established in 1602, to the merchant shipping leader Royal Nedlloyd established in 1970, with its corporate headquarters located in the landmark building the 'Willemswerf' in 1988. In 1997, Nedlloyd merged with the British shipping industry leader P&O forming the third largest merchant shipping company in the world. The Anglo-Dutch P&O Nedlloyd was bought by the Danish giant corporation 'AP Moller Maersk' in 2005 and its Dutch operations are still headquartered in the 'Willemswerf'.

Nowadays, well-known companies with headquarters in Rotterdam are consumers goods company Unilever, asset management firm Robeco, energy company Eneco, dredging company Van Oord, oil company Shell Downstream, terminal operator Vopak,commodity trading company Vitol and architecture firm Office for Metropolitan Architecture. It is also home to the regional headquarters of chemical company LyondellBasell, commodities trading company Glencore, pharmaceutical company Pfizer, logistics companies Stolt-Nielsen, electrical equipment company ABB Group and consumer goods company Procter & Gamble. Furthermore, Rotterdam has the Dutch headquarters of Allianz, Maersk, Petrobras, Samskip, Louis Dreyfus Group and Aon.

The City of Rotterdam makes use of the services of semi-government companies Roteb (to take care of sanitation, waste management and assorted services) and the Port of Rotterdam Authority (to maintain the Port of Rotterdam). Both these companies were once municipal bodies, now they are autonomous entities, owned by the City.

Being the largest port and one of the largest cities of the country, Rotterdam attracts many people seeking jobs, especially in the cheap labour segment. The city's unemployment rate is 12%, almost twice the national average.

Together with Eindhoven (Brainport) and Amsterdam (Airport), Rotterdam (Seaport) forms the foundation of the Dutch economy.

Rotterdam: Ports

Main article: Port of Rotterdam
The Waalhaven by night
Unmanned vehicles handle containers at Europe Container Terminals (ECT), the largest container terminal operator in Europe.

Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel, Switzerland and into France. In 2004 Shanghai took over as the world's busiest port. In 2006, Rotterdam was the world's seventh largest container port in terms of twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) handled.

The port's main activities are petrochemical industries and general cargo handling and transshipment. The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In 2007, the Betuweroute, a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed.

Rotterdam: Shopping

Well-known streets in Rotterdam are the Lijnbaan (the first set of pedestrian streets of the country, opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat, the Coolsingel with the city hall, and the Weena, which runs from the Central Station to the Hofplein (square). A modern shopping venue is the Beurstraverse ("Stock Exchange Traverse"), better known by its informal name 'Koopgoot' ('Buying/Shopping Gutter', after its subterranean position), which crosses the Coolsingel below street level). The Kruiskade is a more upscale shopping street, with retailers like Michael Kors, 7 For All Mankind, Calvin Klein, Hugo Boss, Tommy Hilfiger and the Dutch well known men's clothier Oger. Another upscale shopping venue is a flagship store of department store De Bijenkorf. Located a little more to the east is the Markthal, with lots of small retailers inside. This hall is also one of Rotterdam's famous architectural landmarks.

The main shopping venue in the south of Rotterdam is Zuidplein, which lies close to Rotterdam Ahoy, an accommodation center for shows, exhibitions, sporting events, concerts and congresses. Another prominent shopping center, called Alexandrium (sometimes still called by its former name Oosterhof), lies in the east of Rotterdam. It includes a large kitchen and furniture center.

Rotterdam: Education

Bronze statue of Erasmus created by Hendrick de Keyser in 1622

Rotterdam has one major university, the Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR), named after one of the city's famous former inhabitants, Desiderius Erasmus. The Woudestein campus houses (among others) Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University. In Financial Times' 2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In the 2009 rankings of Masters of Management, the school reached first place with the CEMS Master in Management and a tenth place with its RSM Master in Management. The university is also home to Europe's largest student association, STAR Study Association Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the world's largest student association, AIESEC, has its international office in the city.

The Willem de Kooning Academy Rotterdam's main art school, which is part of the Hogeschool Rotterdam. It is regarded as one of the most prestigious art schools in the Netherlands and the number 1 in Advertising and Copywriting. Part of the Willem de Kooning Academy is the Piet Zwart Institute for postgraduate studies and research in Fine Art, Media Design and Retail Design. The Piet Zwart Institute boasts a selective roster of emerging international artists.

The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital, the Sophia Hospital (for children) and the Medical Department of the University. These are known collectively as the Erasmus Medical Center, which is ranked third worldwide for medical research, behind the Harvard University and Johns Hopkins University. The Erasmus Medical Center ranks as the top European institution in clinical medicine according to the Times Higher Education rankings.

There are also three Hogescholen (Universities of applied sciences) in Rotterdam. These schools award their students a professional Bachelor's degree and postgraduate or Master's degree. The three Hogescholen are Hogeschool Rotterdam, Hogeschool Inholland and Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans (uni for music and dance) which is also known as CodArts.

As there are many international and American schools scattered across Europe such as ASH (American International School of the Hague) Rotterdam also has its own international/American school by the name AISR (American International School of Rotterdam). At AISR children receive a multicultural education in a culturally diverse community and it offers the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program.

Unique to the city is the Shipping & Transport College which offers masters, bachelors and vocational diplomas on all levels.

Rotterdam: Culture

Rotterdam waterfront, with spotlights shining into the air to commemorate the Rotterdam Blitz

Alongside Porto, Rotterdam was European Capital of Culture in 2001. The city has its own orchestra, the Rotterdam Philharmonic, with its well-regarded young music director Yannick Nézet-Séguin; a large congress and concert building called De Doelen; several theaters (including the new Luxor) and movie theatres; and the Ahoy Rotterdam complex in the south of the city, which is used for pop concerts, exhibitions, tennis tournaments, and other activities. A major zoo called Diergaarde Blijdorp is situated at the northwest side of Rotterdam, complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the Oceanium. The city is home to the Willem de Kooning Academy and Piet Zwart Institute.

Rotterdam features some urban architecture projects, nightlife, and many summer festivals celebrating the city's multicultural population and identity, such as the Caribbean-inspired "Summer Carnival", the Dance Parade, Rotterdam 666, the Metropolis pop festival and the World Port days. In the years 2005–2011 the city struggled with venues for popmusic. Many of the venues suffered severe financial problems. This resulted in the disappearance of the major music venues Nighttown and WATT and smaller stages such as Waterfront, Exit, and Heidegger. Currently the city has a few venues for pop music like Rotown, Poortgebouw and Annabel. The venue WORM focuses on experimental music and related cutting edge subcultural music. There are also the International Film Festival in January, the Poetry International Festival in June, the North Sea Jazz Festival in July, the Valery Gergiev Festival in September, September in Rotterdam and the World of the Witte de With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival (which featured Jefferson Airplane, The Byrds, Canned Heat, It's a Beautiful Day, and Santana) was held and filmed at the Stamping Grounds in Rotterdam.

There is a healthy competition with Amsterdam, which is often viewed as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. There is a saying: "Amsterdam to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live, Rotterdam to work". Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is "Money is earned in Rotterdam, distributed in The Hague and spent in Amsterdam". Another saying that reflects both the rivalry between Rotterdam and Amsterdam is "Amsterdam has it, Rotterdam doesn't need it".

It is also the home of Gabber, a type of hardcore electronic music popular in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Groups like Neophyte and Rotterdam Terror Corps (RTC) started in Rotterdam.

The main cultural organisations in Amsterdam, such as the Concertgebouw and Holland Festival, have joint forces with similar organisations in Rotterdam, via A'R'dam. In 2007 these organisations published with plans for co-operation. One of the goals is to strengthen the international position of culture and art in the Netherlands in the international context.

Rotterdam: Museums

Rotterdam has many museums. Well known museums are the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, the Netherlands Architecture Institute, the Wereldmuseum, the Kunsthal, Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art and the Maritime Museum Rotterdam. The Historical Museum Rotterdam has changed into Museum Rotterdam which aims to exhibit Rotterdam as a contemporary transnational city, and not a past city.

Other museums include the tax museum and the natural history museum. At the historical shipyard and museum Scheepswerf 'De Delft', the reconstruction of ship of the line Delft can be visited.

Rotterdam: Architecture

See also: List of tallest buildings in Rotterdam
The former headquarters of the Holland America Line next to modern residential architecture in 2010
Erasmus Bridge in 2011

In 1898, the 45-metre (148-foot) high-rise office building the White House (in Dutch Witte Huis) was completed, at that time the tallest office building in Europe. In the first decades of the 20th century, some influential architecture in the modern style was built in Rotterdam. Notable are the Van Nelle fabriek (1929) a monument of modern factory design by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt, the Jugendstil clubhouse of the Royal Maas Yacht Club designed by Hooijkaas jr. en Brinkman (1909), and Feyenoord's football stadium De Kuip (1936) also by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt. The architect J. J. P. Oud was a famous Rotterdammer in those days. The Van Nelle Factory obtained the status of UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014. During the early stages of World War II the center of Rotterdam was bombed by the Germans, destroying many of the older buildings in the center of the city. After initial crisis re-construction the center of Rotterdam has become the site of ambitious new architecture.

The Cube Houses in 2011
The Markthal as seen from the Binnenrotte, Rotterdam center.
The Euromast in 2005.

Rotterdam is also famous for its Lijnbaan 1952 by architects Broek en Bakema, Peperklip by architect Carel Weeber, Kubuswoningen or cube houses designed by architect Piet Blom 1984.

The newest landmark in Rotterdam is the Markthal, designed by architect firm MVRDV. In addition to that there are many international well known architects based in Rotterdam like O.M.A (Rem Koolhaas), Neutelings & Riedijk and Erick van Egeraat to name a few. Two architectural landmarks are located in the Lloydkwartier: the STC college building and the Schiecentrale 4b.

Rotterdam also houses several of the tallest structures in the Netherlands.

  • The Erasmusbrug (1996) is a 790-meter (2,600 ft) cable stayed bridge linking the north and south of Rotterdam. It is held up by a 138 metres (453 ft) tall pylon with a characteristic bend, earning the bridge its nickname 'De Zwaan' ('the Swan').
  • Rotterdam has the tallest residential building in the Netherlands: the New Orleans Tower (158.35 metres (519.5 ft)).
  • Rotterdam is also home to the tallest office building 'Maastoren' (164.75 m or 540.5 ft) which houses Deloitte. This office tower surpassed the 'Delftse Poort' (160 m or 520 ft) which houses Nationale-Nederlanden insurance company, part of ING Group as tallest office tower in 2009.
  • The city also houses the 186 metres (610 ft) tall Euromast, which is a major tourist attraction. It was built in 1960, initially reaching a height of 101 metres (331 ft); in 1970, the Euromast was extended by 85 metres (279 ft) to its current height.

Rotterdam has a reputation in being a platform for architectural development and education through the Berlage Institute, a postgraduate laboratory of architecture, and the NAi (Netherlands Architecture Institute), which is open to the public and has a variety of good exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues.

Rotterdam is has a position in the best European SkylineTop together with Frankfurt, London, Madrid, Paris, Warsaw and Moscow. Over 30 new highrise projects are being developed at the moment.

Highrise buildings that are currently being built:

  • Boston & Seattle, two buildings with a height of 70 metres (230 feet) each are being built at Kop van Zuid. They are expected to be completed in 2017.

Rotterdam: Sports

Rotterdam calls itself Sportstad (City of Sports). The city annually organises several world-renowned sporting events. Some examples are the Rotterdam Marathon, the World Port Tournament, and the Rotterdam World Tennis Tournament. Rotterdam also organises one race of the Red Bull Air Race World Championship and the car racing event Monaco aan de Maas (Monaco at the Meuse).

The city is also the home of many sports clubs and some historic and iconic athletes.

Rotterdam: Football

Robin van Persie, who now plays for Fenerbahçe, began his career with SBV Excelsior and broke through in Feyenoord.
De Kuip, Feyenoord home stadium.

Rotterdam is the home of three professional football clubs, being first tier clubs Feyenoord, Excelsior and Sparta.

Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three professional clubs, has won fourteen national titles since the introduction of professional football in the Netherlands. It won the European Cup (current Champions league) as the first Dutch club in 1970, and won the World Cup for club teams in the same year. In 1974, they were the first Dutch club to win the UEFA Cup and in 2002, Feyenoord won the UEFA Cup again. In 2008, the year of their 100-year-anniversary, Feyenoord won the KNVB-cup.

Seating 51,480, its 1931 stadium, called Stadion Feijenoord but popularly known as De Kuip ('the Tub'), is the second largest in the country, after the Amsterdam Arena. De Kuip, located in the southeast of the city, has hosted many international football games, including the final of Euro 2000 and has been awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking. There are concrete plans to build a new stadium with a capacity of at least 80,000 seats.

Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam, won the national title six times; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the northeast, has never won any.

Rotterdam also has three fourth tier clubs, SC Feijenoord (Feyenoord Amateurs), PVV DOTO and TOGR. Rotterdam is and has been the home to many great football players and coaches, among whom:

  • Bert van Marwijk
  • Coen Moulijn
  • Dirk Kuyt
  • Ernst Happel
  • Faas Wilkes
  • Giovanni van Bronckhorst
  • Georginio Wijnaldum
  • Henrik Larsson
  • Danny Blind
  • John de Wolf
  • Jon Dahl Tomasson
  • Leo Beenhakker
  • Louis van Gaal
  • Ove Kindvall
  • Kevin Strootman
  • Memphis Depay
  • Pierre van Hooijdonk
  • Pim Doesburg
  • Puck van Heel
  • Rinus Israël
  • Robin van Persie
  • Ronald Koeman
  • Roy Makaay
  • Ruud Gullit
  • Sonny Silooy
  • Willem van Hanegem
  • Wim Jansen
  • Winston Bogarde
  • Włodzimierz Smolarek

Rotterdam: Marathon

Runners during the marathon in Rotterdam

Rotterdam has its own annual international marathon, which offers one of the fastest courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the world record was set in Rotterdam, first by Carlos Lopes and later in 1988 by Belayneh Densamo.

In 1998, the world record for women was set by Tegla Loroupe, in a time of 2:20.47. Loroupe won the Rotterdam Marathon three consecutive times, from 1997 to 1999.

The current track record for men is held by Duncan Kibet, who ran a time of 2:04.27 in 2009. The female record was set in 2012, when Tiki Gelana finished the race in 2:18.58. Gelana went on to become the 2012 Olympic champion in London, a few months later.

The marathon starts and ends on the Coolsingel in the heart of Rotterdam. It attracts a total of 900.000 visitors.

Rotterdam: Tennis

Arthur Ashe at the 1975 ABN World Tennis Tournament

Since 1972, Rotterdam hosts the indoor hard court ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament, part of the ATP Tour. The event was first organised in 1972, when it was won by Arthur Ashe. Ashe went on to win the tournament two more times, making him the singles title record holder.

Former Wimbledon winner Richard Krajicek became the tournament director after his retirement in 2000. The latest edition of the tournament attracted a total of 116.354 visitors.

Rotterdam: Tour de France 2010

In November 2008 Rotterdam was chosen as the host of the Grand Départ of the 2010 Tour de France. Rotterdam won the selection over the Dutch city of Utrecht. Germany's Düsseldorf had previously also expressed interest in hosting. The Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), organizer of the Tour de France, said in a statement on its web site that it chose Rotterdam because, in addition to it being another big city, like London, to showcase the use of bikes for urban transportation, it provided a location well positioned considering the rest of the route envisioned for the 2010 event.

The start in Rotterdam was the fifth in the Netherlands. The prologue was a 7 km (4.35 mi) individual time trial crossing the centre of the city. The first regular stage left the Erasmusbrug and went south, towards Brussels.

Rotterdam: Rowing

Members of the student rowing club Skadi were part of the 'Holland Acht', winning a gold medal at the Olympics in 1996.. Since the opening in April 2013, Rotterdam hosts the rowing venue 'Willem-Alexanderbaan' that will host the 2016 World Rowing Championships for Seniors, U23 and Juniors.

Rotterdam: Field hockey

In field hockey, Rotterdam has the largest hockey club in the Netherlands, HC Rotterdam, with its own stadium in the north of the city and nearly 2,400 members. The first men's and women's teams both play on the highest level in the Dutch Hoofdklasse.

Rotterdam: Baseball

Rotterdam is home to the most successful European baseball team, Neptunus Rotterdam, winning the most European Cups.

Rotterdam: Boxing

Bep van Klaveren

Rotterdam has a long boxing tradition starting with Bep van Klaveren (1907–1992), aka 'The Dutch Windmill', Gold medal winner of the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics, followed by professional boxers like Regilio Tuur and Don Diego Poeder.

Rotterdam: Swimming

Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with Marie Braun aka Zus (sister) Braun, who was coached to a Gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later in Paris. In her career as 14 time national champ, she broke 6 world records. Ma Braun later also coached the Rotterdam born, three-times Olympic champion Rie Mastenbroek during the Berlin Olympics in 1936. In later years Inge de Bruijn became a Rotterdam sport icon as triple Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal winner in 2001.

Rotterdam: Motor cycle racing

Motor cycle speedway was staged in the Feyenoord Stadium after the second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known as the Feyenoord Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some English and Australian riders.

Rotterdam: Sportsmen of the year election

Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and team at the Rotterdam Sports Awards Election, held in December.

Rotterdam: Other famous Rotterdam athletes

Francisco Elson
  • Mia Audina, a retired Indonesia born badminton player, living in Rotterdam.
  • Nelli Cooman, a Surinamese born retired athlete who held the 60 m dash world record, and was the world and European champion in that event.
  • Robert Doornbos, a Rotterdam born race car driver, who competed in the Formula One.
  • Robert Eenhoorn, a Rotterdam born retired MLB short stop, who competed for the New York Yankees, the Anaheim Angels and the New York Mets.
  • Dex Elmont, a Rotterdam born judoka, who finished second in the European championships in 2009 in the 65 to 73 kg (143 to 161 lb) division.
  • Guillaume Elmont, a Rotterdam born judoka, who became world champion in 2005 in the 73 to 81 kg (161 to 179 lb) division.
  • Francisco Elson, a Rotterdam born basketball player who played in the NBA, won the NBA finals in 2007 with the San Antonio Spurs.
  • Ignisious Gaisah, a Ghanaian born long jumper with a personal best of 8.43 metres (27.66 feet), residing in Rotterdam since 2001. Gaisah is a multiple medal winner in several international events, both as a citizen of Ghana and the Netherlands.
  • Francis Hoenselaar, a Rotterdam born female darts player, generally recognised as the best Dutch female darts player ever.
  • Robert Lathouwers, an athlete born in a Rotterdam suburb, specialised in the 800 m. Lathouwers gained international notoriety when he got disqualified after shoving Irish athlete David McCarthy in the 2010 European Championships.
  • Fatima Moreira de Melo, a Rotterdam born, three-times olympic champion in field hockey. Moreira de Melo currently is a professional poker player.
  • Piet Roozenburg, a Rotterdam born draughts player, who was the world champion from 1948 to 1956 and the 8-time Dutch champion.
  • Betty Stöve, a Rotterdam born retired female tennis double specialist and 10-time Grand Slam winner.
  • Ingmar Vos, a Rotterdam born decathlete, with a personal best of 8224 points.

Rotterdam: Yearly events

Rotterdam hosts several annual events unique to the city. It hosts the Zomercarnaval (Summercarnaval), the second largest Caribbean carnival in Europe, originally called the Antillean carnival. Other events include: North Sea Jazz Festival, the largest Jazz festival in Europe, Bavaria City Race, a Formula 1 race inside the city center and a 3 day long maritime extravaganza called the World Port Days celebrating the Port of Rotterdam.

  • January: "Zesdaagse van Rotterdam" "(six-day track-cycling race) – Ahoy Rotterdam
  • January: International Film Festival Rotterdam
  • February: Rotterdam Open ABM AMRO ATP 500 Tennis Tournament – Ahoy Rotterdam
  • April–June
    • Rotterdam Marathon
    • KoninginnedagFestival
  • July
    • North Sea Jazz Festival (second weekend of July)
    • Summer Carnival
  • August:
    • Bavaria City Race
    • Pleinbioscoop
    • Dag van de Romantische Muziek (Romantic music festival)
  • September:
    • The World Port Days

Rotterdam: Transport

Rotterdam is well connected by international, national, regional and local public transport systems, as well as by the Dutch motorway network.

Motorways
There are several motorways to/from Rotterdam. The following four are part of its 'Ring' (ring road):

  • A20 (Ring North): Hoek van Holland – Rotterdam – Gouda
  • A16 (Ring East): Rotterdam – Breda (- Antwerp – Paris)
  • A15 (Ring South): Europoort – Rotterdam – Nijmegen
  • A4 (Ring West).

The following two other motorways also serve Rotterdam:

  • A13, (Amsterdam -) The Hague – Rotterdam
  • A29, Bergen op Zoom – Rotterdam

Airport
Much smaller than the international hub Schiphol Airport, Rotterdam The Hague Airport (formerly known as Zestienhoven) is the third largest airport in the country, behind Schiphol Airport and Eindhoven Airport. Located north of the city, it has shown a very strong growth over the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the low-cost carrier market. For business travelers, Rotterdam The Hague Airport offers advantages in terms of rapid handling of passengers and baggage. Environmental regulations make further growth uncertain.

Train

Rotterdam's new Central Station reopened in March 2014, designed to handle up to 320,000 passengers daily.

Rotterdam is well connected to the Dutch railway network, and has several international connections:

  • Southern direction Dordrecht, Breda, Eindhoven, Flushing (Vlissingen) (also international trains to Belgium/France)
  • Western direction Hoek van Holland
  • North-Western direction The Hague, Leiden, Amsterdam
  • Northern direction (high-speed rail) Schiphol, Amsterdam
  • North-Eastern direction Utrecht and further
  • A fifth alternative train system to the Hague, the Hofplein Line was converted to the light rail system Randstadrail in 2006.
  • The city is often mentioned as the terminus of the Eurasian Land Bridge.

Railway stations

  • Rotterdam Centraal – Rotterdam's main station
  • Rotterdam Alexander – Eastern part of Rotterdam
  • Rotterdam Blaak – Close to the centre of Rotterdam
  • Rotterdam Lombardijen – Most Southern part of Rotterdam
  • Rotterdam Noord – Northern part of Rotterdam
  • Rotterdam Zuid – Northern part of the Southern part of Rotterdam
  • Rotterdam Stadion – A station near the Feyenoord stadium, open in connection with football matches and music concerts

The main connections:

  • Direct international services to Belgium and France via high speed train system: Thalys
  • Frequent international trains to Antwerp and Brussels, Belgium
  • Frequent services within the Netherlands:
    • Intercity line to The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport and Amsterdam (north)
    • Intercity line to Utrecht and on to Deventer or Enschede (the east), Leeuwarden (north-west) or Groningen (north-east)
    • Intercity line to Dordrecht, Roosendaal and on to Vlissingen (south west)
    • Intercity line to Dordrecht, Breda, Tilburg, Eindhoven and Venlo (south east)
    • Night services every hour connecting every day of the week to Delft, The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport, Amsterdam, and, with a detour, Utrecht. On Thursday, Friday and Saturday night services (either direct or via a detour) to Den Bosch, Eindhoven, Tilburg, Roosendaal.
    • Several semi-fast services and local trains originate or call at Rotterdam Centraal; semi-fast services Amsterdam-Breda.
  • Detailed information available from the site of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch Railways)

In Rotterdam, public transport services are provided by the following companies:

  • NS (Dutch Railways): national train services
  • RET (Rotterdam Elektrische Tram): Tram, city-bus, metro, randstadrail and ferry-services in Rotterdam and surrounding cities
  • Arriva Netherlands: regional bus services
  • Connexxion: regional bus services
  • Veolia: regional bus services.

Metro

Main article: Rotterdam Metro
See also: List of Rotterdam metro stations

In 1968, Rotterdam was the first Dutch city to open a metro system. Currently the metro system consists of three main lines, each of which has its own variants. The metro network has 78.3 km (48.7 mi) of railtracks and there are 62 stations, which makes it the biggest of the Benelux. The system is operated by 5 lines; 3 lines (A, B and C) on the east-west line, and two (D and E) on the north-south line. Line E (Randstadrail) connects Rotterdam with The Hague as of December 2011.

Map of Rotterdam Metro
Line Southern / western terminus Northern / eastern terminus
Line A Schiedam Centrum Binnenhof
Line B Schiedam Centrum Nesselande
Line C De Akkers De Terp
Line D De Akkers Rotterdam Centraal
Line E Slinge Den Haag Centraal
Rotterdam metro

Tram

Main article: Trams in Rotterdam

The Rotterdam tramway network offers 9 regular tram lines and 4 special tram lines with a total length of 93.4 km (58.0 mi). Service Tramlines in Rotterdam as of 2016:

  • 2: (Rotterdam) Charlois – Rotterdam Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam) Keizerswaard (runs only to the southern part of the city)
  • 4: (Rotterdam) Molenlaan – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Marconiplein
  • 7: (Rotterdam) Oostplein – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Willemsplein
  • 8: (Rotterdam) Spangen – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Kleiweg
  • 20: Rotterdam Centraal – Rotterdam Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam) Lombardijen
  • 21: (Schiedam) Woudhoek – Station Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch
  • 23: (Rotterdam) Marconiplein – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Beverwaard
  • 24: (Vlaardingen) Holy – Station Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch
  • 25: (Rotterdam) Schiebroek – Rotterdam Centraal – (Barendrecht) Carnisselande
A Citadis tram outside the former Rotterdam Centraal, 2008

Special tram lines:

  • 10: Historical tram line, only runs in summer and throughout the whole city for tourist information. Using historical Rotterdam Trams from the year 1931.
  • 18: Tramline from Rotterdam Central Station towards Park, runs only at the Dunya Festival and during the Rotterdam World Port Days.
  • 12: Rotterdam Centraal – Stadion Feyenoord or Rotterdam Centraal – Het Kasteel ('The Castle', Sparta Stadium). Football tramline, only for big fixtures at Stadion Feyenoord or Het Kasteel.
  • Snert-tram: Historical tram, only in winter as a tourist tram through Rotterdam. Passengers are provided with a cup of "snert"; Rotterdam dialect for erwtensoep (pea soup). Rolling stock is a historical Rotterdam tram from 1968.
  • IJsjes-tram: Summer version of the snert tram, providing tourists with ijsjes (ice cream) rather than snert.
Water Taxi in Rotterdam

Bus
Rotterdam offers 55 city bus lines with a total length of 432.7 km (268.9 mi).

RET runs buses in the city of Rotterdam and surrounding places like Spijkenisse, Barendrecht, Ridderkerk, Rhoon, Poortugaal, Schiedam, Vlaardingen, Delft and Capelle aan den IJssel. .

Arriva Netherlands, Connexxion and Veolia run buses from other cities to Rotterdam.

Waterbus
The Waterbus network consists of seven lines. The main line (Line 20) stretches from Rotterdam to Dordrecht. The ferry carries about 130 passengers and there is space for 60 bicycles. The stops between Rotterdam and Dordrecht are:

  • Rotterdam Erasmusbrug – Krimpen aan den IJssel Stormpolder – Ridderkerk De Schans – Alblasserdam Kade – Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht Noordeinde – Papendrecht Westeind – Dordrecht Merwekade.

Rotterdam: International relations

Rotterdam has city and port connections throughout the world. In 2008, the city had 13 sister cities, 12 partner cities, and 4 sister ports. Since 2008 the City of Rotterdam doesn't forge new sister or partner connections. Sister and partner cities are not a priority in international relations.

On March 15th, 2017 the Turkish president expressed his wish that Istanbul should no longer be the twin town of Rotterdam. A speaker of the Rotterdam municipality then explained that the two cities have no official partnership. Both authorities do cooperate often.

Rotterdam: Twin towns – Sister cities

Rotterdam is twinned with:

  • United States Baltimore (since 1985)
  • Bulgaria Burgas (since 1976)
  • Germany Cologne (since 1958)
  • Romania Constanța (since 1976)
  • Germany Dresden (since 1988)
  • Luxembourg Esch-sur-Alzette (since 1958)
  • Poland Gdańsk (since 1977)
  • Cuba Havana (since 1983)
  • France Lille (since 1958)
  • Belgium Liège (since 1958)
  • China Shanghai (since 1979)
  • Russia Saint Petersburg (since 1984)
  • Italy Turin (since 1958)

Rotterdam: Partner cities

  • Belgium Antwerp (since 1940)
  • Switzerland Basel (since 1945)
  • Slovakia Bratislava (since 1991)
  • Hungary Budapest (since 1991)
  • Germany Duisburg (since 1950)
  • South Africa Durban (since 1991)
  • United Kingdom Hull (since 1936)
  • Indonesia Jakarta (since 1983)
  • Germany Nuremberg (since 1961)
  • Japan Osaka Prefecture (since 1984)
  • Norway Oslo (since 1945)
  • Czech Republic Prague (since 1991)

Rotterdam: Sister ports

  • Japan Kobe (since 1967)
  • South Korea Busan (since 1987)
  • United States Seattle (since 1969)
  • Japan Tokyo (since 1989)

Rotterdam: Places named after Rotterdam

  • Suriname Nieuw Rotterdam, Nickerie District, Suriname
  • United States Rotterdam, New York, United States
  • South Africa Rotterdam, Limpopo, South Africa

Rotterdam: Notable residents

Main article: List of people from Rotterdam
  • Pierre Bayle, enlightenment philosopher.
  • Leo Beenhakker, football coach.
  • Giovanni van Bronckhorst, former football player and current manager of Feyenoord.
  • Desiderius Erasmus, philosopher and humanist.
  • Pim Fortuyn, politician, assassinated in 2002.
  • Leo Fuld, singer.
  • Colonel Tom Parker, manager of Elvis Presley.
  • Piet Heyn, naval fleet officer.
  • Willem de Kooning, painter.
  • Rem Koolhaas, internationally renowned architect.
  • Coen Moulijn, football player of Feyenoord.
  • Johan van Oldebarnevelt, statesman of the Dutch Revolt.
  • Robin van Persie, Fenerbahçe S.K. forward and Dutch international footballer.
  • Bernard Mandeville, philosopher, political economist and satirist.
  • Marten Toonder, comic writer.
  • Jules Deelder, poet, writer, DJ, night mayor.

Rotterdam features in Edgar Allan Poe's short story ‘The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall’ (1835), as well as J.T. Sheridan Le Fanu's 'Strange Event in the Life of Schalken the Painter' (1839).

Part of Jackie Chan's 1998 film 'Who am I?' is set in Rotterdam.

Ender's Shadow, part of the series Ender's Game is partially set in Rotterdam.

In season 1, episode 2 of The Golden Girls ("Guess Who's Coming to the Wedding?"), Dorothy reminisces how her ex-husband, Stan, would buy her tulips after they had a fight. "Towards the end, our house looked like Easter in Rotterdam."

In 1996 The British band The Beautiful South recorded a song named after this region titled Rotterdam (or Anywhere).,

Rotterdam: See also

  • Government of Rotterdam

Rotterdam: References

Rotterdam: Bibliography

  • Amersfoort, H; et al. (2005), Mei 1940 – Strijd op Nederlands grondgebied (in Dutch), SDU, ISBN 90-12-08959-X
  • Brongers, E.H. (2004), Opmars naar Rotterdam (in Dutch), Aspect, ISBN 90-5911-269-5
  • ISBN 978-0-7139-9742-2.
  • Götzel, H (1980), Generaloberst Kurt Student und seine Fallschirmjäger (in German), Podzun-Pallas Verlag, ISBN 3-7909-0131-8, OCLC 7863989
  • Lourens, Piet; Lucassen, Jan (1997). Inwonertallen van Nederlandse steden ca. 1300–1800. Amsterdam: NEHA. ISBN 9057420082.

Rotterdam: Notes

  1. "College van b en w" [Board of mayor and aldermen] (in Dutch). Gemeente Rotterdam. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  3. Anita Bouman–Eijs; Thijmen van Bree; Wouter Jonkhoff; Olaf Koops; Walter Manshanden; Elmer Rietveld (17 December 2012). De Top 20 van Europese grootstedelijke regio's 1995–2011; Randstad Holland in internationaal perspectief [Top 20 of European metropolitan regions 1995–2011; Randstad Holland compared internationally] (PDF) (Technical report) (in Dutch). Delft: TNO. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  4. "Postcodetool for 3011AD". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  5. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  6. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  7. "Over de Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag". MRDH.nl. 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014. De Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag is het gebied dat nu de huidige stadregio’s Rotterdam en Haaglanden omvat. Binnen dat gebied gaan de 24 gemeenten hun krachten bundelen in het samenwerkingsverband Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag om de internationale concurrentiepositie van de regio te versterken. De Metropoolregio regio heeft 2,2 miljoen inwoners.
  8. Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
  9. Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532
  10. "Geschiedenis van Rotterdam". Gemeente Rotterdam. March 9, 2015.
  11. Population growth; regions per month, CBS StatLine, 2015
    1,404,963 Greater Rijnmond (CR)
    1,173,272 Rotterdam Metro (SG)
    1,033,629 Rotterdam Urban (GA)
    633,471 Rotterdam Municipality (G)
  12. "Top 10 Cities : The Rough Guide to 2014". Rough Guides. March 9, 2015.
  13. "Urbanism Awards: Rotterdam takes top prize". Academy of Urbanism. November 14, 2014.
  14. Jan Walburg (1 August 1984). The port of Rotterdam: Gateway to Europe.
  15. Royal van Gorcum (1998). Dutch Culture in a European Perspective: 1950, prosperity and welfare. "Rotterdam port: Gateway to Europe" (p.151)
  16. European Parliament (2014). Gateway to the World "Gateway to the world: how the EU helped Rotterdam to become Europe's largest port" Check |url= value (help).
  17. "The Witte Huis or White House,". Archived from the original on 2004-12-20. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  18. Ruis, Edwin. Spynest.British and German Espionage from Neutral Holland 1914–1918. Brimscombe: The History Press, 2016.
  19. , pp. 122–3.
  20. , (ONR Part III), p. 235
  21. , p. 369.
  22. , pp. 149, 150.
  23. "Klimaattabel Rotterdam, langjarige gemiddelden, tijdvak 1981–2010" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  24. "Klimaattabel Rotterdam, langjarige extremen, tijdvak 1971–2000" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  25. Gebiedsanalyse 2006, Centrumgebied, Gemeente Rotterdam. Page 7 and 9.
  26. Ad van der Meer and Onno Boonstra, Repertorium van Nederlandse gemeenten, KNAW, 2006.
  27. "CBS StatLine – Bevolking; leeftijd, herkomstgroepering, geslacht en regio, 1 januari".
  28. Kim Jansen (2010). Muslims in Rotterdam (PDF) (Report). Open Society Institute.
  29. "Kerkelijkheid en kerkbezoek, 2010/2013". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.
  30. "Werkloosheid in Rotterdam KNSexamen: Weblog Inburgering, NT2, examen". Knsexamen.nl. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
  31. "Over Brainport". brainport.nl. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  32. "Home". Port of Rotterdam. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
  33. "Business School Ranking of the Financial Times 2009". Rankings.ft.com. Archived from the original on 2009-03-24. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
  34. storycode=406694&seq=2&type=T&c=1 "Top European institutions in clinical medicine" Check |url= value (help). Timeshighereducation.co.uk. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
  35. "Concertgebouw and Holland Festival manifesto". Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  36. "Witte de With museum". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  37. "Maritiem Museum official site". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  38. Museum Rotterdam, retrieved 25 April 2016.
  39. "Scheepswerf 'De Delft' official site". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  40. "ING building brief". Archived from the original on 2005-03-08. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  41. "Emporis Maastoren". Retrieved 3 April 2010.
  42. "Boston en Seattle woontorens Rotterdam Wilhelminapier". Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  43. ABN Amro WTT. "Laatste nieuws · 40e ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament".
  44. "International Film Festival official website". Archived from the original on 22 October 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  45. "Rotterdam Marathon official website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  46. "KoninginnedagFestival official website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  47. "Zomer Carnival official website". Archived from the original on 2003-07-22. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  48. "Pleinbioscoop official website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  49. "World Port Day (Rotterdam) official website (in Dutch and English)". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  50. "Dutch Railway website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
  51. Rotterdam. Een sterk internationaal merk "ROTTERDAM: EEN STERKINTERNATIONAAL MERK" Check |url= value (help) (PDF) (PDF) (in Dutch). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: City of Rotterdam. 2008. p. 37. Retrieved 2015-03-20.
  52. "Rotterdam Wereldstad: Vaste koers, nieuwe ambitities" Gemeente Rotterdam, 2009. Blz. 33
  53. "Erdogan wil af van niet bestaande stedenband met Rotterdam" [Erdogan will not continue twin town relationship with Rotterdam]. Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). 15 March 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  54. Eric Vrijsen (23 September 2008). "De schaamte voorbij: Gaza als zusterstad". Elsevier (in Dutch). Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Archived from the original on 2015-06-29. Retrieved 2014-07-24.
  55. Tretsch, John. "Extra! Extra! Poe invents science fiction!" as collected in The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, edited by Kevin J. Hayes. Cambridge University Press, 2002: 117. Buy book ISBN 0-521-79727-6
  56. "everyHit.com – UK Top 40 Chart Archive, British Singles & Album Charts". everyhit.com. Retrieved 2016-03-17.
  • Rotterdam
  • Rotterdam Tourism Board
Preceded by
Event created
World Gymnaestrada host city
1953
Succeeded by
Zagreb, Yugoslavia (1957)
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