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Hotels of Siena

A hotel in Siena is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Siena hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Siena are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Siena hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Siena hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Siena have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Siena
An upscale full service hotel facility in Siena that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Siena hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Siena
Full service Siena hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Siena
Boutique hotels of Siena are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Siena boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Siena may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Siena
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Siena travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Siena focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Siena
Small to medium-sized Siena hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Siena traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Siena hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Siena
A bed and breakfast in Siena is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Siena bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Siena B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Siena
Siena hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Siena hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Siena
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Siena hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Siena lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Siena
Siena timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Siena often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Siena on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Siena
A Siena motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Siena for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Siena motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Siena

Not to be confused with sienna.
For other uses, see Siena (disambiguation).
Città di Siena
View of Piazza del Campo (Campo Square), the Mangia Tower (Torre del Mangia) and Santa Maria in Provenzano Church
View of Piazza del Campo (Campo Square), the Mangia Tower (Torre del Mangia) and Santa Maria in Provenzano Church
Coat of arms of Siena
Coat of arms
location of comune of Siena within the Province of Siena
location of comune of Siena within the Province of Siena
Siena is located in Italy
Location of Siena in Italy
Coordinates: (53893)  / 43.31861; 11.33056  / 43.31861; 11.33056
Country Italy
Region Tuscany
Province / Metropolitan city Siena (SI)
Frazioni Costalpino, Isola d'Arbia, Taverne d'Arbia, San Miniato, Vignano, Ruffolo
• Mayor Bruno Valentini (PD)
• Total 118 km (46 sq mi)
Elevation 322 m (1,056 ft)
Population (30 November 2012)
• Total 52,774
• Density 450/km (1,200/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Sienese
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 53100, 53010
Dialing code 0577
Patron saint St. Ansanus/
Ambrose of Siena
Saint day 1 December/
8 October
Website Official website
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Historic Centre of Siena
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Location Italy
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv
Reference 717
UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1995 (19th Session)

Siena (Italian pronunciation: [ˈsjɛːna]; in English sometimes spelled Sienna) is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena.

The historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nation's most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008. Siena is famous for its cuisine, art, museums, medieval cityscape and the Palio, a horse race held twice a year.

Siena: History

Capitoline Wolf at Siena Duomo. According to a legend Siena was founded by Senius and Aschius, two sons of Remus. When they fled Rome, they took the statue of She-wolf to Siena, which became a symbol of the town.
See also: Republic of Siena and Timeline of Siena

Siena, like other Tuscan hill towns, was first settled in the time of the Etruscans (c. 900–400 BC) when it was inhabited by a tribe called the Saina. The Etruscans were a tribe of advanced people who changed the face of central Italy through their use of irrigation to reclaim previously unfarmable land, and their custom of building their settlements in well-defended hill forts. A Roman town called Saena Julia was founded at the site in the time of the Emperor Augustus. The first document mentioning it dates from AD 70. Some archaeologists assert that Siena was controlled for a period by a Gaulish tribe called the Senones.

According to local legend, Siena was founded by Senius and Aschius, two sons of Remus and thus nephews of Romulus, after whom Rome was named. Supposedly after their father's murder by Romulus, they fled Rome, taking with them the statue of the she-wolf suckling the infants (Capitoline Wolf), thus appropriating that symbol for the town. Additionally they rode white and black horses, giving rise to the Balzana, or coat of arms of Siena with a white band atop a dark band. Some claim the name Siena derives from Senius. Other etymologies derive the name from the Etruscan family name Saina, the Roman family name Saenii, or the Latin word senex "old" or its derived form seneo "to be old".

Siena did not prosper under Roman rule. It was not sited near any major roads and lacked opportunities for trade. Its insular status meant that Christianity did not penetrate until the 4th century AD, and it was not until the Lombards invaded Siena and the surrounding territory that it knew prosperity. After the Lombard occupation, the old Roman roads of Via Aurelia and the Via Cassia passed through areas exposed to Byzantine raids, so the Lombards rerouted much of their trade between the Lombards' northern possessions and Rome along a more secure road through Siena. Siena prospered as a trading post, and the constant streams of pilgrims passing to and from Rome provided a valuable source of income in the centuries to come.

The oldest aristocratic families in Siena date their line to the Lombards' surrender in 774 to Charlemagne. At this point, the city was inundated with a swarm of Frankish overseers who married into the existing Sienese nobility and left a legacy that can be seen in the abbeys they founded throughout Sienese territory. Feudal power waned however, and by the death of Countess Matilda in 1115 the border territory of the Mark of Tuscia which had been under the control of her family, the Canossa, broke up into several autonomous regions. This ultimately resulted in the creation of the Republic of Siena.

The Republic existed for over four hundred years, from the late 11th century until the year 1555. During the golden age of Siena before the Black Death in 1348, the city was home to 50,000 people.

In the Italian War of 1551–59, the republic was defeated by the rival Duchy of Florence in alliance with the Spanish crown. After 18 months of resistance, Siena surrendered to Spain on 17 April 1555, marking the end of the republic.

The new Spanish King Felipe II, owing huge sums to the Medici, ceded it (apart from a series of coastal fortress annexed to the State of Presidi) to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to which it belonged until the unification of Italy in the 19th century.

A Republican government of 700 Sienese families in Montalcino resisted until 1559.

The picturesque city remains an important cultural centre, especially for humanist disciplines.

Siena: Geography

Siena is located in the central part of Tuscany, in the middle of a vast hilly landscape between the Arbia river valley (south), the Merse valley (south-west), the Elsa valley (north), the Chianti hills (north-east), the Montagnola Senese (west) and the Crete Senesi (south-east). The city lies at 322 m above sea level.

Siena: Climate

Siena has a borderline humid subtropical (Cfa) and Mediterranean climate (Csa) in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 millimetres (1.57 in) of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely humid subtropical or Mediterranean.

Climate data for University of Siena (altitude: 348 m sl)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.0
Average low °C (°F) 2.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 65
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 8 11 8 10 6 7 4 4 5 8 8 8 87
Source: Achivio Climatico ENEA

Siena: Main sights

Siena Cathedral
Interior of the Siena Cathedral.
Façade of the Palazzo Pubblico (town hall) during the Palio days.
Piazza Salimbeni.
Streets of old Siena.
Basilica of San Domenico.
View from the Campanile del Mangia.

The Siena Cathedral (Duomo), begun in the 12th century, is a masterpiece of Italian Romanesque-Gothic architecture. Its main façade was completed in 1380. The original plan called for an ambitiously massive basilica, the largest then in the world, with, as was customary, an east-west nave. However, the scarcity of funds, in part due to war and plague, truncated the project, and the Sienese created a subdued version from the original plan's north-south transept. The east wall of the abandoned original folly of a nave still stands; through an internal staircase, visitors can climb for a grand view of the city.

The Siena Cathedral Pulpit is an octagonal 13th-century masterpiece sculpted by Nicola Pisano with lion pedestals and biblical bas-relief panels. The inlaid marble mosaic floor of the cathedral, designed and labored on by many artists, is among the most elaborate in Italy. The Sacristy and Piccolomini library have well preserved Renaissance frescos by Ghirlandaio and Pinturicchio respectively. Other sculptors active in the church and in the subterranean baptistry are Donatello, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Jacopo della Quercia and others. The Museo dell'Opera del Duomo contains Duccio's famous Maestà (1308–11) and various other works by Sienese masters. More Sienese paintings are to be found in the Pinacoteca, e.g. 13th-century works by Dietisalvi di Speme.

The Piazza del Campo, the shell-shaped town square, unfurls before the Palazzo Pubblico with its tall Torre del Mangia. This is part of the site for the Palio horse race. The Palazzo Pubblico, itself a great work of architecture, houses yet another important art museum. Included within the museum is Ambrogio Lorenzetti's frescoes depicting the Allegory and Effects of Good and Bad Government and also some of the finest frescoes of Simone Martini and Pietro Lorenzetti.

The Palazzo Salimbeni, located in a piazza of the same name, was the original headquarters and remains in possession of the Monte dei Paschi di Siena, one of the oldest banks in continuous existence in Europe.

Housed in the notable Gothic Palazzo Chigi-Saracini on Via di Città is the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, Siena's conservatory of music.

Other churches in the city include:

  • Basilica dell'Osservanza
  • Santa Maria dei Servi
  • San Domenico
  • San Francesco
  • Santo Spirito
  • San Martino
  • Sanctuary of Santa Caterina, incorporating the old house of St. Catherine of Siena. It houses the miraculous Crucifix (late 12th century) from which the saint received her stigmata, and a 15th-century statue of St. Catherine.

The historic Siena synagogue is also preserved and open to visitors.

The city's gardens include the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Siena, a botanical garden maintained by the University of Siena.

The Medicean Fortress houses the Enoteca Italiana and the Siena Jazz School, with courses and concerts throughout the year, and a festival during the International Siena Jazz Masterclasses.

In the neighbourhood are numerous patrician villas, some of which are attributed to Baldassarre Peruzzi:

  • Villa Chigi
  • Castle of Belcaro
  • Villa Celsa
  • Villa Cetinale
  • Villa Volte Alte

Siena: Culture

Siena: Contrade

Main article: Contrade di Siena

Siena retains a ward-centric culture from medieval times. Each ward (contrada) is represented by an animal or mascot, and has its own boundary and distinct identity. Ward rivalries are most rampant during the annual horse race (Palio) in the Piazza del Campo.

Siena: The Palio

Main article: Palio di Siena

The Palio di Siena is a traditional medieval horse race run around the Piazza del Campo twice each year, on 2 July and 16 August. The event is attended by large crowds, and is widely televised. Seventeen Contrade (which are city neighbourhoods originally formed as battalions for the city's defence) vie for the trophy: a painted banner, or Palio bearing an image of the Blessed Virgin Mary. For each race a new Palio is commissioned by well-known artists and Palios won over many years can often be seen in the local Contrade museum. During each Palio period, the city is decked out in lamps and flags bearing the Contrade colours.

Ten of the seventeen Contrade run in each Palio: seven run by right (having not run in the previous year's corresponding Palio) together with three drawn by lot from the remaining ten. A horse is assigned to each by lot and is then guarded and cared for in the Contrade stable. The jockeys are paid huge sums and indeed there are often deals and bribes between jockeys or between "allied" Contrade committees to hinder other riders, especially those of 'enemy' Contrade. For the three days preceding the Palio itself, there are practice races. The horses are led from their stables through the city streets to the Campo, accompanied by crowds wearing Contrade scarves or tee-shirts and the air is filled with much singing and shouting.

Though often a brutal and dangerous competition for horse and bare-back rider alike, the city thrives on the pride this competition brings. The Palio is not simply a tourist event as a true Sienese regards this in an almost tribal way, with passions and rivalry similar to that found at a football 'Derby' match. In fact the Sienese are baptised twice, once in church and a second time in their own Contrade fountain. This loyalty is maintained through a Contrade 'social club' and regular events and charitable works. Indeed, the night before the Palio the city is a mass of closed roads as each Contrade organises its own outdoor banquet, often for numbers in excess of 1,000 diners. On the day of the Palio itself the horses are accompanied by a spectacular display of drummers and flag twirlers dressed in traditional medieval costumes who first lead the horse and jockey to the Contrade parish church and then join a procession around the Piazza del Campo square. This traditional parade is called the Corteo Storico, which begins in the streets and concludes in the Piazza del Campo encircling the square. There are often long delays while the race marshall attempts to line up the horses, but once underway the Campo becomes a cauldron of wild emotion for the 3 minutes of the race.

This event is not without its controversy however, and recently, there have been complaints about the treatment of the horses and to the danger run by the riders. To better protect the horses, steps have been taken to make veterinary care more easily available during the main race. Also at the most dangerous corners of the course, cushions are used to help protect both the riders and horses.

Siena: Art

Madonna and Child with saints polyptych by Duccio (1311–18).
Sassetta, Institution of the Eucharist (1430–32), Pinacoteca di Siena.

Over the centuries, Siena has had a rich tradition of arts and artists. The list of artists from the Sienese School include Duccio and his student Simone Martini, Pietro Lorenzetti and Martino di Bartolomeo. A number of well-known works of Renaissance and High Renaissance art still remain in galleries or churches in Siena.

The Church of San Domenico contains art by Guido da Siena, dating to the mid-13th century. Duccio's Maestà, which was commissioned by the City of Siena in 1308, was instrumental in leading Italian painting away from the hieratic representations of Byzantine art and directing it towards more direct presentations of reality. And his Madonna and Child with Saints polyptych, painted between 1311 and 1318 remains at the city's Pinacoteca Nazionale.

The Pinacoteca also includes several works by Domenico Beccafumi, as well as art by Lorenzo Lotto, Domenico di Bartolo and Fra Bartolomeo.

Siena: Economy

The main activities are tourism, services, agriculture, handicrafts and light industry.

Siena: Agriculture

Agriculture constitutes Siena's primary industry. As of 2009, Siena's agricultural workforce comprises 919 companies with a total area of 10.755 square kilometres (4.153 sq mi) for a UAA (usable agricultural area) of 6.954 square kilometres (2.685 sq mi) or about 1/30 of the total municipal area (data ISTAT for the 2000 Agriculture Census V).

Siena: Industry and manufacturing

The industrial sector of the Sienese economy is not very developed. However, the area has seen recent growth in important core manufacturing enterprises.

The confectionery industry is one of the most important of the traditional sectors of the secondary industry, because of the many local specialties. Among the best known are Panforte, a precursor to modern fruitcake, Ricciarelli biscuits, made out of almond paste, and the well-known gingerbread, and the horses. Also renowned is Noto, a sweet made out of honey, almonds and pepper. The area known for making these delicacies ranges between Tuscany and Umbria. Other seasonal specialties are the chestnut and the pan de 'Santi (or Pan co' Santi) traditionally prepared in the weeks preceding the Festival of Saints, the November 1. All are marketed both industrial and artisan bakeries in different cities.

The area has also seen a growth in biotechnology. Centenary Institute Sieroterapico Achille Sclavo, is now Swiss-owned and operates under the company name, Novartis Vaccines. Novartis develops and produces vaccines and employs about a thousand people.

Siena: Service industry, financial and light commerce

In this area, the most important financial activities are those related to the bank Monte dei Paschi di Siena. The oldest bank still in existence, headquartered in Siena, which has been operating continuously since 1472.

There are also important appearances of the university and the hospital, which employ thousands of people and serves a catchment area much wider than the already large territory province. In the territory there is a dense network of micro-enterprises (less than 10,000) active in trade and tourism.

In the last ten years, Siena has been completely wired with fibre optic cable. This distinction makes Siena the first city in Italy to complete Telecom's Socrates Project (Progetto Socrate). As a result, the town can claim that almost every house is wired for cable. The wiring, built by private companies in partnership with the city, helped to create a civic public station (Channel Civic Sienese) cable that transmits information and local news and gives access to Internet broadband. In 2007, however, the station was privatised, separating the TV from the Internet. The wiring is currently extending to major centres of the province through another company set up ad hoc (earth cable).

Siena: Research and development

The last few years have seen increased attention to biotechnology and research. As a consequence, local banking enterprises have focused on developing funding and supporting research and "startup" enterprises.

Siena: Sports

Siena has enjoyed a long tradition in sports. Basketball and football are perhaps the most popular in Siena, but other sports such as rugby and Athletics are also practised.

Siena: Professional sports

Stadio Artemio Franchi - Montepaschi Arena

Associazione Calcio Siena (football) was founded in 1904 and fully established in 1908. It was first promoted to Italy's top league, Serie A, for the 2003–04 season and stayed in this serie for 9 seasons. After the club's bankruptcy in 2014, a new club named Società Sportiva Robur Siena took its place and had to restart from Serie D. Currently it is in Lega Pro league. The club hosts its games at the Stadio Artemio Franchi.

The premier society of men's basketball in Siena was called Mens Sana Basket (also referred to by its sponsored name of Montepaschi Siena). It is also the oldest sports society in Siena. Mens Sana Basket participated in the highest level of play in Italy, Lega Basket Serie A, and it has won the national championship eight times, with a streak of seven (2004 and 2007–13). The team host their home games at PalaEstra indoor arena. Likewise the football team, the club in 2014 went through financial issues and its place was taken by the new club Mens Sana 1871, currently in the Serie A2 league. The city co-hosted the EuroBasket 1979.

The Strade Bianche cycling race starts and finishes in Siena

Siena hosts the start and finish of the Strade Bianche, a professional cycling race famous for its historic white gravel roads, called strade bianche or sterrati in Italian. More than 50 kilometres (31 miles) of the race is run over dirt roads, usually country lanes and farm tracks twisting through the hills and vineyards of the Chianti region. The finish is on the Piazza del Campo, after a steep and narrow climb on the roughly-paved Via Santa Caterina leading into the center of the medieval city.

In 2015 the volleyball team Emma Villas, based in Chiusi (a small town in the Siena Province) was promoted in Serie A2 and decided to move to Siena, aiming at a wider audience, hosting its games at PalaEstra.

Siena: Amateur sports

As with most of Italy, football is very popular, and numerous amateur football teams have been formed. Tournaments for amateur football leagues are carried out during the winter.

Siena is home to several amateur basketball teams: these include the Associazione Sportiva Costone Basket and Virtus Siena.

There exist several female university sports teams organised under the CUS (Centro Universitario Sportivo). These include such sports as fencing, volleyball and rugby,and a basketball team composed exclusivelly by students of the University of Siena.

Siena: Transport

The nearest international airports to Siena are Peretola Airport in Florence and Galileo Galilei International Airport in Pisa. There are two to three buses daily (Sena line) between Siena and Bologna Airport as well.

Siena can be reached by train from both Pisa and Florence, changing at Empoli. Siena railway station is located at the bottom of a long hill outside the city walls. A series of escalators connects the train station with the old city on top of hill.

Buses leave from Piazza Gramsci, located within the city walls. Buses are available directly to and from Florence, a one-hour trip, as well as from Rome (three hours), Milan (four and a half hours), and from various other towns in Tuscany and beyond.

By road, Siena is linked to Florence by a "superstrada" (the Raccordo Autostradale RA03 – Siena-Firenze), a form of toll free autostrada. The superstrada to Florence is indicated on some road signs with the letters SI-FI, referring to province abbreviations. A continuation of the same four lane road to the south east will facilitate the drive towards Perugia and to Rome by the A1 highway.

Almost no automobile traffic is permitted within the city centre. Several large car parks are located immediately outside the city walls. The "La Fortezza" and "Il Campo" car parks are closest to the centre; free parking areas are further out (near Porta Romana). Commercial traffic is permitted within the city only during morning hours.

Siena: Twin towns

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy

Siena is twinned with:

  • France Avignon, France
  • Germany Weimar, Germany, since 1994
  • Germany Wetzlar, Germany, since 1987

Siena: References

  1. Data from Istat
  2. "Historic Centre of Siena - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". 3 December 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
  3. "Euromonitor Internationals Top City Destinations Ranking > Euromonitor archive". 12 December 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
  4. Smith, T.B.; Steinhoff, J.B. (2012). Art as Politics in Late Medieval and Renaissance Siena. Ashgate Publishing Company. p. 77. ISBN 9781409400660. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  5. "Climate Summary for Siena, Italy". Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  6. "Climate Data from the University of Siena's Meteorological Station (1961–1990) - Achivio Climatico ENEA". Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  7. Huppert, George (1998). After the Black Death: A Social History of Early Modern Europe (Second ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 36.
  8. "Siena start for Strade Bianche in 2016". Cycling News. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  9. Brown, Gregor. "Preview: Strade Bianche promises to be a strongman's race". Velo News. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  10. "Jumelages et Relations Internationales - Avignon". (in French). Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  11. "Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Ministère des affaires étrangères (in French). Retrieved 13 July 2013.

Siena: Sources

  • A Medieval Italian Commune: Siena under the Nine, 1287–1355 by Professor William M. Bowsky (1982)
  • McIntyre, Anthony Osler. Medieval Tuscany and Umbria (1992) Buy book ISBN 0-670-83525-0
  • Nevola, Fabrizio (2007). Siena: Constructing the Renaissance city (second ed.). ISBN 978-0-300-12678-5. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  • Siena travel guide from Wikivoyage
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
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