Best prices on South Dakota hotel booking and tickets to South Dakota, United States

One of the super offers is an unique opportunity to instantly find the lowest prices on South Dakota hotels and book a best hotel in South Dakota saving up to 80%! You can do it quickly and easily with HotelsCombined, a world's leading free hotel metasearch engine that allows to search and compare the rates of all major hotel chains, top travel sites, and leading hotel booking websites, including,,, etc. The hotel price comparison service HotelsCombined means cheap South Dakota hotels booking, lowest prices on hotel reservation in South Dakota and airline tickets to South Dakota, United States!

South Dakota Hotels Comparison & Online Booking

▪ Lowest prices on South Dakota hotels booking
▪ The discounts on South Dakota hotels up to 80%
▪ No booking fees on South Dakota hotels
▪ Detailed description & photos of South Dakota hotels
▪ Trusted ratings and reviews of South Dakota hotels
▪ Advanced South Dakota hotel search & comparison
▪ All South Dakota hotels on the map
▪ Interesting sights of South Dakota

What's important: you can compare and book not only South Dakota hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in South Dakota. If you're going to South Dakota save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in South Dakota online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to South Dakota, and rent a car in South Dakota right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the South Dakota related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.

By the way, we would recommend you to combine your visit to South Dakota with other popular and interesting places of United States, for example: Palm Coast, Galveston, Fort Walton Beach, Palm Springs, Corpus Christi, Manhattan, Aurora, Daytona Beach, Malibu, Missouri, Atlanta, Idaho, Lexington, Sacramento, Fresno, Nebraska, Rhode Island, Oxnard, Oklahoma City, Fort Myers, Portland, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Lincoln, Stockton, Raleigh, Iowa, Key Largo, El Paso, Yonkers, Madison, North Las Vegas, New York, Napa, Jacksonville, Las Vegas, Aspen, Pasadena, Laredo, Phoenix, Gilbert, Hot Springs, Seattle, Breckenridge, Santa Monica, Newark, Baton Rouge, Marathon, Park City, North Dakota, Massachusetts, Ohio, Minneapolis, Grand Canyon, Santa Cruz, Santa Barbara, Jersey City, Des Moines, Carlsbad, Shreveport, San Antonio, Miami, Zion, Brooklyn, Saint Paul, Anchorage, Cheyenne, Texas, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Virginia Beach, Colorado Springs, St. Petersburg, Florida, Kansas, Death Valley, Milwaukee, Indianapolis, Lubbock, Oakland, South Lake Tahoe, Henderson, Glendale, Lahaina, Laguna Beach, Tucson, South Dakota, Hialeah, Arlington, Spokane, Yellowstone, Chicago, Utah, Newport, Winston-Salem, Fayetteville, Baltimore, Detroit, New York City, Chula Vista, Montana, Grand Rapids, Cincinnati, Nevada, Fort Wayne, Mammoth Lakes, Dana Point, Waikiki, Wisconsin, New Hampshire, Arizona, Newport Beach, Virginia, Maine, North Carolina, Fort Worth, Wichita, Jackson Wyoming, Orlando, Huntington Beach, Sunny Isles Beach, Salt Lake City, South Carolina, Alaska, Key West, Moreno Valley, Oregon, Kentucky, Dallas, Fontana, Michigan, Austin, Bakersfield, Moab, Honolulu, Durham, Riverside, Sarasota, Tacoma, Reno, Norfolk, Omaha, Delaware, Louisiana, New Mexico, Great Smoky Mountains, Wyoming, Tennessee, Arkansas, Portland, Steamboat Springs, Little Rock, Gulfport, Birmingham, Irving, Rochester, Squaw Valley, Nashville, Miami Beach, Savannah, Pensacola, Ann Arbor, Grand Teton, Washington, Albuquerque, Greensboro, Tulsa, Tampa, Scottsdale, Mountain View, Fremont, Beaver Creek, Illinois, Yosemite, Monterey, Plano, Hollywood, Montgomery, Santa Ana, Estes Park, Maryland, Billings, Boise, Indiana, Charlotte, Memphis, Colorado, Minnesota, Santa Fe, Naples, Vail, Mesa, Amarillo, Rocky Mountains, West Virginia, Oklahoma, Connecticut, Houston, New Orleans, Buffalo, Springfield, Louisville, Fort Lauderdale, Akron, Garland, Alabama, Lake Tahoe, Chandler, Biloxi, Providence, Columbus Georgia, Cleveland, San Diego, Jackson Mississippi, Fargo, Kansas City, Boston, Juneau, Sanibel, San Bernardino, Ocean City, Panama City Beach, Thousand Oaks, Clearwater, Palm Desert, Washington D.C., Vermont, Big Bear Lake, California, Columbus, Richmond, Toledo, Destin, Georgia, Long Beach, Costa Mesa, Silicon Valley, New Jersey, Tallahassee, St. Augustine, Telluride, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Los Angeles, Hawaii, San Jose, Mississippi, Denver, Pennsylvania, Chesapeake, Oceanside, Myrtle Beach, Anaheim, etc.

How to Book a Hotel in South Dakota

In order to book an accommodation in South Dakota enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found South Dakota hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on South Dakota map to estimate the distance from the main South Dakota attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of South Dakota hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in South Dakota is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in South Dakota is waiting for you!

Hotels of South Dakota

A hotel in South Dakota is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in South Dakota hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in South Dakota are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some South Dakota hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most South Dakota hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in South Dakota have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in South Dakota
An upscale full service hotel facility in South Dakota that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury South Dakota hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in South Dakota
Full service South Dakota hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in South Dakota
Boutique hotels of South Dakota are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. South Dakota boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in South Dakota may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in South Dakota
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of South Dakota travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most South Dakota focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in South Dakota
Small to medium-sized South Dakota hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded South Dakota traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service South Dakota hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in South Dakota
A bed and breakfast in South Dakota is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, South Dakota bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical South Dakota B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in South Dakota
South Dakota hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many South Dakota hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in South Dakota
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized South Dakota hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in South Dakota lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in South Dakota
South Dakota timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in South Dakota often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of South Dakota on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in South Dakota
A South Dakota motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of South Dakota for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of South Dakota motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

Why HotelsCombined

HotelsCombined is the leading hotel metasearch engine founded in 2005, with headquarters in Sydney, Australia. It is widely recognized as the world's best hotel price comparison site and has won many of the most prestigious tourism industry awards. The site operates in over 40 languages, handles 120 different currencies and aggregates more than 2 million deals from hundreds of travel sites and hotel chains. The number of users counts more than 300,000 people a year with over $1,000,000,000 in estimated total cost of hotel reservations.

The main purpose of HotelsCombined hotel price comparison service is to help the travelers in finding a perfect accommodation option in South Dakota at the best price, eliminating the need to manually analyze hundreds of hotel booking sites and thousands of price offers. Through the partnership with the most popular hotel booking websites, online travel agencies and hotel chains, HotelsCombined allows its users to search for and compare the current rates on South Dakota hotels in a single search. It also provides an aggregated summary of hotel reviews and ratings from external sites.

The HotelsCombined's advanced technology allows to instantly find the available South Dakota hotels and process the offers of all leading travel websites, including,, and many others (,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, etc.). Due to the fast and easy-to-use search system you get the rates on available South Dakota hotels and book a preferable hotel on a website providing the lowest price.

All South Dakota Hotels & Hostels Online

HotelsCombined is necessary for those people interested in South Dakota, United States, HotelsCombined, Trivago, sale on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, discount coupons on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, best rates on South Dakota hotels, low prices on South Dakota hotels, best hotel in South Dakota, best South Dakota hotel, discounted South Dakota hotel booking, online South Dakota hotel reservation, South Dakota hotels comparison, hotel booking in South Dakota, luxury and cheap accomodation in South Dakota, South Dakota inns, South Dakota B&Bs, bed and breakfast in South Dakota, condo hotels and apartments in South Dakota, bargain South Dakota rentals, cheap South Dakota vacation rentals,South Dakota pensions and guest houses, cheap hotels and hostels of South Dakota, South Dakota motels, dormitories of South Dakota, dorms in South Dakota, South Dakota dormitory rooms, lowest rates on hotels in South Dakota, hotel prices comparison in South Dakota, travel to South Dakota, vacation in South Dakota, trip to South Dakota, trusted hotel reviews of South Dakota, sights and attractions of South Dakota, South Dakota guidebook, South Dakota guide, hotel booking in South Dakota, United States, tours to South Dakota, travel company in South Dakota, travel agency in South Dakota, excursions in South Dakota, tickets to South Dakota, airline tickets to South Dakota, South Dakota hotel booking, South Dakota hostels, dormitory of South Dakota, dorm in South Dakota, South Dakota dormitory, South Dakota airfares, South Dakota airline tickets, South Dakota tours, South Dakota travel, must-see places in South Dakota, South Dakota, South Dakota hotels Trivago, South Dakota Expedia, South Dakota Airbnb, South Dakota TripAdvisor, Hotels Combined South Dakota, HotelsCombined South Dakota, South Dakota hotels and hostels, US hotels and hostels, etc.

Many people are also interested in the Black Friday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, Cyber Monday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, New Year's and Christmas sale HotelsCombined, hotelscombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, HotelsCombined.en,, Южна Дакота, Південна Дакота, 사우스다코타 주, Gúúsù Dakota, Lulli-Dakota, Saut Dakota, Кечывалвел Дакота, داکوتای جنوبی, داکوٙتا ھارگە, Mauling Dakota, Dakota Południowa, Pėitū Dakota, Suid-Dakota, Dakota a Deas, Ñemby Dakota, တောင်ဒါကိုတာပြည်နယ်, Dakota Atsimo, Cənubi Dakota, Lõuna-Dakota, Kakoka Hema, Dakòta dal Sud, Dakota d'o Sud, दक्षिण ड्याकोटा, Dakota dël Sud, Өмнә Дакот, Соҕуруу Дакота, Sūþdakota, Урда Дакота, Dakota del Sud, รัฐเซาท์ดาโคตา, داكوتا الجنوبيه, Sør-Dakota, Кăнтăр Дакота, Sooth Dakota, جنوب داکوتا ایالتی, Južna Dakota, Suður-Dakóta, Janubiy Dakota, ობჟათე დაკოტა, Dakota del Süd, साउथ डेकोटा, داكوتا الجنوبية, ܣܐܘܬ ܕܐܟܘܬܐ, Sudal Dakota, ਦੱਖਣੀ ਡਕੋਟਾ, दक्षिण डकोटा, Dienviddakota, جنوبی داکوتا, साउथ डकोटा, ደቡብ ዳኮታ, Паўднёвая Дакота, and so on.

While others are looking for the Dakotay Veroci, Өмнөд Дакота, Dakota dû Sud, সাউথ ডাকোটা, De Dakota, Dél-Dakota, Sid-Dakota, Dakota du Sud, ساؤتھ ڈیکوٹا, Dacota Meridiana, 南達科他州, Güney Dakota, South Dakota suyu, דקוטה הדרומית, Jižní Dakota, Хуссар Дакотæ, 南达科他州, Dakota disid, სამხრეთი დაკოტა, Dakota Yiass, തെക്കൻ ഡക്കോട്ട, Јужна Дакота, Južná Dakota, Հարավային Դակոտա, ᑖᑰᑖ ᓂᒋᖅ, Dakota de Sud, Dakota Selatan, Süüd-Dakota, Üülen Dakota, Dakota del Sur, Dakotaya Başûr, தெற்கு டகோட்டா, داکۆتای باشوور, Штат Паўднёвая Дакота, サウスダコタ州, جنوبی ڈکوٹا, Sawt Dakótạ, Súd-Dakota, Кечӹвӓлвел Дакота, Dakota Theas, Къилба Дакота, Pietų Dakota, South Dakota, Jenubiy Dakota Shitati, Көньяк Дакота, Dakota Dheghow, Etelä-Dakota, Suda Dakoto, Южная Дакота, Dakota do Sul, Hego Dakota, Dacota do Sur, Νότια Ντακότα, Dakota do Sud, דרום דעקאטע, Sud-Dakota, Көньяҡ Дакота, Оңтүстік Дакота. A lot of people have already booked the hotels in South Dakota on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined. Act right now!

Travelling and vacation in South Dakota

This article is about the U.S. state of South Dakota. For other uses, see South Dakota (disambiguation).
State of South Dakota
Flag of South Dakota State seal of South Dakota
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Mount Rushmore State (official)
Motto(s): Under God the people rule
Map of the United States with South Dakota highlighted
Official language English
Demonym South Dakotan
Capital Pierre
Largest city Sioux Falls
Largest metro Sioux Falls metropolitan area
Area Ranked 17th
• Total 78,116 sq mi
(199,729 km)
• Width 210 miles (340 km)
• Length 380 miles (610 km)
• % water 1.7
• Latitude 42° 29′ N to 45° 56′ N
• Longitude 96° 26′ W to 104° 03′ W
Population Ranked 46th
• Total 865,454 (2016 est)
• Density 11.08/sq mi (4.33/km)
Ranked 46th
• Highest point Black Elk Peak
7,244 ft (2208 m)
• Mean 2,200 ft (670 m)
• Lowest point Big Stone Lake on Minnesota border
968 ft (295 m)
Before statehood Dakota Territory
Admission to Union November 2, 1889 (40th)
Governor Dennis Daugaard (R)
Lieutenant Governor Matt Michels (R)
Legislature South Dakota Legislature
• Upper house Senate
• Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators John Thune (R)
Mike Rounds (R)
U.S. House delegation Kristi Noem (R) (list)
Time zones
• eastern half Central: UTC -6/-5
• western half Mountain: UTC -7/-6
ISO 3166 US-SD
Abbreviations SD, S.D., S.Dak.
South Dakota state symbols
Flag of South Dakota.svg
The Flag of South Dakota
The Seal of South Dakota
Living insignia
Bird Ring-necked pheasant
Fish Walleye
Flower American Pasque flower
Grass Western wheat grass
Insect Western honeybee
Mammal Coyote
Tree Black Hills Spruce
Inanimate insignia
Beverage Milk
Dance Square dance
Fossil Triceratops
Gemstone Fairburn agate
Rock Rose quartz
Soil Houdek
Song "Hail, South Dakota!"
Other Kuchen (state dessert)
State route marker
South Dakota state route marker
State quarter
South Dakota quarter dollar coin
Released in 2006
Lists of United States state symbols

South Dakota (Listen/ˌsθ dəˈktə/; locally: [ˌsɑʊθ dəˈko̞ɾə]) is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a significant portion of the population and historically dominated the entire territory. South Dakota is the 17th most expansive, but the 5th least populous and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States. Once the southern portion of the Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889, simultaneously with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 171,000, is South Dakota's largest city.

South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota (on the north), Minnesota (to the east), Iowa (to the southeast), Nebraska (on the south), Wyoming (on the west), and Montana (to the northwest). The state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and socially distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, and fertile soil in this area is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, and the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending. Most of the Native American reservations are located in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are located in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is located there. South Dakota experiences a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west. The ecology of the state features species typical of a North American grassland biome.

Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 50s for agriculture and defense, and an industrialization of agriculture that has much reduced family farming.

While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is largely controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Historically dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has recently sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still strongly influence the culture of the state.

South Dakota: Geography

Main article: Geography of South Dakota
Terrain and primary geographic features of South Dakota.

South Dakota is situated in the north-central United States, and is considered a part of the Midwest by the U.S. Census Bureau; it is also part of the Great Plains region. The culture, economy, and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles (199,730 km), making the state the 17th largest in the Union.

Black Elk Peak, formerly named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft (2,207 m), is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft (294 m). South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota; to the south by Nebraska; to the east by Iowa and Minnesota; and to the west by Wyoming and Montana. The geographical center of the U.S. is 17 miles (27 km) west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is located between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi (1,648 km) from the nearest coastline.

The Missouri River is the largest and longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, James, Big Sioux, and White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes, mostly created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, and Lewis and Clark Lake.

South Dakota: Regions and geology

Much of western South Dakota is covered by grasslands and features buttes such as Thunder Butte, shown above.

South Dakota can generally be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, and the Black Hills. The Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic, social, and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred ground by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent that it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, and people often refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.

Badlands National Park

Eastern South Dakota generally features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, and the James River Valley. The Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further to the west, the James River Basin is mostly low, flat, highly eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south. The Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota. These are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, and are the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area.

The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota. West of the Missouri River the landscape becomes more arid and rugged, consisting of rolling hills, plains, ravines, and steep flat-topped hills called buttes. In the south, east of the Black Hills, lie the South Dakota Badlands. Erosion from the Black Hills, marine skeletons which fell to the bottom of a large shallow sea that once covered the area, and volcanic material all contribute to the geology of this area.

The Black Hills, a low mountain range, is located in southwestern South Dakota.

The Black Hills are in the southwestern part of South Dakota and extend into Wyoming. This range of low mountains covers 6,000 sq mi (16,000 km), with peaks that rise from 2,000 to 4,000 feet (600 to 1,200 m) above their bases. The Black Hills are the location of Black Elk Peak (7,242 ft or 2,207 m above sea level), the highest point in South Dakota and also the highest point in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Two billion-year-old Precambrian formations, the oldest rocks in the state, form the central core of the Black Hills. Formations from the Paleozoic Era form the outer ring of the Black Hills; these were created between roughly 540 and 250 million years ago. This area features rocks such as limestone, which were deposited here when the area formed the shoreline of an ancient inland sea.

South Dakota: Ecology

A pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park

Much of South Dakota (except for the Black Hills area) is dominated by a temperate grasslands biome. Although grasses and crops cover most of this region, deciduous trees such as cottonwoods, elms, and willows are common near rivers and in shelter belts. Mammals in this area include bison, deer, pronghorn, coyotes, and prairie dogs. The state bird, the ring-necked pheasant, has adapted well to the area after being introduced from China. Growing populations of bald eagles are spread throughout the state, especially near the Missouri River. Rivers and lakes of the grasslands support populations of walleye, carp, pike, bass, and other species. The Missouri River also contains the pre-historic paddlefish.

Due to a higher elevation and level of precipitation, the Black Hills ecology differs significantly from that of the plains. The mountains are thickly blanketed by various types of pines, including ponderosa and lodgepole pines, as well as spruces. Black Hills mammals include deer, elk (wapiti), bighorn sheep, mountain goats, pine marten, and mountain lions, while the streams and lakes contain several species of trout.

South Dakota: Climate

Köppen climate types in South Dakota

South Dakota has a continental climate with four distinct seasons, ranging from cold, dry winters to hot and semi-humid summers. During the summers, the average high temperature throughout the state is often close to 90 °F (32 °C), although it cools to near 60 °F (16 °C) at night. It is not unusual for South Dakota to have severe hot, dry spells in the summer with the temperature climbing above 100 °F (38 °C) several times a year. Winters are cold with January high temperatures averaging below freezing and low temperatures averaging below 10 °F (−12 °C) in most of the state. The highest recorded temperature is 120 °F (49 °C) at Usta on July 15, 2006 and the lowest recorded temperature is −58 °F (−50 °C) at McIntosh on February 17, 1936.

Average annual precipitation in South Dakota ranges from semi-arid conditions in the northwestern part of the state (around 15 inches or 380 mm) to semi-humid around the southeast portion of the state (around 25 inches or 640 mm), although a small area centered on Lead in the Black Hills has the highest precipitation at nearly 30 inches (760 mm) per year.

South Dakota summers bring frequent, sometimes severe, thunderstorms with high winds, thunder, and hail. The eastern part of the state is often considered part of Tornado Alley, and South Dakota experiences an average of 30 tornadoes each year. Severe weather in the form of blizzards and ice storms occurs often during winter.

Monthly average high and low temperatures for various South Dakota Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Aberdeen 21/1 29/9 40/21 57/33 70/46 79/55 85/60 84/57 73/47 59/34 39/20 26/6
Huron 25/4 31/11 43/22 58/34 70/46 80/55 86/61 84/59 75/47 61/35 41/21 29/8
Rapid City 34/10 38/14 45/21 55/31 65/42 75/52 83/58 82/55 73/45 61/34 44/21 37/13
Sioux Falls 25/3 32/10 44/21 59/33 71/45 81/55 86/60 83/58 74/48 61/35 42/21 29/8

South Dakota: National parks and monuments

Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills.

South Dakota contains several sites that are administered by the National Park Service. Two national parks have been established in South Dakota, both located in the southwestern part of the state. Wind Cave National Park, established in 1903 in the Black Hills, contains an extensive cave network as well as a large herd of bison. Badlands National Park was created in 1978. The park features an eroded, brightly colored landscape surrounded by semi-arid grasslands. Mount Rushmore National Memorial in the Black Hills was established in 1925. The sculpture of four U.S. Presidents was carved into the mountainside by sculptor Gutzon Borglum.

Other areas managed by the National Park Service include Jewel Cave National Monument near Custer, the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, the Minuteman Missile National Historic Site, which features a decommissioned nuclear missile silo and a separate missile control area located several miles away, and the Missouri National Recreational River. The Crazy Horse Memorial is a large mountainside sculpture near Mt. Rushmore that is being constructed with private funds. The Mammoth Site near Hot Springs is another privately owned attraction in the Black Hills. A working paleontological dig, the site contains one of the largest concentrations of mammoth remains in the world.

South Dakota: History

Main article: History of South Dakota
See also: Timeline of South Dakota

Humans have lived in what is today South Dakota for several thousand years, at least. The first inhabitants were Paleoindian hunter-gatherers, and disappeared from the area around 5000 BC. Between 500 AD and 800 AD, a semi-nomadic people known as the Mound Builders lived in central and eastern South Dakota. In the 14th century, the Crow Creek Massacre occurred, in which several hundred men, women, and children were killed near the Missouri River.

By 1500, the Arikara (or Ree) had settled in much of the Missouri River valley. European contact with the area began in 1743, when the LaVérendrye brothers explored the region. The LaVérendrye group buried a plate near the site of modern-day Pierre, claiming the region for France as part of greater Louisiana. in 1762 the entire region became part of the Spanish Louisiana until 1802. By the early 19th century, the Sioux had largely replaced the Arikara as the dominant group in the area.

In 1803, the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory, an area that included most of South Dakota, from Napoleon Bonaparte, and President Thomas Jefferson organized a group commonly referred to as the "Lewis and Clark Expedition" to explore the newly acquired region. In 1817, an American fur trading post was set up at present-day Fort Pierre, beginning continuous American settlement of the area. In 1855, the U.S. Army bought Fort Pierre but abandoned it in 1857 in favor of Fort Randall to the south. Settlement by Americans and Europeans was by this time increasing rapidly, and in 1858 the Yankton Sioux signed the 1858 Treaty, ceding most of present-day eastern South Dakota to the United States.

Deadwood, like many other Black Hills towns, was founded after the discovery of gold.

Land speculators founded two of eastern South Dakota's largest present-day cities: Sioux Falls in 1856 and Yankton in 1859. In 1861, the Dakota Territory was established by the United States government (this initially included North Dakota, South Dakota, and parts of Montana and Wyoming). Settlement of the area, mostly by people from the eastern United States as well as western and northern Europe, increased rapidly, especially after the completion of an eastern railway link to Yankton in 1873.

In 1874, gold was discovered in the Black Hills during a military expedition led by George A. Custer and miners and explorers began illegally entering land promised to the Lakota. Custer's expedition took place despite the fact that the US had granted the entire western half of present-day South Dakota (West River) to the Sioux in 1868 by the Treaty of Laramie as part of the Great Sioux Reservation. The Sioux declined to grant mining rights or land in the Black Hills, and war broke out after the U.S. failed to stop white miners and settlers from entering the region. Eventually the US defeated the Sioux and broke up the Great Sioux Reservation into five reservations, settling the Lakota in those areas. (In 1980, the US Supreme Court and Congress ordered payment to the Lakota for the illegal seizure of the Black Hills. The case remains unsettled, as the Lakota refuse to accept the money and instead insist on the return of the land.)

A harvest in South Dakota in 1898

A growing population and political concerns (admitting two states meant having four new senators for the Republican Party) caused Dakota Territory to be divided in half and President Benjamin Harrison signed proclamations formally admitting both South Dakota and North Dakota to the union on November 2, 1889. Harrison had the papers shuffled to obscure which one was signed first and the order went unrecorded.

On December 29, 1890, the Wounded Knee Massacre occurred on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. Commonly cited as the last major armed conflict between the United States and the Lakota Sioux Nation, the massacre resulted in the deaths of at least 146 Sioux, many of them women and children. 31 U.S. soldiers were also killed in the conflict.

A South Dakota farm during the Dust Bowl, 1936

During the 1930s, several economic and climatic conditions combined with disastrous results for South Dakota. A lack of rainfall, extremely high temperatures and inappropriate cultivation techniques produced what was known as the Dust Bowl in South Dakota and several other plains states. Fertile topsoil was blown away in massive dust storms, and several harvests were completely ruined. The experiences of the Dust Bowl, coupled with local bank foreclosures and the general economic effects of the Great Depression, resulted in many South Dakotans leaving the state. The population of South Dakota declined by more than 7% between 1930 and 1940.

Economic stability returned with the U.S. entry into World War II in 1941, when demand for the state's agricultural and industrial products grew as the nation mobilized for war. In 1944, the Pick–Sloan Plan was passed as part of the Flood Control Act of 1944 by the U.S. Congress, resulting in the construction of six large dams on the Missouri River, four of which are at least partially located in South Dakota. Flood control, hydroelectricity, and recreational opportunities such as boating and fishing are provided by the dams and their reservoirs.

In recent decades, South Dakota has been transformed from a state dominated by agriculture to one with a more diversified economy. The tourism industry has grown considerably since the completion of the interstate system in the 1960s, with the Black Hills becoming more important as a destination. The financial service industry began to grow in the state as well, with Citibank moving its credit card operations from New York to Sioux Falls in 1981, a move that has since been followed by several other financial companies. South Dakota was the first state to eliminate caps on interest rates.

In 2007, the site of the recently closed Homestake gold mine near Lead was chosen as the location of a new underground research facility, the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. Despite a growing state population and recent economic development, many rural areas have been struggling over the past 50 years with locally declining populations and the emigration of educated young adults to larger South Dakota cities, such as Rapid City or Sioux Falls, or to other states. Mechanization and consolidation of agriculture has contributed greatly to the declining number of smaller family farms and the resulting economic and demographic challenges facing rural towns.

South Dakota: Demographics

Main article: Demographics of South Dakota
South Dakota population density map
Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 4,837 -
1870 11,776 143.5%
1880 98,268 734.5%
1890 348,600 254.7%
1900 401,570 15.2%
1910 583,888 45.4%
1920 636,547 9.0%
1930 692,849 8.8%
1940 642,961 −7.2%
1950 652,740 1.5%
1960 680,514 4.3%
1970 665,507 −2.2%
1980 690,768 3.8%
1990 696,004 0.8%
2000 754,844 8.5%
2010 814,180 7.9%
Est. 2016 865,454 6.3%
Source: 1910–2010
2016 Estimate

South Dakota: Population

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of South Dakota was 858,469 on July 1, 2015, a 5.44% increase since the 2010 United States Census.

As of 2015, South Dakota had an estimated population of 858,469, an increase of 44,289, or 5.44%, since the year 2010. 7.3% of South Dakota's population was reported as under 5, 24% under 18, and 14.3% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.2% of the population. As of the 2000 census, South Dakota ranked fifth-lowest in the nation in both population and population density.

Of the people residing in South Dakota, 65.7% were born in South Dakota, 31.4% were born in another US state, 0.6% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 2.3% were born in another country.

The center of population of South Dakota is located in Buffalo County, in the unincorporated county seat of Gann Valley.

South Dakota: Race and ethnicity

According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of the population was:

  • 84.7% White (83.8% non-Hispanic white)
  • 8.8% American Indian and Alaska Native
  • 1.2% African American or black
  • 0.9% Asian American
  • 0.1% from some other race
  • 1.8% of two or more races

Ethnically, 2.7% of South Dakota's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race).

South Dakota Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990 2000 2010
White 91.6% 88.7% 85.7%
Native 7.3% 8.2% 8.8%
African American 0.5% 0.6% 1.3%
Asian 0.4% 0.6% 0.9%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
- - 0.1%
Other race 0.2% 0.5% 0.9%
Two or more races - 1.4% 2.1%

As of 2011, 25.4% of South Dakota's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.

As of 2000, the five largest ancestry groups in South Dakota are German (40.7%), Norwegian (15.3%), Irish (10.4%), Native American (8.3%), and English (7.1%).

German Americans are the largest ancestry group in most parts of the state, especially in East River (east of the Missouri River), although there are also large Scandinavian-descended populations in some counties. South Dakota has the nation's largest population of Hutterites, a communal Anabaptist group which emigrated in 1874 from Europe, primarily from German-speaking areas.

South Dakota has seven large Indian reservations (shown in pink).

American Indians, largely Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota (Sioux), are predominant in several counties and comprise 20 per cent of the population in West River. The seven large Indian reservations in the state occupy an area much diminished from their former Great Sioux Reservation of West River, which the US government had once allocated to the Sioux tribes. South Dakota has the third-highest proportion of Native Americans of any state, behind Alaska and New Mexico.

Five of the state's counties are wholly within the boundaries of sovereign Indian reservations. Because of the limitations of climate and land, and isolation from urban areas with more employment opportunities, living standards on many South Dakota reservations are often far below the national average; Ziebach County ranked as the poorest county in the nation in 2009. The unemployment rate in Fort Thompson, on the Crow Creek Reservation, is 70%, and 21% of households lack plumbing or basic kitchen appliances. A 1995 study by the U.S. Census Bureau found that 58% of homes on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation did not have a telephone. The reservations' isolation also inhibits their ability to generate revenue from gaming casinos, an avenue that has proved profitable for many tribes closer to urban centers.

South Dakota: Languages

In 1995 the legislature passed a law to make English the "common language" of the state. As of the 2000 census, 1.90% of the population aged 5 or older speak German at home, while 1.51% speak Lakota or Dakota, and 1.43% Spanish. As of 2010, 93.46% (692,504) of South Dakota residents aged 5 and older spoke English as their primary language. 6.54% of the population spoke a language other than English. 2.06% (15,292) of the population spoke Spanish, 1.39% (10,282) spoke Dakota, and 1.37% (10,140) spoke German. Other languages spoken included Vietnamese (0.16%), Chinese (0.12%), and Russian (0.10%).

South Dakota: Growth and rural flight

Over the last several decades, the population in many rural areas has declined in South Dakota, in common with other Great Plains states. The change has been characterized as "rural flight" as family farming has declined. Young people have moved to cities for other employment. This trend has continued in recent years, with 30 of South Dakota's counties losing population between the 1990 and the 2000 census. During that time, nine counties had a population loss of greater than 10%, with Harding County, in the northwest corner of the state, losing nearly 19% of its population. Low birth rates and a lack of younger immigration has caused the median age of many of these counties to increase. In 24 counties, at least 20% of the population is over the age of 65, compared with a national rate of 12.8%.

The effect of rural flight has not been spread evenly through South Dakota, however. Although most rural counties and small towns have lost population, the Sioux Falls area, the larger counties along Interstate 29, the Black Hills, and many Indian reservations have all gained population. As the reservations have exercised more sovereignty, some Sioux have returned to them from urban areas. Lincoln County near Sioux Falls was the seventh fastest-growing county (by percentage) in the United States in 2010. The growth in these areas has compensated for losses in the rest of the state. South Dakota's total population continues to increase steadily, albeit at a slower rate than the national average.

South Dakota: Religion

East Side Lutheran Church in Sioux Falls

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 148,883 members; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) with 112,649 members; and the United Methodist Church (UMC) with 36,020 members. (Both the ELCA and UMC are specific denominations within the broader terms 'Lutheran' and 'Methodist', respectively.) The results of a 2001 survey, in which South Dakotans were asked to identify their religion, include:

  • Christian (86%)
    • Protestant (54%)
      • Lutheran (27%)
      • Methodist (13%)
      • Baptist (4%)
      • Presbyterian (4%)
      • Other Protestant (6%)
    • Roman Catholic (25%)
    • Non-denominational Christian (7%)
  • Not religious (8%)
  • Other religions (3%)
  • Refused to answer (2%)

South Dakota: Economy

See also: South Dakota locations by per capita income
A B-1B Lancer lifts off from Ellsworth Air Force Base, one of South Dakota's largest employers.

The current-dollar gross state product of South Dakota was US$39.8 billion as of 2010, the fifth smallest total state output in the US. The per capita personal income was $38,865 in 2010, ranked 25th in the U.S., and 12.5% of the population was below the poverty line in 2008. CNBC's list of "Top States for Business for 2010" has recognized South Dakota as the seventh best state in the nation. In July 2011, the state's unemployment rate was 4.7%.

The service industry is the largest economic contributor in South Dakota. This sector includes the retail, finance, and health care industries. Citibank, which was the largest bank holding company in the United States at one time, established national banking operations in South Dakota in 1981 to take advantage of favorable banking regulations. Government spending is another important segment of the state's economy, providing over ten percent of the gross state product. Ellsworth Air Force Base, near Rapid City, is the second-largest single employer in the state.

Ethanol plant in Turner County

Agriculture has historically been a key component of the South Dakota economy. Although other industries have expanded rapidly in recent decades, agricultural production is still very important to the state's economy, especially in rural areas. The five most valuable agricultural products in South Dakota are cattle, corn (maize), soybeans, wheat, and hogs. Agriculture-related industries such as meat packing and ethanol production also have a considerable economic impact on the state. South Dakota is the sixth leading ethanol-producing state in the nation.

Another important sector in South Dakota's economy is tourism. Many travel to view the attractions of the state, particularly those in the Black Hills region, such as historic Deadwood, Mount Rushmore, and the nearby state and national parks. One of the largest tourist events in the state is the annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally. The five-day event drew over 460,000 attendees in 2013; significant considering the state has a total population of 850,000. In 2006, tourism provided an estimated 33,000 jobs in the state and contributed over two billion dollars to the economy of South Dakota.

South Dakota: Transportation

Main article: Transportation in South Dakota
See also: List of South Dakota railroads and List of South Dakota numbered highways
Beaver Creek Bridge in Wind Cave National Park.

South Dakota has 83,609 miles (134,556 km) of highways, roads, and streets, along with 679 miles (1,093 km) of interstate highways. Two major interstates pass through South Dakota: Interstate 90, which runs east and west through the southern half of the state; and Interstate 29, running north and south in the eastern portion of the state. The I-29 corridor features generally higher rates of population and economic growth than areas in eastern South Dakota that are further from the interstate.

Also located in the state are the shorter Interstates 190, a spur into central Rapid City, and 229, a loop around southern and eastern Sioux Falls. Several major U.S. highways pass through the state. U.S. routes 12, 14, 16, 18 and 212 travel east and west, while U.S. routes 81, 83, 85 and 281 run north and south. South Dakota and Montana are the only states sharing a land border which is not traversed by a paved road.

South Dakota contains two National Scenic Byways. The Peter Norbeck National Scenic Byway is located in the Black Hills, while the Native American Scenic Byway runs along the Missouri River in the north-central part of the state. Other scenic byways include the Badlands Loop Scenic Byway, the Spearfish Canyon Scenic Byway, and the Wildlife Loop Road Scenic Byway.

Railroads have played an important role in South Dakota transportation since the mid-19th century. Some 4,420 miles (7,110 km) of railroad track were built in South Dakota during the late 19th century and early 20th century, but only 1,839 miles (2,960 km) are active. BNSF Railway is currently the largest railroad in South Dakota; the Rapid City, Pierre and Eastern Railroad (formerly the Dakota, Minnesota and Eastern) is the state's other major carrier. Rail transportation in the state is confined only to freight, however, as South Dakota is one of only states lacking Amtrak service.

South Dakota's largest commercial airports in terms of passenger traffic are the Sioux Falls Regional Airport and Rapid City Regional Airport. Delta Air Lines, Frontier Airlines, and Allegiant Airlines, as well as commuter airlines using the brand affiliation with major airlines serve the two largest airports. Several other cities in the state also have commercial air service: Aberdeen Regional Airport, Huron Regional Airport, Pierre Regional Airport, and Watertown Regional Airport, some of which is subsidized by the Essential Air Service program.

South Dakota: Government and politics

Main article: Government of South Dakota
The South Dakota State Capitol in Pierre.

South Dakota: Government

See also: Governor of South Dakota, South Dakota Legislature, and South Dakota Supreme Court

Like that of other U.S. states, the structure of the government of South Dakota follows the same separation of powers as the federal government, with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The structure of the state government is laid out in the Constitution of South Dakota, the highest law in the state. The constitution may be amended either by a majority vote of both houses of the legislature, or by voter initiative.

The Governor of South Dakota occupies the executive branch of the state government. The current governor is Dennis Daugaard, a Republican from Garretson. The state constitution gives the governor the power to either sign into law or veto bills passed by the state legislature, to serve as commander-in-chief of the South Dakota National Guard, to appoint a cabinet, and to commute criminal sentences or to pardon those convicted of crimes. The governor serves for a four-year term, and may not serve more than two consecutive terms.

The state legislature is made up of two bodies, the Senate, which has 35 members, and the House of Representatives, with 70 members. South Dakota is divided into 35 legislative districts, with voters electing two representatives and one senator per district. The legislature meets for an annual session which begins on the second Tuesday in January and lasts for 30 days; it also meets if a special session is called by the governor.

The judicial branch is made up of several levels. The state supreme court, with four justices and a chief justice, is the highest court in the state. Below the supreme court are the circuit courts; 41 circuit judges serve in seven judicial circuits in the state. Below the circuit courts are the magistrate courts, which deal with more minor criminal and civil actions.

South Dakota: State taxes

As of 2005, South Dakota has the lowest per capita total state tax rate in the United States. The state does not levy personal or corporate income taxes, inheritance taxes, or taxes on intangible personal property. The state sales tax rate is 4.5 percent. Various localities have local levies so that in some areas the rate is 6 percent. The state sales tax does not apply to sales to Indians on Indian reservations, but many reservations have a compact with the state. Businesses on the reservation collect the tax and the state refunds to the Indian Tribes the percentage of sales tax collections relating to the ratio of Indian population to total population in the county or area affected. Ad valorem property taxes are local taxes and are a large source of funding for school systems, counties, municipalities and other local government units. The South Dakota Special Tax Division regulates some taxes including cigarette and alcohol-related taxes.

South Dakota: Federal representation

See also: List of United States Senators from South Dakota and List of United States Representatives from South Dakota

South Dakota is represented at the federal level by Senator John Thune, Senator Mike Rounds, and Representative Kristi Noem. All three are Republicans. South Dakota is one of seven states with only one seat in the US House of Representatives. In United States presidential elections, South Dakota is allotted three of 538 votes in the Electoral College. As in all other states except Maine and neighboring Nebraska, South Dakota's electoral votes are granted in a winner-take-all system.

South Dakota: Politics

See also: Political party strength in South Dakota

South Dakota politics are generally dominated by the Republican Party. Since statehood, Republicans have carried the state's electoral votes in all but five presidential elections: 1896, 1912 (By Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive Party), 1932, 1936 and 1964. Only Alaska has been carried fewer times by Democrat presidential candidates. Not even George McGovern, the Democratic nominee in 1972 as well as a native South Dakotan, was able to carry the state. Additionally, a Democrat has not won the governorship since 1974. As of 2016, Republicans hold a 15% voter registration advantage over Democrats and hold large majorities in both the state House of Representatives and Senate.

Despite the state's general Republican and conservative leanings, Democrats have found success in various statewide elections, most notably in those involving South Dakota's congressional representatives in Washington. American Indians have been becoming more active in state and county electoral politics. In the 2002 election, American Indian voting carried Tim Johnson as the Democratic candidate by a margin of 532 votes. Until his electoral defeat in 2004, Senator Tom Daschle was the Senate minority leader (and briefly its majority leader during Democratic control of the Senate in 2001–02).

In 2016, South Dakota voted for Republican nominee Donald Trump over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton by a margin of 30%, incumbent Republican Senator John Thune won a third term against Democrat Jay Williams, and incumbent Republican congresswoman Kristi Noem defeated Democrat Paula Hawks for South Dakota's at-large seat in the US House.

Contemporary political issues in South Dakota include the costs and benefits of the state lottery, South Dakota's relatively low rankings in education spending (particularly teacher pay), and recent legislative and electoral attempts to ban abortion in the state.

South Dakota: Culture

Black Elk with his family around 1910
Main article: Culture of South Dakota
See also: List of people from South Dakota

South Dakota's culture reflects the state's American Indian, rural, Western, and European roots. A number of annual events celebrating the state's ethnic and historical heritage take place around the state, such as Days of '76 in Deadwood, Czech Days in Tabor, and the annual St. Patrick's Day and Cinco de Mayo festivities in Sioux Falls. The various tribes hold many annual pow wows at their reservations throughout the state, to which non-Native Americans are sometimes invited. Custer State Park holds an annual Buffalo Roundup, in which volunteers on horseback gather the park's herd of around 1,500 bison.

Black Elk (Lakota) was a medicine man and heyokha, whose life spanned the transition to reservations. His accounts of the 19th-century Indian Wars and Ghost Dance movement, and his deep thoughts on personal visions and Native American religion, form the basis of the book Black Elk Speaks, first published in 1932. (Among several editions, a premier annotated edition was published in 2008.) Paul Goble, an award-winning children's book author and illustrator, has been based in the Black Hills since 1977.

Laura Ingalls Wilder, whose semi-autobiographical books are based on her experiences as a child and young adult on the frontier, is one of South Dakota's best-known writers. She drew from her life growing up on a homestead near De Smet as the basis for five of her novels: By the Shores of Silver Lake, The Long Winter, Little Town on the Prairie, These Happy Golden Years, and The First Four Years. These gained renewed popularity in the United States when Little House on the Prairie was adapted and produced as a television series in the . Wilder's daughter, Rose Wilder Lane, who became a well-known writer in her own right, was born near De Smet in 1886.

South Dakota has also produced several notable artists. Harvey Dunn grew up on a homestead near Manchester in the late 19th century. While Dunn worked most of his career as a commercial illustrator, his most famous works showed various scenes of frontier life; he completed these near the end of his career. Oscar Howe (Crow) was born on the Crow Creek Indian Reservation and won fame for his watercolor paintings. Howe was one of the first Native American painters to adopt techniques and style heavily influenced by the mid-20th century abstraction movement, rather than relying on traditional Native American styles. Terry Redlin, originally from Watertown, is an accomplished painter of rural and wildlife scenes. Many of Redlin's works are on display at the Redlin Art Center in Watertown.

South Dakota: Cities and towns

See also: List of cities in South Dakota and List of South Dakota counties
Sioux Falls, with a population of around 160,000, is the largest city in South Dakota.

Sioux Falls is the largest city in South Dakota, with a 2010 population of 153,888, and a metropolitan area population of 238,122. The city, founded in 1856, is located in the southeast corner of the state. Retail, finance, and healthcare have assumed greater importance in Sioux Falls, where the economy was originally centered on agri-business and quarrying.

Rapid City, with a 2010 population of 67,956, and a metropolitan area population of 124,766, is the second-largest city in the state. It is located on the eastern edge of the Black Hills, and was founded in 1876. Rapid City's economy is largely based on tourism and defense spending, because of the proximity of many tourist attractions in the Black Hills and Ellsworth Air Force Base.

The next eight largest cities in the state, in order of descending 2010 population, are Aberdeen (26,091), Brookings (22,056), Watertown (21,482), Mitchell (15,254), Yankton (14,454), Pierre (13,646), Huron (12,592), and Vermillion (10,571). Pierre is the state capital, and Brookings and Vermillion are the locations of the state's two largest universities (South Dakota State University and University of South Dakota, respectively). With a population of about 14,000, Pierre is the second smallest state capital in the United States. Of the ten largest cities in the state, only Rapid City is located west of the Missouri River.

South Dakota: Media

See also: List of newspapers in South Dakota, List of television stations in South Dakota, and List of radio stations in South Dakota

South Dakota's first newspaper, the Dakota Democrat, began publishing in Yankton in 1858. Today, the largest newspaper in the state is the Sioux Falls Argus Leader, with a Sunday circulation of 63,701 and a weekday circulation of 44,334. The Rapid City Journal, with a Sunday circulation of 32,638 and a weekday circulation of 27,827, is South Dakota's second largest newspaper. The next four largest newspapers in the state are the Aberdeen American News, the Watertown Public Opinion, the Huron Plainsman, and the Brookings Register. In 1981, Tim Giago founded the Lakota Times as a newspaper for the local American Indian community on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The newspaper, now published in New York and known as Indian Country Today, is currently available in every state in the country. The Sioux City Journal also covers parts of South Dakota.

There are currently nine television stations broadcasting in South Dakota; South Dakota Public Television broadcasts from a number of locations around the state, while the other stations broadcast from either Sioux Falls or Rapid City. The two largest television media markets in South Dakota are Sioux Falls-Mitchell, with a viewership of 246,020, and Rapid City, with a viewership of 91,070. The two markets rank as 114th and 177th largest in the United States, respectively. The first television station in the state, KELO-TV, began airing in Sioux Falls in 1953. Among KELO's early programs was Captain 11, an afternoon children's program. Captain 11 ran from 1955 until 1996, making it the longest continuously running children's television program in the nation.

A number of South Dakotans are famous for their work in the fields of television and publishing. Former NBC Nightly News anchor and author Tom Brokaw is from Webster and Yankton, USA Today founder Al Neuharth was from Eureka and Alpena, gameshow host Bob Barker spent much of his childhood in Mission, and entertainment news hosts Pat O'Brien and Mary Hart are both from Sioux Falls.

South Dakota: Education

The Coughlin Campanile, a landmark on the campus of South Dakota State University in Brookings
See also: List of colleges and universities in South Dakota and List of high schools in South Dakota

As of 2006, South Dakota has a total primary and secondary school enrollment of 136,872, with 120,278 of these students being educated in the public school system. There are 703 public schools in 168 school districts, giving South Dakota the highest number of schools per capita in the United States. The current high school graduation rate is 89.9%, and the average ACT score is 21.8, slightly above the national average of 21.1. 89.8% of the adult population has earned at least a high school diploma, and 25.8% has earned a bachelor's degree or higher. South Dakota's 2008 average public school teacher salary of $36,674, compared to a national average of $52,308, was the lowest in the nation. In 2007 South Dakota passed legislation modeled after Montana's Indian Education for All Act (1999), mandating education about Native American tribal history, culture, and heritage in all the schools, from pre-school through college, in an effort to increase knowledge and appreciation about Indian culture among all residents of the state, as well as to reinforce Indian students' understanding of their own cultures' contributions.

The South Dakota Board of Regents, whose members are appointed by the governor, controls the six public universities in the state. South Dakota State University (SDSU), in Brookings, is the largest university in the state, with an enrollment of 12,831. The University of South Dakota (USD), in Vermillion, is the state's oldest university, and has South Dakota's only law school and medical school. South Dakota also has several private universities, the largest of which is Augustana College in Sioux Falls.

South Dakota: Sports and recreation

South Dakota: Organized sports

Because of its low population, South Dakota does not host any major league professional sports franchises. The state does have a number of minor league and independent league teams, all of which play in either Sioux Falls or Rapid City. Sioux Falls is currently home to four teams: the Sioux Falls Canaries (baseball), the Sioux Falls Skyforce (basketball), the Sioux Falls Stampede (hockey), and the Sioux Falls Storm (arena football). The Canaries play in the American Association, and their home field is Sioux Falls Stadium. The Skyforce play in the NBA D-League, and are affiliated with the NBA's Miami Heat. They play at the Sanford Pentagon. The Stampede and Storm share the Denny Sanford Premier Center. The Stampede play in the USHL, and the Storm play in the IFL. Rapid City has a hockey team named the Rapid City Rush, who play in the ECHL. The Rush began their inaugural season in 2008 at the Rushmore Plaza Civic Center.

Universities in South Dakota host a variety of sports programs. For many years, South Dakota was one of the only states in the country without a NCAA Division I football or basketball team. However, several years ago SDSU decided to move their teams from Division II to Division I, a move that has since been followed by the University of South Dakota. Other universities in the state compete at the NCAA's Division II or III levels, or in the NAIA.

Famous South Dakota athletes include Billy Mills, Mike Miller, Mark Ellis, Becky Hammon, Brock Lesnar, Chad Greenway, and Adam Vinatieri. Mills is from the town of Pine Ridge and competed at the 1964 Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo, becoming the only American to win a gold medal in the 10,000-meter event. Miller, of Mitchell, is a two-time NBA champion who played college basketball at the University of Florida, leading them to the 2000 NCAA Championship game his sophomore year, and won the 2001 NBA rookie of the year award. Ellis, of Rapid City, played for the University of Florida and four MLB teams before retiring in 2015. Hammon, of Rapid City, played for the WNBA's New York Liberty and San Antonio Silver Stars before becoming an assistant coach for the NBA's San Antonio Spurs in 2014. Lesnar, of Webster, is a former heavy-weight champion in the UFC and WWE. Vinatieri is an NFL placekicker who grew up in Rapid City and attended SDSU.

South Dakota: Recreation

A tunnel along the George S. Mickelson Trail, a rail trail in the Black Hills.

Fishing and hunting are both popular outdoor activities in South Dakota. Fishing contributes over $224 million to South Dakota's economy, and hunting contributes over $303 million. In 2007, over 275,000 hunting licences and 175,000 fishing licences were sold in the state; around half of the hunting licences and over two-thirds of the fishing licences were purchased by South Dakotans. Popular species of game include pheasants, white-tailed deer, mule deer, and turkeys, as well as waterfowl such as Canada geese, snow geese, and mallards. Targets of anglers include walleye in the eastern glacial lakes and Missouri River reservoirs, Chinook salmon in Lake Oahe, and trout in the Black Hills.

Other sports, such as cycling and running, are also popular in the state. In 1991, the state opened the George S. Mickelson Trail, a 109-mile (175 km) rail trail in the Black Hills. Besides being used by cyclists, the trail is also the site of a portion of the annual Mount Rushmore marathon; the marathon's entire course is at an elevation of over 4,000 feet (1,200 m). Other events in the state include the Tour de Kota, a 478-mile (769 km), six-day cycling event that covers much of eastern and central South Dakota, and the annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally, which draws hundreds of thousands of participants from around the United States.

South Dakota: State symbols

Main article: List of South Dakota state symbols
Reverse side of U.S. quarter coin with a commemorative South Dakota design depicting Mt. Rushmore, a pheasant, wheat, and the year of statehood.

Some of South Dakota's official state symbols include:

South Dakota: See also

  • Outline of South Dakota – organized list of topics about
  • Index of South Dakota-related articles

South Dakota: References

  1. "South Dakota Codified Laws (1–27–20)". South Dakota State Legislature. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  2. "State Area Measurements (2010)". U.S. Census. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
  3. "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 26, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
  4. "Black Elk Peak". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  5. "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  6. Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  7. Hasselstrom, pp. 2–4.
  8. Census Regions and Divisions of the United States, U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  9. Johnson, Dirk. Gold Divides Dakotans as River Did The New York Times. October 9, 1988. (accessed February 14, 2008)
  10. Garcia-Castellanos, D.; U. Lombardo (2007). "Poles of Inaccessibility: A Calculation Algorithm for the Remotest Places on Earth" (PDF). Scottish Geographical Journal. 123 (3): 227–233. doi:10.1080/14702540801897809.
  11. Thompson (ed.), pp. 17-18.
  12. Thompson (ed.), p. 14.
  13. Schell, pp. 4–6.
  14. "The Geology of South Dakota". Northern State University. Retrieved August 29, 2008.
  15. "Pleistocene Deposits". South Dakota Department of Environment & Natural Resources. Archived from the original on January 16, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
  16. Schell, p. 6.
  17. "Mesozoic Formations". South Dakota Department of Environment & Natural Resources. Archived from the original on February 13, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
  18. "Tertiary Formations". South Dakota Department of Environment & Natural Resources. Archived from the original on September 25, 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
  19. "Precambrian Formations". South Dakota Department of Environment & Natural Resources. Archived from the original on January 16, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
  20. "Paleozoic Formations". South Dakota Department of Environment & Natural Resources. Archived from the original on January 16, 2008. Retrieved November 28, 2008.
  21. "A Short Introduction to Terrestrial Biomes". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved September 22, 2007.
  22. "South Dakota Flora". Northern State University. Retrieved September 22, 2007.
  23. "South Dakota Fauna". Northern State University. Retrieved September 22, 2007.
  24. "Ring-Necked Pheasant". Northern State University. Retrieved September 22, 2007.
  25. Hetland, Cara. "South Dakota bald eagles make a comeback" Minnesota Public Radio. February 8, 2007. (accessed September 22, 2007).
  26. "Paddlefish". Northern State University. Retrieved September 22, 2007.
  27. "South Dakota's Forest Resources." Piva, R.; Haugan, D.; Josten, G.; Brand, G. (U.S. Department of Interior. Forest Service Resource Bulletin. 2007)
  28. Thompson (ed.), p. 31.
  29. "Deer". South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
  30. "Fishing". Black Hills National Forest. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  31. "Climate of South Dakota" (PDF). National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved November 26, 2008.
  32. "Each state's high temperature record". USA Today. November 1, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
  33. "Each state's low temperature record". USA Today. February 10, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
  34. "Precipitation Normals (1971–2000)". South Dakota State University. Retrieved November 26, 2008.
  35. "Tornado Alley". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  36. "Annual Average Number of Tornadoes, 1953–2004". National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved June 25, 2009.
  37. "Monthly Averages for Aberdeen, SD". Retrieved 2008-08-08.
  38. "Monthly Averages for Huron, SD". Retrieved 2008-08-08.
  39. "Monthly Averages for Rapid City, SD". Retrieved 2008-08-08.
  40. "Monthly Averages for Sioux Falls, SD". Retrieved 2008-08-08.
  41. Nettinga, Curt. Saving the bison may have saved Wind Cave Park. [1] Rapid City Journal. August 13, 2013. (accessed January 29, 2016)
  42. "Frequently Asked Questions (Badlands National Park)". National Park Service. Retrieved August 27, 2007.
  43. "Badlands". National Park Service. Retrieved August 27, 2007.
  44. "Student Guide" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  45. "South Dakota". National Park Service. Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  46. Hetland, Cara. Crazy Horse Memorial turns 60 this year Minnesota Public Radio. June 8, 2008. (accessed February 7, 2009).
  48. Schell, p. 15.
  49. Deloria and Neal (eds.), p. 161.
  50. Schell, pp. 16–18.
  51. Schell, pp. 28–29,
  52. Louisiana Purchase | United States history |
  53. Spanish Colonial Louisiana | Entries | KnowLA, Encyclopedia of Louisiana
  54. Schell, pp. 18–21.
  55. Thompson (ed.), pp. 56–57.
  56. "Chronology of South Dakota History". South Dakota Historical Society. Archived from the original on September 1, 2007. Retrieved September 3, 2007.
  57. Thompson (ed.), pp. 69–71.
  58. Schell, pp. 72–73.
  59. Schell, p. 72.
  60. "Dakota Territory". State Historical Society of North Dakota. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  61. Schell, pp 168–170.
  62. Schell, p. 113.
  63. Schell, p. 129.
  64. Schell, pp. 140–144.
  65. Thompson (ed.), p. 90.
  66. Schell, p. 129; pp. 133-39.
  67. Thompson (ed.), p. 529.
  68. Schell, p. 222.
  69. Thompson (ed.), pp. 115–116.
  70. Heather Cox Richardson (25 November 2013). Wounded Knee: Party Politics and the Road to an American Massacre. Basic Books. p. 101. ISBN 9780465025114. "On February 22, 1889, outgoing President Cleveland signed an omnibus bill that divided the Territory of Dakota in half. The bill also enable the people in the new Territories of North Dakota and South Dakota, as well as the older territories of Montana and Washington, to write state constitutions and elect state governments. The four new states would be admitted into the Union in nine months. This plan cut Democratic New Mexico out of statehood, and split Republican Dakota Territory into two new Republican states. Rather than two new Republican states and two new Democratic states that Congress had considered the previous year, the omnibus bill created three new Republican states and one new Democratic state that Republicans thought they would capture. In their eagerness to admit both Dakotas, Republican congressmen also ignored the uncomfortable fact that much of the land in the anticipated state of South Dakota belonged to the Sioux
  71. Schell, pp. 304–305.
  72. "Drought in the Dust Bowl Years". National Drought Mitigation Center. Archived from the original on March 29, 2007. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
  73. "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  74. Schell, pp. 317–320.
  75. Schell, pp. 323–325.
  76. Hetland, Cara. Sioux Falls 25 years after Citibank's arrival. Minnesota Public Radio. February 24, 2006. (accessed March 23, 2007)
  77. "Homestake Strikes Gold Again". South Dakota Science and Technology Authority. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  78. "Sweeping out the Plains". Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
  79. Thompson (ed.), pp. 542–549.
  80. Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". Retrieved December 24, 2012.
  81. "State & County QuickFacts (South Dakota)". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 22, 2008.
  82. American FactFinder - Results
  83. "Population and Population Centers by State – 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 18, 2007.
  84. Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States
  85. Population of South Dakota: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts
  86. 2010 Census Data
  87. Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer.
  88. "Quick Tables". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 29, 2008.
  89. "Color them plain but successful". The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  90. "States Ranked by American Indian and Alaska Native Population, July 1, 1999". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  91. "Press Releases – Uniquely South Dakota". South Dakota Department of Tourism. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved August 22, 2008.
  92. Garrigan, Mary. "Ziebach County still poorest in America" [2] The Rapid City Journal, 10 December 2010. (accessed May 20, 2011)
  93. Hetland, Cara. "South Dakota has nation's poorest county", Minnesota Public Radio. October 1, 2002. (accessed December 19, 2008)
  94. "Transportation and Tourism Development at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
  95. "Most Spoken Languages in South Dakota". Retrieved August 18, 2007.
  96. "Most Spoken Languages in South Dakota In 2010". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 2013-12-14.
  97. O'Driscoll, Patrick. "Sioux Falls powers South Dakota growth", USA Today, March 12, 2001. (accessed December 16, 2008)
  98. "South Dakota state and county demographic profiles". South Dakota State University. Archived from the original on January 6, 2009. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
  99. "Fastest Growing U.S. Counties". CNN. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
  100. "The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report". Retrieved December 12, 2013.
  101. "American Religious Identification Survey". Exhibit 15. The Graduate Center, City University of New York. Archived from the original on March 20, 2007. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
  102. "Table 3. Current-Dollar GDP by State, 2007–2010" (PDF). Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
  103. "SA1-3 Per capita income (dollars)". Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
  104. "Persons Below Poverty Level, 2008". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 25, 2011.
  105. America's Top States for Business 2010." CNBC Special Report (2010): 1. Web. May 9, 2011. <>.
  106. "Local Area Unemployment Statistics". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved May 9, 2011.
  107. Reha, Bob. South Dakota's Ellsworth AFB to stay open. [3] Minnesota Public Radio. August 26, 2005. (accessed September 8, 2007)
  108. "State Fact Sheets: South Dakota". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved June 25, 2009.
  109. "Ethanol Production By State". Nebraska Energy Office. Retrieved June 30, 2007.
  110. "Sturgis rally attendance expected to top last year". Argus Leader. August 4, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
  111. "South Dakota Tourism Statistics". South Dakota Department of Tourism. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
  112. "General Information/Key Facts". South Dakota Department of Transportation. Retrieved September 3, 2007.
  113. "South Dakota". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  114. Thompson (ed.) p. 489.
  115. "South Dakota State Rail Plan" (PDF). South Dakota Department of Transportation. p. 9. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  116. "Planning a Trip". Retrieved September 3, 2007.
  117. "What is Essential Air Service?" (PDF). United States Department of Transportation. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  118. "Article XXIII, Section 1, Constitution of South Dakota". South Dakota Legislature. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  119. "Article IV, Section 1, Constitution of South Dakota". South Dakota Legislature. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  120. "Article IV, Section 3, Constitution of South Dakota". South Dakota Legislature. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  121. "Article IV, Section 4, Constitution of South Dakota". South Dakota Legislature. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  122. "Article IV, Section 2, Constitution of South Dakota". South Dakota Legislature. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  123. "The South Dakota Legislature: An Overview" (PDF). State of South Dakota. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  124. "UJS Structure". South Dakota Unified Judicial System. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  125. "States Ranked by Total State Taxes and Per Capita Amount: 2005". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
  126. "South Dakota". The Tax Foundation. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
  127. "Inheritance/Estate Tax". South Dakota Department of Revenue & Regulation. Retrieved January 27, 2008.
  128. "2016 State Sales and Use Tax Increase". South Dakota Department of Revenue. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
  129. South Dakota Department of Revenue & Regulation. "Special Tax Information". Retrieved March 18, 2008.
  130. "Member Information". Office of the Clerk – United States House of Representatives. Retrieved April 5, 2009.
  131. "U.S. Electoral College – 2008 Presidential Election". Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  132. "U.S. Electoral College – Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  133. "McGovern, George Stanley, (1922–)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
  134. "Presidential General Election Graph Comparison – South Dakota". Retrieved October 5, 2007.
  135. "Voter Registration Tracking". South Dakota Secretary of State. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
  136. "Official Listing - South Dakota Representatives - 2016". State of South Dakota. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
  137. "Official Listing - South Dakota Senators - 2016". State of South Dakota. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
  138. Gwen Florio, "Indians Show Political Clout; Natives Throng Polls in 'White' S.D. County," The Denver Post, January 8, 2003, accessed June 8, 2011
  139. "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2002". Office of the Clerk – US House of Representatives. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
  140. "Daschle Loses S.D. Senate Seat to Thune". Fox News. November 3, 2004. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
  141. "Election Results:President, Congress, ballot measures". Argus Leader. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
  142. "About SD Lottery – History". South Dakota Lottery. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
  143. "Quality Counts 2000 – Who Should Teach?". Education Week. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  144. "South Dakota Abortion Ban Rejected". USA Today. November 8, 2006. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
  145. Rovner, Julie. South Dakotans Again Consider An Abortion Ban [4] National Public Radio. October 27, 2008. (accessed August 13, 2009).
  146. "Days of '76 Celebration to include Saturday evening performance". Tri-State Livestock News. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  147. Thompson (ed.), p. 133.
  148. "South Dakota Powwow Schedule". South Dakota Office of Tribal Government Relations. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  149. "Buffalo Roundup and Arts Festival". South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  150. Black Elk; John G. Neihardt (16 October 2008). Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux, the Premier Edition. SUNY Press. pp. 149–. ISBN 978-1-4384-2540-5.
  151. "Writings of Black Elk". American Writers: A Journey Through History. C-SPAN. July 10, 2001. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
  152. "Paul Goble". HarperCollins. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
  153. "Laura's History". Laura Ingalls Wilder Historic Home and Museum. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
  154. Hasselstrom, pp. 34–36.
  155. Hasselstrom, pp. 215–217.
  156. "Terry Redlin". South Dakota Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  157. "South Dakota". USA Today. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  158. "Metropolitan and micropolitan statistical area population and estimated components of change: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
  159. "History of Sioux Falls". City of Sioux Falls. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
  160. Thompson (ed.), p. 554.
  161. Hasselstrom, p. 331.
  162. Jensen, Jamie (December 1, 2012). Road Trip USA: Cross-Country Adventures on America's Two-Lane Highways. Avalon Travel Publishing. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-61238-315-6.
  163. "South Dakota" (PDF). National Atlas. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  164. Hasselstrom, p. 202.
  165. "US Newspaper – Search Results (South Dakota)". Audit Bureau of Circulation. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  166. "Tim Giago". South Dakota Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  167. "U.S. Television Stations in South Dakota". Global Computing. 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  168. "Nielson Media Research Local Universe Estimates (US)". Nielson Media. 2005–2006. Archived from the original on 17 May 2006. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  169. "Dave Dedrick: 1928–2010". KELO-TV. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
  170. "Tom Brokaw". South Dakota Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  171. "Allen Neuharth". South Dakota Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
  172. "Robert (Bob) Barker". South Dakota Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  173. "Pat O'Brien". South Dakota Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  174. "Mary Hart". South Dakota Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  175. "Student Demographics". South Dakota Department of Education. Archived from the original on November 8, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
  176. "School System By Type (2006–07)". South Dakota Department of Education. Archived from the original on November 8, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
  177. "Schools & Personnel". South Dakota Department of Education. Archived from the original on November 8, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
  178. "Number of Schools (most recent) (per capita)". Retrieved November 26, 2007.
  179. "South Dakota Graduation Rate". South Dakota Department of Education. Archived from the original on November 8, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
  180. "ACT Average Composite Score South Dakota vs. National". South Dakota Department of Education. Archived from the original on November 8, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
  181. "South Dakota QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-12-14.
  182. "Rankings and Estimates 2008". National Education Association. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
  183. Jawort, Adrian (April 12, 2012). "Montana Schools Try to Keep Indian Students Engaged by Teaching Indian Culture to All". Indian Country Today. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  184. "2012 School Enrollments (Page 1)" (PDF). South Dakota Board of Regents. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
  185. "Locations". South Dakota Board of Regents. Archived from the original on July 13, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
  186. "About Augustana – City of Sioux Falls". Augustana College. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  187. "Rapid City Rush Hockey". Rapid City Visitors & Convention Bureau. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  188. "SDSU approved for Division I membership". South Dakota State University. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  189. "South Dakota leaves North Central Conference for D-I". ESPN. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  190. "Billy Mills". South Dakota Hall of Fame. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
  191. "Oakland Athletics – Mark Ellis". ESPN. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  192. "Mark Ellis retires from baseball at age 37". NBC Sports. February 25, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
  193. "Profile – Becky Hammon". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  194. "Becky Hammon Hired to Spurs' Staff". ESPN. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
  195. "New exhibit details Rapid City native Adam Vinatieri's kick". Rapid City Journal. Retrieved March 19, 2016.
  196. "Economic Impact". South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
  197. "How many people hunt and fish in South Dakota?". South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  198. "Fishing in South Dakota (Northeastern)". South Dakota Office of Tourism. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  199. "Fishing in South Dakota (Central)". South Dakota Office of Tourism. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  200. "Fishing in South Dakota (Western)". South Dakota Office of Tourism. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  201. "George S. Mickelson Trail Guide" (PDF). South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
  202. "Course Info". Mount Rushmore Marathon. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  203. "Tour de Kota". Tour de Kota. Retrieved June 25, 2009.
  204. "South Dakota Facts". South Dakota Department of Tourism. Retrieved May 12, 2015.

South Dakota: Bibliography

  • Hasselstrom, Linda M. (1994). Roadside History of South Dakota. Missoula, MT: ISBN 0-87842-262-5.
  • Schell, Herbert S. (2004). History of South Dakota. Pierre, SD: ISBN 0-9715171-3-4.
  • Thompson, Harry F. (ed.) (2009). A New South Dakota History (Second ed.). Sioux Falls, SD: Center for Western Studies – ISBN 978-0-931170-00-3.

South Dakota: Further reading

  • Lauck, Jon K. Prairie Republic: The Political Culture of Dakota Territory, 1879–1889 (University of Oklahoma Press; 2010) 281 pages
  • Wishart, David J. ed. Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, University of Nebraska Press, 2004, Buy book ISBN 0-8032-4787-7. complete text online; 900 pages of scholarly articles
  • Karolevitz, Robert F.; Hunhoff, Bernie (1988). Uniquely South Dakota. Donning Company. ISBN 978-0-89865-730-2. From the publisher of South Dakota Magazine, with many photographs.
  • Official website
  • South Dakota Department of Tourism
  • South Dakota State Databases – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by South Dakota state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.
  • Energy Profile for South Dakota
  • USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of South Dakota
  • U.S. Census Bureau
  • South Dakota State Facts from USDA
  • South Dakota State Historical Society Press Books and journals published by the State Historical Society
  • Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). "South Dakota". Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P.F. Collier & Son Company.
  • South Dakota at DMOZ
  • Geographic data related to South Dakota at OpenStreetMap
  • Dakota Pathways – 20 episodes about the history of South Dakota
Preceded by
North Dakota
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on November 2, 1889 (40th)
Succeeded by

 / 44.5; -100

Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
South Dakota: Today's Super Sale
United States: Hotels Booking & Tickets Sale
Ann Arbor
Baton Rouge
Beaver Creek
Big Bear Lake
Chula Vista
Colorado Springs
Columbus Georgia
Corpus Christi
Costa Mesa
Dana Point
Daytona Beach
Death Valley
Des Moines
El Paso
Estes Park
Fort Lauderdale
Fort Myers
Fort Walton Beach
Fort Wayne
Fort Worth
Grand Canyon
Grand Rapids
Grand Teton
Great Smoky Mountains
Hot Springs
Huntington Beach
Jackson Mississippi
Jackson Wyoming
Jersey City
Kansas City
Key Largo
Key West
Laguna Beach
Lake Tahoe
Las Vegas
Little Rock
Long Beach
Los Angeles
Mammoth Lakes
Miami Beach
Moreno Valley
Mountain View
Myrtle Beach
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New Orleans
New York City
New York
Newport Beach
North Carolina
North Dakota
North Las Vegas
Ocean City
Oklahoma City
Palm Coast
Palm Desert
Palm Springs
Panama City Beach
Park City
Rhode Island
Rocky Mountains
Saint Paul
Salt Lake City
San Antonio
San Bernardino
San Diego
San Francisco
San Jose
Santa Ana
Santa Barbara
Santa Cruz
Santa Fe
Santa Monica
Silicon Valley
South Carolina
South Dakota
South Lake Tahoe
Squaw Valley
St. Augustine
St. Louis
St. Petersburg
Steamboat Springs
Sunny Isles Beach
Thousand Oaks
Virginia Beach
Washington D.C.
West Virginia
Hotels Booking & Tickets Sale
American Virgin Islands
Antigua and Barbuda
Bosnia and Herzegovina
British Virgin Islands
Burkina Faso
Cape Verde
Caribbean Netherlands
Cayman Islands
Costa Rica
Czech Republic
DR Congo
Dominican Republic
East Timor
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Falkland Islands
Faroe Islands
French Guiana
French Polynesia
Hong Kong
Isle of Man
Ivory Coast
New Zealand
North Korea
Northern Mariana Islands
Papua New Guinea
Puerto Rico
Saint Barthélemy
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Martin
Saint Vincent and Grenadines
San Marino
Saudi Arabia
Sierra Leone
Sint Maarten
Solomon Islands
South Africa
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Trinidad and Tobago
Turks and Caicos Islands
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Vatican City
Vacation: Popular Goods
Popular Goods
Trousers & shorts

Skin care
Hygiene products


Home appliances
Interior design
Hand tools
Gardening tools
Building materials

Culinary (Cooking)
Food preparation appliances
Cooking appliances
Cooking utensils
Cookware & bakeware

Children's clothing

Activity trackers
Audio electronics
Apple electronics
Computer hardware
Computer peripherals
Consumer electronics
Digital electronics
Laptops (notebooks)
Mobile phones
Musical instruments
Optical devices
Photography equipment
Rechargeable batteries
Satellite navigation
Tablet computers
Video game consoles
Wearable computers

Sports equipment
Sports clothing

Tourism by country
Tourist attractions
Low-cost airlines
Tourism companies
Travel websites
Cruise lines
Cruise ships
Travel gear
Camping equipment
Hiking equipment
Fishing equipment

Auto accessories
Automotive electronics
Auto parts
Auto chemicals

Windows software
Mac OS software
Linux software
Android software
IOS software
Access Control Software
Business Software
Communication Software
Computer Programming
Digital Typography Software
Educational Software
Entertainment Software
Genealogy Software
Government Software
Graphics Software
Health Software
Industrial Software
Knowledge Representation Software
Language Software
Legal Software
Library & Info Science Software
Multimedia Software
Music Software
Personal Info Managers
Religious Software
Scientific Software
Simulation Software
System Software
Transportation Software
Video games, PC games

Credit cards
Financial markets
Human resource management
Payment systems
Real estate
Universities & colleges


Dietary supplements
Medical equipment
Weight loss

All trademarks, service marks, trade names, product names, and logos appearing on the site are the property of their respective owners.
© 2011-2017 ▪ DesignHosting