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Hotels of Sibiu

A hotel in Sibiu is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Sibiu hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Sibiu are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Sibiu hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Sibiu hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Sibiu have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Sibiu
An upscale full service hotel facility in Sibiu that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Sibiu hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Sibiu
Full service Sibiu hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Sibiu
Boutique hotels of Sibiu are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Sibiu boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Sibiu may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Sibiu
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Sibiu travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Sibiu focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Sibiu
Small to medium-sized Sibiu hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Sibiu traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Sibiu hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Sibiu
A bed and breakfast in Sibiu is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Sibiu bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Sibiu B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Sibiu
Sibiu hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Sibiu hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Sibiu
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Sibiu hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Sibiu lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Sibiu
Sibiu timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Sibiu often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Sibiu on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Sibiu
A Sibiu motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Sibiu for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Sibiu motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Sibiu

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Sibiu
Hermannstadt / Nagyszeben
City
Sibiu-pictures-001.jpg
Coat of arms of Sibiu
Coat of arms
Administrative territory of Sibiu in Sibiu County
Administrative territory of Sibiu in Sibiu County
Sibiu is located in Romania
Sibiu
Sibiu
Administrative territory of Sibiu in Sibiu County
Coordinates:  / 45.79278; 24.15194  / 45.79278; 24.15194
Country Romania
County Sibiu
Founded 1191 (first official record)
Government
• Mayor Astrid Fodor (FDGR)
Area
• Total 121 km (47 sq mi)
Elevation 415 m (1,362 ft)
Population (2011 census)
• Total 147,245
• Density 1,132/km (2,930/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
• Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal Code 55xxxx
Area code(s) +40 269/369
Car Plates SB
Website www.sibiu.ro
Large Square, general view towards North

Sibiu (Romanian pronunciation: [siˈbiw], antiquated Sibiiu; German: Hermannstadt [ˈhɛʁmanʃtat], Transylvanian Saxon dialect: Härmeschtat, Hungarian: Nagyszeben [ˈnɒɟsɛbɛn]) is a city in Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 147,245. Located some 215 km (134 mi) north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt. Now the capital of Sibiu County, between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 Sibiu was the capital of the Principality of Transylvania.

Sibiu is one of the most important cultural centres of Romania and was designated the European Capital of Culture for the year 2007, along with the city of Luxembourg. Formerly the centre of the Transylvanian Saxons, the old city of Sibiu was ranked as "Europe's 8th-most idyllic place to live" by Forbes in 2008.

The city administers the Păltiniș ski resort.

Sibiu: History

The first official record referring to the Sibiu area comes from 1191, when Pope Celestine III confirmed the existence of the free prepositure of the German settlers in Transylvania, the prepositure having its headquarters in Sibiu, named Cibinium at that time.

In the 14th century, it was already an important trade centre. In 1376, the craftsmen were divided in 19 guilds. Sibiu became the most important ethnic German city among the seven cities that gave Transylvania its German name Siebenbürgen (literally seven citadels). It was home to the Universitas Saxorum (Community of the Saxons), a network of pedagogues, ministers, intellectuals, city officials, and councilmen of the German community forging an ordered legal corpus and political system in Transylvania since the 1400s. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became the second- and later the first-most important centre of Transylvanian Romanian ethnics. The first Romanian-owned bank had its headquarters here (The Albina Bank), as did the ASTRA (Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and Romanian's People Culture). After the Romanian Orthodox Church was granted status in the Habsburg Empire from the 1860s onwards, Sibiu became the Metropolitan seat, and the city is still regarded as the third-most important centre of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Between the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 and 1867 (the year of the Ausgleich), Sibiu was the meeting-place of the Transylvanian Diet, which had taken its most representative form after the Empire agreed to extend voting rights in the region.

After World War I, when Austria-Hungary was dissolved, Sibiu became part of Romania; the majority of its population was still ethnic German (until 1941) and counted a large Romanian community, as well as a smaller Hungarian one. Starting from the 1950s and until after 1990, most of the city's ethnic Germans emigrated to Germany and Austria. Among the roughly 2,000 who have remained is Klaus Johannis, the current President of Romania.

Sibiu: Geography

Topographic map of the Sibiu region
Panoramic view of Sibiu historic center, looking East.

Sibiu is situated near the geographical center of Romania at  / 45.792784; 24.152069. Set in the Cibin Depression, the city is about 20 km from the Făgăraș Mountains, 12 km from the Cibin Mountains, and about 15 km from the Lotrului Mountains, which border the depression in its southwestern section. The northern and eastern limits of Sibiu are formed by the Târnavelor Plateau, which descends to the Cibin Valley through Gușteriței Hill.

The Cibin river as well as some smaller streams runs through Sibiu. The geographical position of Sibiu makes it one of the most important transportation hubs in Romania with important roads and railway lines passing through it.

Sibiu: City districts

The following districts are part of Sibiu. Some were villages annexed by the city but most were built as the city developed and increased its surface.

  • Historic Center - Divided into the Upper Town and Lower Town
  • Centru (Centre)
  • Lupeni
  • Trei Stejari
  • Vasile Aaron
  • Hipodrom I, II, III, IV
  • Valea Aurie (Golden Valley)
  • Tilișca
  • Ștrand
  • Turnișor (Little Tower; German: Neppendorf)
  • Piața Cluj
  • Țiglari
  • Terezian
  • Reșița
  • Lazaret
  • Gușterița (German: Hammersdorf)
  • Broscărie
  • Viile Sibiului
  • Tineretului
  • Veteranilor de Război

The Southern part, including the ASTRA National Museum Complex and the Zoo, also falls within the city limits.

Sibiu: Climate

Sibiu's climate is humid continental with average temperatures of 8 to 9 °C (46 to 48 °F). The average rainfall is 627 l/m, and there are about 120 days of hard frost annually.

Climate data for Sibiu (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
21.3
(70.3)
30.6
(87.1)
30.2
(86.4)
32.1
(89.8)
35.4
(95.7)
38.3
(100.9)
38.4
(101.1)
39.5
(103.1)
32.5
(90.5)
27.0
(80.6)
19.3
(66.7)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
4.5
(40.1)
10.1
(50.2)
16.0
(60.8)
21.3
(70.3)
24.2
(75.6)
26.3
(79.3)
26.2
(79.2)
21.4
(70.5)
16.2
(61.2)
9.1
(48.4)
3.1
(37.6)
15.0
(59)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.8
(27)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.8
(38.8)
9.6
(49.3)
14.9
(58.8)
18.0
(64.4)
19.7
(67.5)
19.1
(66.4)
14.4
(57.9)
9.1
(48.4)
3.4
(38.1)
−1.3
(29.7)
8.9
(48)
Average low °C (°F) −6.9
(19.6)
−5.9
(21.4)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.9
(39)
8.6
(47.5)
11.6
(52.9)
13.3
(55.9)
12.7
(54.9)
8.7
(47.7)
3.5
(38.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
−5.3
(22.5)
3.5
(38.3)
Record low °C (°F) −31.8
(−25.2)
−31.0
(−23.8)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−12.0
(10.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
1.0
(33.8)
4.2
(39.6)
1.0
(33.8)
−3.6
(25.5)
−9.4
(15.1)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−31.8
(−25.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 24.9
(0.98)
25.0
(0.984)
33.9
(1.335)
52.8
(2.079)
69.0
(2.717)
92.9
(3.657)
92.0
(3.622)
76.7
(3.02)
59.8
(2.354)
39.9
(1.571)
31.3
(1.232)
31.0
(1.22)
629.2
(24.772)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 11.0
(4.33)
11.0
(4.33)
7.4
(2.91)
4.8
(1.89)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
1.7
(0.67)
4.5
(1.77)
6.5
(2.56)
46.9
(18.46)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.2 10.5 11.2 13.1 15.2 14.5 13.3 10.4 10.6 9.0 9.7 12.1 140.8
Average relative humidity (%) 87 79 71 67 68 71 71 72 76 78 80 86 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68 97 138 164 215 228 248 238 172 148 89 61 1,866
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization, Ogimet (mean temperatures and sun 1981–2010)
Source #2: Romanian National Statistic Institute (extremes 1901–2000), NOAA (snowfall 1961–1990), Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity, 1989–2008)

Sibiu: Demographics

As of 2011 census data, Sibiu has a population of 147,245, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census, making it the 14th-largest city in Romania. The ethnic breakdown was as follows:

  • Romanians 95.9%
  • Hungarians 1.6%
  • Germans (Transylvanian Saxons) 1.1%
  • Roma 0.4%

Sibiu: Population dynamics

Census Ethnic structure
Year Population Romanians Hungarians Germans
1850 12,765 - 2,089 977 8,790
1880 19,446 + 41.4% 2,810 2,065 14,327
1890 21,465 + 9.8% 4,581 3,199 13,148
1900 29,577 + 31.7% 7,106 5,747 16,141
1910 33,489 + 12.4% 8,824 7,252 16,832
1920 32,748 – 2.2% 8,553 4,291 18,218
1930 49,345 + 40.4% 19,006 6,782 22,045
1941 63,765 + 25.5% 33,829 4,262 23,574
1948 60,602 – 5% 37,371 5,060 16,359
1956 90,475 + 39.5% 60,526 4,772 24,636
1966 109,515 + 19% 78,548 5,124 25,387
1977 151,005 + 31.8% 119,507 5,111 25,403
1992 169,610 + 11.6% 158,863 4,163 5,605
2002 154,892 – 9% 148,269 3,135 2,508
2011 147,245 – 5% 131,414 2,131 1,481

Sibiu: Population by religious denomination

Today, most of the population is of the Romanian Orthodox religion. Protestants and Roman Catholics represent about 5% of the population.

Confessions in Sibiu
Confession 1910 2002
Eastern Orthodox 18% 91%
Greek-Catholic (Uniate) 8% 1%
Roman Catholic 20% 2%
Evangelical Lutheran 42% 2%
Reformed 7% 1%
Jewish 4% < 1 %
Other 1% 4%

Sibiu: Politics

Sibiu city council composition in 2004:
Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania
Social Democratic Party
National Liberal Party
Democratic Party

Although ethnic Germans make up less than 2% of Sibiu's population, Klaus Johannis, the former president of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR/DFDR) and current president of Romania, served as mayor of Sibiu from 2000 to 2014. When he was elected mayor in 2000, he was the first German mayor of a city in Romania since World War II. Johannis was overwhelmingly reelected in 2004 (with 88.7% of votes) and 2008 (with 83.3% of the votes cast) and his party gained an absolute majority in the city council in that year. The German Forum also won the elections for mayor in the second- and third-most important towns in Sibiu county, Mediaș and Cisnădie, as well as one third (11 out of 33) of the seats in the county council.

Party Seats Current Council
Democratic Forum of Germans 12
National Liberal Party 5
Social Democratic Party 6

Sibiu: Economy

Sibiu is an important economic hub for Romania, with a high rate of foreign investments. It is also an important hub for the manufacturing of automotive components and houses factories belonging to ThyssenKrupp Bilstein-Compa, Takata, Continental, and NTN-SNR ball bearings. Other local industries are machine components, textiles, agro-industry, and electrical components (Siemens).

The city also contains Romania's second-largest stock exchange, the Sibiu Stock Exchange.

The main industrial activities of Sibiu take place in two industrial zones located on the outskirts of the city:

  • East industrial zone (East Economic Center), alongside the railway to Brașov and Râmnicu Vâlcea
  • West industrial zone (West Economic Center), near the exit to Sebeș, close to the Airport

A commercial zone located in the Șelimbăr commune plays an important role in the economy of Sibiu. It houses a mall and other large retailers.

Another factor that plays an important role in the economy of the city is tourism, which has been increasing at a steady rate since 2007.

Sibiu: Transport

Sibiu International Airport Location

Sibiu is well served in terms of transport and infrastructure. In 2010 a city bypass was opened, significantly reducing the road traffic inside the city.

Tursib is the city's internal transportation system operator.

Sibiu: Air

Sibiu Airport, Blue Air flight.

Sibiu has one of the most modern international airports in Romania, with direct connections to Germany, Austria, United Kingdom, Italy and Spain as well as to other Romanian cities.

Sibiu: Road

Sibiu is an important node in the European road network, being on two different European routes (E68 and E81). At a national level, Sibiu is located on three different main national roads, DN1, DN7 and DN14.

The Romanian Motorway A1 will link the city with Pitești and the Romanian western border, near Arad. The remaining 161 km of motorway towards Arad, out of a total of 281 km, are under construction and expected to be completed by 2016, while the timeline for the segment towards Pitești is targeted for completion for the year 2020. Sibiu' s ring road as part of A1 motorway was completed on December 1, 2010.

Sibiu is also an important hub for the international bus links with the biggest passenger transporter in Romania, Atlassib, based here. Transport companies are also providing coach connections from Sibiu to a large number of locations in Romania.

Public bus transportation in Sibiu

Sibiu: Rail

Sibiu is situated on the CFR-Romanian Railways Main Line 200 (Brasov - Făgăraș - Sibiu - Simeria - Arad - Romanian Western Border) and on Line 206 (Sibiu - Mediaș).

The city is served by five rail stations: the Main Station (Gara Mare), the Little Station (Gara Micǎ), Turnișor, Sibiu Triaj, Halta Ateliere Zonă . It has an important diesel-powered locomotives depot and a freight terminal.

Numerous Inter City trains (nicknamed Blue Arrows) connect Sibiu to other major cities in Romania: Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Craiova, Timișoara and Bucharest.

Sibiu: Cycling

Over the last six years, Sibiu has enjoyed a revival of cycling. The bicycle way in the city span for 43 kilometers.

Bicycle rentals have offered a boost for the local economy with several small rental centers and a bigger rental center that is administered by the I'Velo Bike Sharing group.

Sibiu: Culture

Sibiu is one of Romania's most culturally lively cities. It has 3 theatres and a philharmonic orchestra along with other smaller private theatrical venues and a theatre studio housed by the Performing Arts and Acting section of Lucian Blaga University, where students hold monthly representations.

The Radu Stanca National Theatre is one of the leading Romanian theatres. With origins dating back to 1787, it attracts some of the best-known Romanian directors, such as Gábor Tompa and Silviu Purcărete. It has both a Romanian-language and a German-language section, and presents an average of five shows a week.

The Gong Theatre is specialised in puppetry, mime and non-conventional shows for children and teenagers. It also presents shows in both Romanian and German.

The State Philharmonic of Sibiu presents weekly classical music concerts, and educational concerts for children and teenagers. The concerts take place in the newly restored Thalia Hall, a concert and theatre hall dating from 1787, situated along the old city fortifications. Weekly organ concerts are organised at the Evangelical Cathedral during summers, and thematic concerts are presented by the Faculty of Theology choir at the Orthodox Cathedral.

The Sibiu International Theatre Festival is an annual festival of performing arts. Since 2016, it is the largest performance arts festival in the world.

Brukenthal National Museum, Sibiu.

Sibiu: Museums and parks

Sibiu's museums are organised around two entities: the Brukenthal National Museum and the ASTRA National Museum Complex. The Brukenthal Museum consists of an Art Gallery and an Old Books Library located inside the Brukenthal Palace, a History Museum located in the old town hall building, a Pharmacy Museum located in one of the first apothecary shops in Europe, dating from the 16th century, a Natural History Museum and a Museum of Arms and Hunting Trophies.

The ASTRA National Museum Complex focuses on ethnography, and consists of a Traditional Folk Civilisation Museum, a 96-hectare open-air museum located in Dumbrava Forest south of Sibiu, a Universal Ethnography Museum, a Museum of Transylvanian Civilisation and a Museum of Saxon Ethnography and Folk Art. Also planned is a Museum of the Culture and Civilisation of the Romany People.

Bicycle riders in Sub Arini park, in Sibiu.

The Dumbrava Sibiului Natural Park stretches over 960 hectares and it is situated 4 km away from the center of the city in the southwest direction along the road towards Răşinari. Also, here you can find the Zoological Garden and Ethnography Museum.

There is a Steam Locomotives Museum close to the railway station, sheltering around 40 locomotives, two of which are functional.

The first park in the city was The Promenade, later called "The Disabled Promenade." established in 1791, today part of Parcul Cetății (Citadel Park). Current arrangement of the park, including the space between the walls, dates from 1928.

The Sub Arini Park, established in 1856 is one of the biggest and best-maintained parks in Romania. There are other green spaces in the city center, the best known being Astra Park, established in 1879.

Tineretului Park

Other parks:

Tineretului Park, Reconstrucției Park, Corneliu Coposu Park, Petöfi Sándor Park, Piața Cluj Park, Ștrand Park, Cristianului Park, Țițeica Park, Vasile Aaron Park, Lira Park.

The distribution of green space is good compared to other Romanian cities.

Sibiu: Events

Citadel Park, with the 16 century City wall

Several festivals are organised yearly in Sibiu, the most prestigious of them being the Sibiu International Theatre Festival, organized each spring at the end of May. Medieval Festival organized every year in August, reviving the medieval spirit of Transylvania. The Artmania Festival is held every Summer since 2006 and as of 2008 the Rockin' Transilvania Festival is also held in Sibiu. The oldest Jazz Festival in Romania is organized here, as well as the "Carl Filtsch" festival for young classical piano players, the "Astra Film" documentary film festival, the Transylvania calling Festival a Multi Cultural 6 day Open Air Music festival! 26–31 July 2007, a medieval arts festival and many more smaller cultural events. Feeric Fashion Week is also hosted here.

Sibiu: European Cultural Capital

The designation as a European Cultural Capital for 2007, owed greatly to the excellent collaboration with Luxembourg, but also to what many regard as a miraculous social rebirth taking place in the city during the last years. The Cultural Capital status was expected to bring about an abrupt increase in quantity and quality of cultural events in 2007.

Sibiu: Tourism

In 2007, Sibiu was the European Capital of Culture (together with Luxembourg). This was the most important cultural event that has ever happened in the city, and a great number of tourists came, both domestic and foreign.

The city of Sibiu and its surroundings are one of the most visited areas in Romania. It holds one of the best preserved historical sites in the country, many of its medieval fortifications having been kept in excellent state. Its old center has begun the process for becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004. Sibiu and its surrounding area have many significant museums, with 12 institutions housing art collections, paintings, and exhibits in decorative arts, archeology, anthropology, history, industrial archeology and history of technology and natural sciences.

The city also lies close to the Făgăraș Mountains - a very popular trekking destination, close to the Păltiniș and Arena Platos ski resorts - popular winter holiday destinations, and it is at the heart of the former Saxon communities in Transylvania renowned for its fortified churches.

Fortified Lutheran church of Gușterița neighbourhood, 13th century

Since 2007, a traditional Christmas market is held for the first time in Sibiu, Romania. The first of its kind in Romania, it is inspired by Viennese Christmas markets, being a project developed by the Social Attaché of the Austrian Embassy in Romania, dr.h.c. Barbara Schöfnagel It was held in the "Lesser Square" (Piața Mică) with 38 small stalls, a small stage and an area dedicated to children, having several mechanical attractions installed there. Since 2008 the market is held in the "Grand Square" and grew to a number of about 70 stalls, a bigger stage was set up, where Christmas carols concerts are held. An ice skating rink and a children's workshop are also attractions which have been added in the following years. It was the first Christmas Market in Romania, but soon other Christmas markets emerged across the country. In 2013, the Sibiu Christmas markets was included in the "15 Of the Most Beautiful Christmas Markets in Europe"

Sibiu: Main sights

Sibiu Lutheran Cathedral
Market in the Large Square, 1790, painting by Franz Neuhauser the Younger
Christmas Fair in the Large Square
Coopers Tower
The House with Caryatids on Mitropoliei Street, constructed in 1786
Pasajul Scărilor (Passage of the Stairs) in the Lower Town

Much of the city's aspect is due to its position, easily defensible, but allowing horizontal development. The old city of Sibiu lies on the right bank of the Cibin River, on a hill situated at about 200 m from the river. It consists of two distinct entities: the Upper Town and the Lower Town. Traditionally, the Upper Town was the wealthier part and commercial outlet, while the Lower Town served as the manufacturing area.

The Lower Town

(German: Unterstadt, Romanian: Orașul de jos) comprises the area between the river and the hill, and it developed around the earliest fortifications. The streets are long and quite wide for medieval city standards, with small city squares at places. The architecture is rather rustic: typically two-storey houses with tall roofs and gates opening passages to inner courts.

Most of the exterior fortifications were lost to industrial development and modern urban planning in the mid-late 19th century; only four towers still exist. A building associated with newer urbanism of the period is the Independența Highschool.

This area has the oldest church in the city, dating back to 1292.

The Upper Town (German: Oberstadt, Romanian: Orașul de sus) is organised around three city squares and a set of streets along the line of the hill. As the main area for burgher activities, the area contains most points of interest in the city.

Grand Square

(German: Großer Ring, Romanian: Piața Mare ) is, as its name suggests, the largest square of the city, and has been the center of the city since the 15th century. At 142 meters long and 93 meters wide, it is one of the largest ones in Transylvania.

Brukenthal Palace, one of the most important Baroque monuments in Romania, lies on the north-western corner of the square. It was erected between 1777 and 1787 as the main residence for the Governor of Transylvania Samuel von Brukenthal. It houses the main part of the National Brukenthal Museum, opened in 1817, making it one of the oldest museums in the world. Next to the palace is the Blue House or Moringer House, an 18th-century Baroque house bearing the old coat of arms of Sibiu on its façade.

Interior of the Sibiu Orthodox Cathedral

On the north side is the Jesuit Church, along with its dependencies, the former residence of the Jesuits in Sibiu. Also on the north side, at the beginning of the 20th century an Art Nouveau building was constructed on the west part, now it houses the mayor's office.

Liars Bridge in Lesser Square, erected in 1859

Next to the Jesuit Church on the north side is the Council Tower, one of the city's symbols. This former fortification tower from the 13th century has been successively rebuilt over the years. The building nearby used to be the City Council's meeting place; beneath it lies an access way between the Grand Square and the Lesser Square.

On the south and east sides are two- or three-storey houses, having tall attics with small windows known as the city's eyes. Most of these houses are dated 15th to 19th centuries, and most of them are Renaissance or Baroque in style.

Lesser Square (Small Square, German: Kleiner Ring) as its name implies, is a smaller square situated in the northern part of the Upper Town. After the 2007 rehabilitation there has been an increase in the number of small businesses such as pubs and restaurants in this area.

The square is connected to the other two squares and to other streets by small, narrow passages. The main access from the Lower City is through Ocnei Street, which divides the square in two. The street passes under the Liar's Bridge - the first bridge in Romania to have been cast in iron (1859).

To the right of the bridge is another symbol of the city, The House of the Arts, an 14th-century arched building formerly belonging to the Butchers' Guild. On the left side of the bridge is the Luxemburg House, a Baroque four-storey building.

Huet Square

is the third of the three main squares of Sibiu. Its most notable feature is the Evangelical Lutheran Cathedral in its center. It is the place where the earliest fortifications have been built in the late 12th century or early 13th century. The buildings around this square are mainly Gothic. On the west side lies the Brukenthal Highschool, in place of a former 14th-century school.

The Thick Tower

The Fortifications

of Sibiu made the city one of the most important fortified cities in Central Europe. Multiple rings were built around the city, most of them out of clay bricks. The south-eastern fortifications are the best kept, and all three parallel lines are still visible. The first is an exterior earth mound, the second is a 10-meter-tall red brick wall, and the third line comprises towers linked by another 10-meter-tall wall. All structures are connected via a labyrinth of tunnels and passageways, designed to ensure transport between the city and lines of defense.

In the 16th century more modern elements were added to the fortifications, mainly leaf-shaped bastions. Two of these survived to this day, as the Haller Bastion (all the way down Coposu Boulevard) and "Soldisch Bastion".

The Passage of the Stairs, leads down to the lower section of Sibiu. It descends along some fortifications under the support arches. It is the most picturesque of the several passages linking the two sides of the old city.

Sibiu: Health

Sibiu County Hospital

Sibiu is one of the important medical centers of Romania, housing many important medical facilities:

  • County Hospital
  • Academic Emergency Hospital;
  • Hospital of Pediatrics;
  • Military Emergency Hospital;
  • CFR Hospital (Romanian Railways Hospital);
  • "Dr. Gheorghe Preda" Psychiatry Hospital
  • other smaller private clinics

The city also houses one of the largest private hospitals in the country, Polisano.

Sibiu: Education

Samuel von Brukenthal High School

Sibiu is an important centre of higher education, with over 23,000 students in four public and private higher institutions.

The Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu was founded in 1990, with five faculties: Engineering and Sciences; Language Sciences; History and Law; Medicine; Food and Textile Processing Technology. Nowadays, there are 10 faculties and departments.

Sibiu also houses the Nicolae Bălcescu Land Forces Academy and the Military Foreign Language Center as well as two private universities, Romanian-German University and Alma Mater University.

In Sibiu there are 20 educational institutions on the secondary level, the most important of which are:

  • Gheorghe Lazăr National College - sciences and informatics, first opened in 1692 as a Jesuit College
  • Gheorghe Lazăr National College
    Samuel von Brukenthal National College - German language high school
  • Octavian Goga National College - social sciences, sciences and informatics
  • Onisifor Ghibu Theoretical Highschool - informatics, social sciences and sports
  • Andrei Șaguna National College - training for schoolteachers, informatics, social sciences and sports
  • Constantin Noica Theoretical Highschool - social sciences and sciences
  • Daniel Popovici Barcianu Highschool - agricultural and economic sciences
  • George Baritiu National College - economic sciences
  • Nicolae Iorga Elementary school
  • Regina Maria Elementary school

Sibiu: Sports

Transilvania sports arena

The city houses a municipal stadium, a multi-functional arena building, a rugby court, a municipal pool and several private tennis courts.

Sibiu: Teams

Football
  • FC Hermannstadt
Rugby
  • CSM Sibiu
Volleyball
  • CSM Sibiu (men)
  • CSS Sibiu (women)
Basketball
  • CSU Atlassib Sibiu (men)
Handball
  • CSM Sibiu (women)
  • CSM Sibiu (men)
Speed Skating
  • CSS Sibiu

Sibiu: Natives

  • Michael Gottlieb Agnethler, botanist
  • Alexandru Apolzan, football player
  • Arthur Arz von Straussenburg, Austro-Hungarian general
  • Florin Barbu, bass player in Romanian bands Timpuri Noi and Proconsul
  • Claudiu Baștea
  • Ion Besoiu, Romanian actor
  • Miklós Borsos, Hungarian sculptor
  • Dan Burincă
  • Andrei Codrescu, American writer
  • Sabina Cojocar, Romanian gymnast
  • Alexandru Curtean
  • Steve Holmes, German pornographic actor
  • Victor Iliu, Romanian film director
  • Klaus Iohannis, president of Romania
  • Hermann Kusmanek von Burgneustädten, Austro-Hungarian general, see also Siege of Przemyśl
  • Mircea Mureșan, Romanian film director
  • Alexandru Mușina, Romanian poet
  • Steliana Nistor, Romanian gymnast
  • Hermann Oberth, space flight technology pioneer
  • Nicolaus Olahus, Catholic archbishop of Esztergom
  • Oskar Pastior, poet and translator
  • Dan Perjovschi, Romanian artist
  • Claudia Presecan, Romanian gymnast
  • Iancu Sasul, Moldavian ruler
  • Viorel Tilea, Romanian diplomat

Sibiu: Twinned towns

Sibiu has twinning agreements with:

  • Brazil Bauru, Brazil, since 1995.
  • Philippines Butuan, Philippines
  • United States Columbia, USA, since 1994.
  • Netherlands Deventer, the Netherlands, since 2007.
  • Austria Klagenfurt, Austria, since 1990.
  • Germany Landshut, Germany, since 2002.
  • Germany Marburg, Germany, since 2005.
  • Belgium Mechelen, Belgium, since 1996.
  • France Rennes, France, since 1999.
  • Venezuela Valencia, Venezuela, since 1993.
  • United Kingdom Wirral, United Kingdom, since 1994.
  • Japan Takayama, Gifu, Japan, since 2009.

Sibiu: Consulates in Sibiu

  • Germany Federal Republic of Germany - Consulate-General

Honorary Consulates:

  • Austria Republic of Austria
  • Luxembourg Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Sibiu: See also

  • List of castles in Romania
  • Timeline of Sibiu
  • Tourism in Romania
  • Villages with fortified churches in Transylvania

Sibiu: References

  1. "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  2. City Distance Tool at geobytes.com
  3. Sibiu Cultural Capital Website
  4. Beckett, Edward; Olson, Parmy. "In Pictures: Europe's Most Idyllic Places To Live". Forbes.
  5. The History of Sibiu
  6. The History of the Transylvanian Saxons, thedockyards.com
  7. Sibiu, or Hermannstadt? A Romanian City with German TraditionsPublished/Revised June 11, 2014, europeupclose.com
  8. The vanished Romanian German community through Hitler's population transfer, soviet deportation, & mass emigration, expelledgermans.org
  9. The Saxons’ Land, or the Royal Domain (Fundus Regius), alanier.at
  10. "World Weather Information Service – Sibiu". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on July 25, 2017. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  11. "CLIMAT summary for 15260: Sibiu (Romania) – Section 2: Monthly Normals". CLIMAT monthly weather summaries. Ogimet. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
  12. "AIR TEMPERATURE (monthly and yearly absolute maximum and absolute minimum)" (PDF). Romanian Statistical Yearbook: Geography, Meteorology, and Environment. Romanian National Statistic Institute. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  13. "Sibiu Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  14. "Klimatafel von Hermannstadt (Sibiu), Siebenbürgen / Rumänien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
  15. 2011 census data
  16. Varga E. Árpád: Statistici etnice și confesionale pentru Transilvania
  17. Sbiu Stock Exchange Website
  18. (PDF) http://www.sibiu.ro/ro2/pdf/2011/PUG2011/03_Reglementari%20-%20Web.pdf. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. Tursib - Official Site
  20. Radu Stanca National Theatre - Official Site
  21. State Philharmonic of Sibiu - Official Site
  22. [1]
  23. 2006 Cultural Programme
  24. Târgul de Crăciun din Sibiu
  25. Press Release Primaria Sibiu
  26. http://www.tourismontheedge.com/best-of/christmas-traveling-15-of-the-most-beautiful-christmas-markets-in-europe.html
  27. The Bridge of Lies
  28. About Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu
  29. Land Forces Military Academy at mediafax.ro
  30. About Sibiu Romanian-German University
  31. About Alma Mater University
  32. (in Romanian) Sibiu Town Hall Official Site, Acordul de infratire intre Sibiu si orasul Deventer din Olanda, 23 May 2007

Sibiu: Bibliography

See also: Bibliography of the history of Sibiu
  • Sibiu.ro: Official Sibiu Online website - tourism and history information and images. (in Romanian), (in English), (in German)
  • Turism.sibiu.ro: Official Sibiu Tourism website (in Romanian), (in English), (in German)
  • patrimoniu.sibiu.ro: Sibiu Heritage website (in Romanian), (in English)
  • theFest.ro - Locuri si evenimente din Sibiu, Romania (in Romanian)
  • RomaniaTourism.com: Sibiu - reference for surface area, population, etc. (2005).
  • Sibiupeople.ro: Restoration of Historical Monuments in Sibiu -photo gallery and projects' report.
  • Official Sibiu European Cultural Capital 2007 website (in Romanian), (in English), (in German)
  • The Diplomat: article; "Sibiu as Capital of Culture" (in Romanian)
  • Rozylowicz.com: photos, videos, and retirement information
  • Descopera.net: Sibiu in pictures
  • Pictures of Sibiu
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