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Hotels of Santiago de Compostela

A hotel in Santiago de Compostela is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Santiago de Compostela hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Santiago de Compostela are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Santiago de Compostela hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Santiago de Compostela hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Santiago de Compostela have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Santiago de Compostela
An upscale full service hotel facility in Santiago de Compostela that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Santiago de Compostela hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Santiago de Compostela
Full service Santiago de Compostela hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Santiago de Compostela
Boutique hotels of Santiago de Compostela are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Santiago de Compostela boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Santiago de Compostela may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Santiago de Compostela
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Santiago de Compostela travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Santiago de Compostela focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Santiago de Compostela
Small to medium-sized Santiago de Compostela hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Santiago de Compostela traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Santiago de Compostela hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Santiago de Compostela
A bed and breakfast in Santiago de Compostela is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Santiago de Compostela bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Santiago de Compostela B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Santiago de Compostela hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Santiago de Compostela
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Santiago de Compostela hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Santiago de Compostela lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Santiago de Compostela often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Santiago de Compostela on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Santiago de Compostela
A Santiago de Compostela motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Santiago de Compostela for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Santiago de Compostela motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Santiago de Compostela

Santiago de Compostela
City and Municipality
Santiago de Compostela, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Santiago de Compostela, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Flag of Santiago de Compostela
Coat of arms of Santiago de Compostela
Coat of arms
Location of the municipality of Santiago de Compostela within Galicia
Location of the municipality of Santiago de Compostela within Galicia
Santiago de Compostela is located in Province of A Coruña
Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela is located in Spain
Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
Location of Santiago de Compostela
Coordinates:  / 42.87778; -8.54444  / 42.87778; -8.54444
Country Spain
Autonomous Community Galicia
Province A Coruña
Comarca Santiago
• Type Mayor-council
• Body Council of Santiago
• Mayor Martiño Noriega Sánchez (Compostela Aberta)
• Total 220 km (80 sq mi)
Elevation 260 m (850 ft)
Population (2012)INE
• Total 95,671
• Density 428.81/km (1,110.6/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Santiagan
santiagués, -guesa (gl / es)
compostelán, -á (gl)
compostelano, -na (es)
Time zone CET (GMT +1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (GMT +2) (UTC)
Area code(s) +34
Website www.santiagodecompostela.gal

Santiago de Compostela, commonly known as Santiago (/ˌsæntiˈɑːɡ/, Galician: [sanˈtiaɣo], Spanish: [sanˈtjaɣo]), is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia in northwestern Spain.

The city has its origin in the shrine of Saint James the Great, now the city's cathedral, as destination of the Way of St. James, a leading Catholic pilgrimage route originated in the 9th century. In 1985 the city's Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Santiago de Compostela: Toponym

Santiago is the local Galician evolution of Vulgar Latin Sanctus Iacobus "Saint James". According to legend, Compostela derives from the Latin Campus Stellae (i.e., "field of the star"); it seems unlikely, however, that this phrase could have yielded the modern Compostela under normal evolution from Latin to Medieval Galician.

Other etymologies derive the name from Latin compositum, local Vulgar Latin Composita Tella, meaning "burial ground", or simply from Latin compositella, meaning "the well-composed one". Other sites in Galicia share this toponym, akin to Compostilla in the province of León.

Santiago de Compostela: The city

The cathedral borders the main plaza of the old and well-preserved city. Legend has it that the remains of the apostle James were brought to Galicia for burial. In 813, according to medieval legend, the light of a bright star guided a shepherd who was watching his flock at night to the burial site in Santiago de Compostela. The shepherd quickly reported his discovery to the bishop of Iria, Bishop Teodomiro. The bishop declared that the remains were those of the apostle James and immediately notified King Alfonso II in Oviedo. To honour St. James, the cathedral was built on the spot where his remains were said to have been found. The legend, which included numerous miraculous events, enabled the Catholic faithful to bolster support for their stronghold in northern Spain during the Christian crusades against the Moors, but also led to the growth and development of the city.

Along the western side of the Praza do Obradoiro is the elegant 18th century Pazo de Raxoi, now the city hall. Across the square is the Pazo de Raxoi (Raxoi's Palace), the town hall, and on the right from the cathedral steps is the Hostal dos Reis Católicos, founded in 1492 by the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand II of Aragon, as a pilgrims' hospice (now a parador). The Obradoiro façade of the cathedral, the best known, is depicted on the Spanish euro coins of 1 cent, 2 cents, and 5 cents (€0.01, €0.02, and €0.05).

Santiago is the site of the University of Santiago de Compostela, established in the early 16th century. The main campus can be seen best from an alcove in the large municipal park in the centre of the city.

Within the old town there are many narrow winding streets full of historic buildings. The new town all around it has less character though some of the older parts of the new town have some big flats in them.

Santiago de Compostela has a substantial nightlife. Both in the new town (a zona nova in Galician, la zona nueva in Spanish or ensanche) and the old town (a zona vella in Galician or la zona vieja in Spanish, trade-branded as zona monumental), a mix of middle-aged residents and younger students maintain a lively presence until the early hours of the morning. Radiating from the centre of the city, the historic cathedral is surrounded by paved granite streets, tucked away in the old town, and separated from the newer part of the city by the largest of many parks throughout the city, Parque da Alameda.

Santiago gives its name to one of the four military orders of Spain: Santiago, Calatrava, Alcántara and Montesa.

One of the most important economic centres in Galicia, Santiago is the seat for organisations like Association for Equal and Fair Trade Pangaea.

Santiago de Compostela: Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Santiago de Compostela has a temperate oceanic (Cfb) climate, with mild to warm and somewhat dry summers and mild, wet winters. The prevailing winds from the Atlantic and the surrounding mountains combine to give Santiago some of Spain’s highest rainfall: about 1,545 millimetres (60.8 in) annually. The climate is mild: frosts are common only in December, January and February, with an average of just 8 days per year, while snow is rare; temperatures over 30 °C (86 °F) are exceptional.

Climate data for Santiago de Compostela (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.3
Average high °C (°F) 11.2
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.7
Average low °C (°F) 4.1
Record low °C (°F) −7.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 210
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 15.2 12.6 12.8 14.4 12.7 7.6 5.7 5.5 8.4 14.0 14.9 15.9 139.5
Average snowy days 1.0 0.7 0.2 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.3 2.7
Average relative humidity (%) 84 79 75 76 76 74 74 74 75 82 86 85 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 93 114 151 165 187 225 243 237 184 132 95 85 1,911
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
In Compostela it rarely snows more than once or twice a year
Santiago de Compostela
The Obradoiro façade of the grand Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela: an all-but-Gothic composition generated entirely of classical details
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Location A Coruña Province, Spain Edit this at Wikidata
Coordinates  / 42.88; -8.53
Area 220,000,000 m (2.4×10 sq ft)
Criteria i, ii, vi
Reference 347
Inscription 1985 (9th Session)
Website www.santiagodecompostela.org
Santiago de Compostela is located in Spain
Santiago de Compostela
Location of Santiago de Compostela
[edit on Wikidata]

Santiago de Compostela: Population

The population of the city in 2012 was 95,671 inhabitants, while the metropolitan area reaches 178,695.

In 2010 there were 4,111 foreigners living in the city, representing 4.3% of the total population. The main nationalities are Brazilians (11%), Portuguese (8%) and Colombians (7%).

By language, according to 2008 data, 21% of the population always speak in Galician, 15% always speak in Spanish and the rest use both interchangeably.

Santiago de Compostela: History

Interior of the Cathedral.
knockers in the city's old quarter
The Library and the Chapter at the Cathedral, Collotype 1889
Calvary of St Franciscus church.
Portico da Groria, old façade of the Romanesque cathedral, 12th century
Sepulcher of king Ferdinand II (d. 1187), in the Royal Pantheon of the cathedral

The area of Santiago de Compostela was a Roman cemetery by the 4th century and was occupied by the Suebi in the early 5th century, when they settled in Galicia and Portugal during the initial collapse of the Roman Empire. The area was later attributed to the bishopric of Iria Flavia in the 6th century, in the partition usually known as Parochiale Suevorum, ordered by king Theodemar. In 585, the settlement was annexed along with the rest of Suebi Kingdom by Leovigild as the sixth province of the Visigothic Kingdom.

Possibly raided from 711 to 739 by the Arabs, the bishopric of Iria was incorporated into the Kingdom of Asturias c. 750. At some point between 818 and 842, during the reign of Alfonso II of Asturias, bishop Theodemar of Iria (d. 847) claimed to have found some remains which were attributed to Saint James the Greater. This discovery was accepted in part because the Pope and Charlemagne-who had died in 814-had acknowledged Asturias as a kingdom and Alfonso II as king, and had also crafted close political and ecclesiastic ties. Around the place of the discovery a new settlement and centre of pilgrimage emerged, which was known to the author Usuard in 865 and which was called Compostella by the 10th century.

The cult of Saint James of Compostela was just one of many arising throughout northern Iberia during the 10th and 11th centuries, as rulers encouraged their own region-specific cults, such as Saint Eulalia in Oviedo and Saint Aemilian in Castile. After the centre of Asturian political power moved from Oviedo to León in 910, Compostela became more politically relevant, and several kings of Galicia and of León were acclaimed by the Galician noblemen and crowned and anointed by the local bishop at the cathedral, among them Ordoño IV in 958, Bermudo II in 982, and Alfonso VII in 1111, by which time Compostela had become capital of the Kingdom of Galicia. Later, 12th-century kings were also sepulchered in the cathedral, namely Fernando II and Alfonso IX, last of the Kings of León and Galicia before both kingdoms were united with the Kingdom of Castile.

During this same 10th century and in the first years of the 11th century Viking raiders tried to assault the town-Galicia is known in the Nordic sagas as Jackobsland or Gallizaland-and bishop Sisenand II, who was killed in battle against them in 968, ordered the construction of a walled fortress to protect the sacred place. In 997 Compostela was assaulted and partially destroyed by Ibn Abi Aamir (known as al-Mansur), Andalusian leader accompanied in his raid by Christian lords, who all received a share of the booty. However, the Andalusian commander showed no interest in the alleged relics of St James. In response to these challenges bishop Cresconio, in the mid-11th century, fortified the entire town, building walls and defensive towers.

According to some authors, by the middle years of the 11th century the site had already become a pan-European place of peregrination, while others maintain that the cult to Saint James was before 11-12th centuries an essentially Galician affair, supported by Asturian and Leonese kings to win over faltering Galician loyalties. Santiago would become in the course of the following century a main Catholic shrine second only to Rome and Jerusalem. In the 12th century, under the impulse of bishop Diego Gelmírez, Compostela became an archbishopric, attracting a large and multinational population. Under the rule of this prelate, the townspeople rebelled, headed by the local council, beginning a secular tradition of confrontation by the people of the city-who fought for self-government-against the local bishop, the secular and jurisdictional lord of the city and of its fief, the semi-independent Terra de Santiago ("land of Saint James"). The culminating moment in this confrontation was reached in the 14th century, when the new prelate, the Frenchman Bérenger de Landore, treacherously executed the counselors of the city in his castle of A Rocha Forte ("the strong rock, castle"), after inviting them for talks.

Santiago de Compostela was captured and sacked by the French during the Napoleonic Wars; as a result, the remains attributed to the apostle were lost for near a century, hidden inside a cist in the crypts of the cathedral of the city.

The excavations conducted in the cathedral during the 19th and 20th centuries uncovered a Roman cella memoriae or martyrium, around which grew a small cemetery in Roman and Suevi times which was later abandoned. This martyrium, which proves the existence of an old Christian holy place, has been sometimes attributed to Priscillian, although without further proof.

Santiago de Compostela: Economy

Santiago's economy, although still heavily dependent on public administration (i.e. being the headquarters of the autonomous government of Galicia), cultural tourism, industry, and higher education through its university, is becoming increasingly diversified. New industries such as timber transformation (FINSA), the automotive industry (UROVESA), and telecommunications and electronics (Blusens and Televés) have been established. Banco Gallego, a banking institution owned by Novacaixagalicia, has its headquarters in downtown rúa do Hórreo.

Tourism is very important thanks to the Way of St. James, particularly in Holy Compostelan Years (when 25 July falls on a Sunday). Following the Xunta's considerable investment and hugely successful advertising campaign for the Holy Year of 1993, the number of pilgrims completing the route has been steadily rising. More than 272,000 pilgrims made the trip during the course of the Holy Year of 2010. Following 2010, the next Holy Year will not be for another 11 years when St James feast day again falls on a Sunday. Outside of Holy Years, the city still receives a remarkable number of pilgrims.

Editorial Compostela owns daily newspaper El Correo Gallego, a local TV, and a radio station. Galician language online news portal Galicia Hoxe is also based in the city. Televisión de Galicia, the public broadcaster corporation of Galicia, has its headquarters in Santiago.

Santiago de Compostela: Way of St. James

Way of St. James
A partial view of Santiago de Compostela, with the Pico Sacro in the background
Depiction of Saint James in the 12th century Codex Calixtinus

The legend that St James found his way to the Iberian Peninsula, and had preached there is one of a number of early traditions concerning the missionary activities and final resting places of the apostles of Jesus. Although the 1884 Bull of Pope Leo XIII Omnipotens Deus accepted the authenticity of the relics at Compostela, the Vatican remains uncommitted as to whether the relics are those of Saint James the Greater, while continuing to promote the more general benefits of pilgrimage to the site. Pope Benedict XVI undertook a ceremonial pilgrimage to the site on his visit to Spain in 2010.

Santiago de Compostela: Legends

According to a tradition that can be traced back at least to the 12th century, when it was recorded in the Codex Calixtinus, Saint James decided to return to the Holy Land after preaching in Galicia. There he was beheaded, but his disciples managed to get his body to Jaffa, where they found a marvelous stone ship which miraculously conducted them and the apostle's body to Iria Flavia, back in Galicia. There, the disciples asked the local pagan queen Loba ('She-wolf') for permission to bury the body; she, annoyed, decided to deceive them, sending them to pick a pair of oxen she allegedly had by the Pico Sacro, a local sacred mountain where a dragon dwelt, hoping that the dragon would kill the Christians, but as soon as the beast attacked the disciples, at the sight of the cross, the dragon exploded. Then the disciples marched to collect the oxen, which were actually wild bulls which the queen used to punish her enemies; but again, at the sight of the Christian's cross, the bulls calmed down, and after being subjected to a yoke they carried the apostle's body to the place where now Compostela is. The legend was again referred with minor changes by the Czech traveller Jaroslav Lev of Rožmitál, in the 15th century.

The relics were said to have been later rediscovered in the 9th century by a hermit named Pelagius, who after observing strange lights in a local forest went for help after the local bishop, Theodemar of Iria, in the west of Galicia. The legend affirms that Theodemar was then guided to the spot by a star, drawing upon a familiar myth-element, hence "Compostela" was given an etymology as a corruption of Campus Stellae, "Field of Stars."

In the 15th century, the red banner which guided the Galician armies to battle, was still preserved in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, in the centre Saint James riding a white horse and wearing a white cloak, sword in hand: The legend of the miraculous armed intervention of Saint James, disguised as a white knight to help the Christians when battling the Muslims, was a recurrent myth during the High Middle Ages.

Santiago de Compostela: Establishment of the shrine

The Scallop Shell, emblem of St James, worn by pilgrims

The 1,000-year-old pilgrimage to the shrine of St. James in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is known in English as the Way of St. James and in Spanish as the Camino de Santiago. Over 100,000 pilgrims travel to the city each year from points all over Europe and other parts of the world. The pilgrimage has been the subject of many books, television programmes, and films, notably Brian Sewell's The Naked Pilgrim produced for the British television channel Channel 5 and the Martin Sheen/Emilio Estevez collaboration The Way.

Santiago de Compostela: Pre-Christian legends

As the lowest-lying land on that stretch of coast, the city's site took on added significance. Legends supposed of Celtic origin made it the place where the souls of the dead gathered to follow the sun across the sea. Those unworthy of going to the Land of the Dead haunted Galicia as the Santa Compaña or Estadea.

Santiago de Compostela is featured prominently in the 1988 historical fiction novel Sharpe's Rifles, by Bernard Cornwell, which takes place during the French Invasion of Galicia, January 1809, during the Napoleonic Wars.

The music video for Una Cerveza, by Ráfaga, is set in the historic part of Santiago de Compostela.

A pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela provides the narrative framework of the Luis Buñuel film La Voie lactée (The Milky Way).

Santiago de Compostela: Main sights

  • Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela
  • Pazo de Raxoi – city hall and office of the President of the Xunta of Galicia
  • 12th century Colexiata de Santa María do Sar
  • 16th century Baroque Abbey of San Martín Pinario
  • University of Santiago de Compostela
  • Centro Galego de Arte Contemporánea (Galician Center for Contemporary Art), designed by Alvaro Siza Vieira
  • Parque de San Domingos de Bonaval, redesigned by Eduardo Chillida and Alvaro Siza Vieira
  • City of Culture of Galicia, designed by Peter Eisenman
  • Parque de la Alameda (Alameda's Park)
  • Parque de Carlomagno (Carlomagno's Park)
  • 17th century Convent and Church of San Francisco

Santiago de Compostela: Transport

Santiago de Compostela Rail Station

Santiago de Compostela is served by Santiago de Compostela Airport and a rail service. The town is linked to the Spanish High Speed Railway Network. On 24 July 2013 there was a serious rail accident near the city in which 79 people died and at least 130 were injured when a train derailed on a bend as it approached Compostela station.

Santiago de Compostela: International relations

Santiago de Compostela: Twin towns/Sister cities

Santiago de Compostela is twinned with:

  • Brazil São Paulo, Brazil
  • Colombia Santiago de Cali, Colombia
  • Portugal Coimbra, Portugal, since 1994
  • Portugal Santiago do Cacém, Portugal, since the 1980s
  • Iran Mashhad, Iran
  • Argentina Buenos Aires, Argentina, since the 1980s
  • Iran Qom, Iran
  • Mexico Santiago de Querétaro, México (2005)
  • Dominican Republic Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic (2004)
  • Italy Assisi, Italy (2008)
  • Uruguay Las Piedras, Uruguay (2010)
  • Italy Pisa, Italy (2010)
  • Cuba Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Santiago de Compostela: See also

  • Auditorio Monte do Gozo
  • Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela
  • Música en Compostela
  • Order of Santiago
  • Santiago de Compostela derailment
  • As Orfas

Santiago de Compostela: Notes

  1. Pronunciation:
    • English: /ˌsæntɪˈɑːɡ d ˌkɒmpɒˈstɛlə/ or /ˌsæntɪˈɑːɡ də ˌkɒmpɒˈstɛlə/
    • Galician: [sanˈtjaɣo ðe komposˈtɛla]
    • Spanish: [sanˈtjaɣo ðe komposˈtela]

Santiago de Compostela: References

  1. Marilyn Stokstad,Santiago de Compostela In the Age of the Great Pilgrimages.(Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978), 7.
  2. Stokstad, Santiago de Compostela, 8.
  3. Stokstad, Santiago de Compostela, 6.
  4. In the five years 2006-2010, cf. Meteogalicia.
  5. "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)".
  6. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/347.
  7. Fletcher, R. A. (1984). Saint James's catapult: the life and times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Clarendon Press. pp. 57–59. ISBN 978-0-19-822581-2.
  8. Fletcher, R. A. (1984). Saint James's catapult : the life and times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822581-2.
  9. Collins, Roger (1983). Early Medieval Spain. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 232. ISBN 0-312-22464-8.
  10. Fletcher, R. A. (1984). Saint James's catapult: the life and times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Clarendon Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-19-822581-2.
  11. Collins, Roger (1983). Early Medieval Spain. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 238. ISBN 0-312-22464-8.
  12. Portela Silva, Ermelindo (2001). García II de Galicia, el rey y el reino (1065-1090). Burgos: La Olmeda. p. 165. ISBN 84-89915-16-4.
  13. Fletcher, R. A. (1984). Saint James's catapult : the life and times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-19-822581-2.
  14. Morales Romero, Eduardo (1997). Os viquingos en Galicia. Santiago de Compostela: USC. p. 125. ISBN 84-8121-661-5.
  15. Collins, Roger (1983). Early Medieval Spain. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 199. ISBN 0-312-22464-8.
  16. Fletcher, R. A. (1984). Saint James's catapult : the life and times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Clarendon Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-19-822581-2.
  17. Fletcher, R. A. (1984). Saint James's catapult: the life and times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Clarendon Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-19-822581-2.
  18. http://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/speeches/2010/november/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20101106_welcome-compostela.html
  19. Garrido Bugarín, Gustavo A. (1994). Aventureiros e curiosos : relatos de viaxeiros estranxeiros por Galicia, séculos XV - XX. Vigo: Ed. Galaxia. pp. 35–37. ISBN 84-7154-909-3.
  20. Garrido Bugarín, Gustavo A. (1994). Aventureiros e curiosos : relatos de viaxeiros estranxeiros por Galicia, séculos XV - XX. Vigo: Ed. Galaxia. p. 40. ISBN 84-7154-909-3.
  21. "Spain train crash: Driver formally detained", BBC News, 26 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  22. "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal - No 14471" [Research Municipal Legislation - No 14471]. Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
  23. Lei Municipal de São Paulo 14471 de 2007 WikiSource (in Portuguese)
  24. Hispaniola was under the rule of the Dominican Order and Order of Alcántara, therefore, the name of Santiago as a city in the Dominican Republic could be applied later

Santiago de Compostela: Bibliography

  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Meakin, Annette M. B. (1909). Galicia. The Switzerland of Spain. London: Methuen & Co.
  • City Council of Santiago de Compostela
  • Santiago Tourism
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