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Hotels of Srinagar

A hotel in Srinagar is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Srinagar hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Srinagar are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Srinagar hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Srinagar hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Srinagar have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Srinagar
An upscale full service hotel facility in Srinagar that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Srinagar hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Srinagar
Full service Srinagar hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Srinagar
Boutique hotels of Srinagar are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Srinagar boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Srinagar may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Srinagar
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Srinagar travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Srinagar focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Srinagar
Small to medium-sized Srinagar hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Srinagar traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Srinagar hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Srinagar
A bed and breakfast in Srinagar is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Srinagar bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Srinagar B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Srinagar
Srinagar hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Srinagar hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Srinagar
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Srinagar hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Srinagar lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Srinagar
Srinagar timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Srinagar often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Srinagar on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Srinagar
A Srinagar motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Srinagar for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Srinagar motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Srinagar

Panorama of city in green area near a river and lakes
View of Srinagar and Dal Lake
Srinagar is located in Jammu and Kashmir
Srinagar is located in India
Location in Jammu and Kashmir
Coordinates:  / 34.09000; 74.79000  / 34.09000; 74.79000
Country India
State Jammu and Kashmir
District Srinagar
• Governor N. N. Vohra
• Metropolis 294 km (114 sq mi)
Elevation 1,585 m (5,200 ft)
Population (2011)
• Metropolis 1,180,570
• Rank 34th
• Density 4,000/km (10,000/sq mi)
• Metro 1,273,312
• Metro Rank 38th
• Official Urdu
• Other Spoken languages Kashmiri
• Regional Kashmiri
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 190 001
Telephone code 0194
Vehicle registration JK 01
Sex ratio 888 ♀/ 1000 ♂
Literacy 69.15%
Distance from Delhi 876 kilometres (544 mi) NW
Distance from Mumbai 2,275 kilometres (1,414 mi) NE (land)
Climate Cfa
Precipitation 710 millimetres (28 in)
Avg. summer temperature 23.3 °C (73.9 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 3.2 °C (37.8 °F)
Website www.srinagar.nic.in

Srinagar /ˈsriˌnʌɡʌr/ (About this sound listen ) is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian administered state of Jammu and Kashmir. It lies in the Kashmir Valley on the banks of the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus, and Dal and Anchar lakes. The city is famous for its gardens, waterfronts and houseboats. It is also known for traditional Kashmiri handicrafts and dried fruits.

Srinagar: Origin of name

Folk etymology draws the city name from two Sanskrit words: śrī ("glory, prosperity", a name for the Hindu goddess Lakshmi) and nagar ("city"), which would make "City of Lakshmi" (or "City of Prosperity").

However, the earliest records mention the name as siri-nagar which in turn is a local transformation of the original Sanskrit name sūrya-nagar, meaning "City of the Sun" (or, of a sun god).

Srinagar: History

Srinagar: Ancient period

The Burzahom archaeological site 10 km from Srinagar has revealed the presence of neolithic and megalithic cultures.

According to Kalhana's 12th century text Rajatarangini, a king named Pravarasena II established a new capital named Pravarapura (also known as Pravarasena-pura). Based on topographical details, Pravarapura appears to be same as the modern city of Srinagar. Aurel Stein dates the king to 6th century.

Kalhana mentions that a king named Ashoka had earlier established a town called Srinagari. Kalhana describes this town in hyperbolic terms, stating that it had "9,600,000 houses resplendent with wealth". According to Kalhana, this Ashoka reigned before 1182 BCE and was a member of the dynasty founded by Godhara. Kalhana states that this king adopted the doctrine of Jina, constructed stupas and Shiva temples, and appeased Bhutesha (Shiva) to obtain his son Jalauka.

Multiple scholars identify Kalhana's Ashoka with the 3rd century Buddhist Mauryan emperor Ashoka despite these discrepancies. Although "Jina" is a term generally associated with Jainism, some ancient sources use it to refer to the Buddha. Romila Thapar equates Jalauka to Kunala, stating that "Jalauka" is an erroneous spelling caused by a typographical error in Brahmi script.

Ashoka's Srinagari is generally identified with Pandrethan (near present-day Srinagar), although there is an alternative identification with a place on the banks of the Lidder River. According to Kalhana, Pravarasena II resided at Puranadhishthana ("old town") before the establishment of Pravarapura; the name Pandrethan is believed to be derived from that word. Accordining to V. A. Smith, the original name of the "old town" (Srinagari) was transferred to the new town.

Srinagar: Srinagar in 14th to 19th centuries

Srinagar and Environ map 1911

The independent Hindu and the Buddhist rule of Srinagar lasted until the 14th century when the Kashmir valley, including the city, came under the control of the several Muslim rulers, including the Mughals. It was also the capital during the reign of Yusuf Shah Chak, Yusuf Shah Chak remains buried in Bihar. Kashmir came under Mughal rule, when it was conquered by the third Mughal padshah (emperor) Akbar in 1586 CE. Akbar established Mughal rule in Srinagar and Kashmir valley. Kashmir was added to Kabul Subah in 1586, until Shah Jahan made it into a separate Kashmir Subah (imperial top-level province) with seat in Srinagar.

With the disintegration of the Mughal empire after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, infiltration in the valley of the Afghan tribes from Afghanistan and Hindu Dogras from the Jammu region increased, and the Afghan Durrani Empire and Dogras ruled the city for several decades.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler from the Punjab region annexed a major part of the Kashmir Valley, including Srinagar, to his kingdom in the year 1814 and the city came under the influence of the Sikhs.

In 1846, the Treaty of Lahore was signed between the Sikh rulers and the British in Lahore. The treaty inter alia provided British de facto suzerainty over the Kashmir Valley and Maharaja Gulab Singh, a Hindu Dogra from the Jammu region became a semi-independent ruler of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Srinagar became part of his kingdom and remained until 1947 as one of several princely states in British India. The Maharajas choose Sher Garhi Palace as their main Srinagar residence.

Srinagar city and its vicinity in 1959

Srinagar: Post Indo-Pakistani independence

After India and Pakistan's independence from Britain, villagers around the city of Poonch began an armed protest at continued rule of the Maharaja on 17 August 1947. In view of the Poonch uprising, certain Pashtun tribes such as Mehsud and Afridi from mountainous region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan and with its collusion, entered the Kashmir valley to capture it on 22 October 1947. The Maharaja, who had refused to accede to either India or Pakistan in hopes of securing his own independent state, signed the instrument of accession in exchange for refuge on 26 October 1947, as Pakistani-backed tribesmen approached the outskirts of Srinagar. The Accession was accepted by India the next day. The government of India immediately airlifted Indian troops to Srinagar and prevented the tribesmen from reaching the city.

In 1989, Srinagar became the focus of the Kashmiri uprising against Indian rule and the Indian military, which has been present since 1990, and the area continues to be a highly politicised hotbed of separatist activity with frequent spontaneous protests and strikes ("bandhs" in local parlance). On 19 January 1990, the Gawakadal massacre of at least 50 unarmed protestors by Indian forces, and up to 280 by some estimates from eyewitness accounts, set the stage for bomblasts, shootouts, and curfews that characterised Srinagar throughout the early and mid-1990s. Further massacres in the spring of 1990 in which 51 allegedly unarmed protesters were allegedly killed by Indian security forces in Zakura and Tengpora heightened anti-Indian sentiments in Srinagar. As a result, bunkers and checkpoints are found throughout the city, although their numbers have come down in the past few years as militancy has declined. However, frequent protests still occur against Indian rule, such as the 22 August 2008 rally in which hundreds of thousands of Kashmiri civilians protested against Indian rule in Srinagar. Similar protests took place every summer for the next 4 years. In 2010 alone 120 protesters, many of whom were stone pelters and arsonists, were killed by police and CRPF. Large scale protests were seen following the execution of Afzal Guru in February 2013. In 2016, about 87 protesters were killed by Indian army, CRPF and JK police which became known as 2016 Kashmir unrest.

The city also saw increased violence against minorities, particularly the Kashmiri Hindus, starting from mid-1980s and resulting in their ultimate exodus. Posters were pasted to walls of houses of Pandits, telling them to leave or die, temples were destroyed and houses burnt; but a very small minority of pandits still remains in the city. The recent years have seen protests in Srinagar from local Kashmiri pandits for protection of their shrines in Kashmir and their rights.

Srinagar: Geography

Map of Kashmir showing various Geographic regions.

The city is located on both the sides of the Jhelum River, which is called Vyath in Kashmir. The river passes through the city and meanders through the valley, moving onward and deepening in the Dal Lake. The city is famous for its nine old bridges, connecting the two parts of the city.

There are a number of lakes and swamps in and around the city. These include the Dal, the Nigeen, the Anchar, Khushal Sar, Gil Sar and Hokersar.

Hokersar is a wetland situated near Srinagar. Thousands of migratory birds come to Hokersar from Siberia and other regions in the winter season. Migratory birds from Siberia and Central Asia use wetlands in Kashmir as their transitory camps between September and October and again around spring. These wetlands play a vital role in sustaining a large population of wintering, staging and breeding birds.

Hokersar is 14 km (8.7 mi) north of Srinagar, and is a world class wetland spread over 13.75 km (5.31 sq mi) including lake and marshy area. It is the most accessible and well-known of Kashmir's wetlands which include Hygam, Shalibug and Mirgund. A record number of migratory birds have visited Hokersar in recent years.

Birds found in Hokersar-Migratory ducks and geese which include brahminy duck, tufted duck, gadwall, garganey, greylag goose, mallard, common merganser, northern pintail, common pochard, ferruginous pochard, red-crested pochard, ruddy shelduck, northern shoveller, common teal, and Eurasian wigeon.

Srinagar: Climate

Srinagar has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), much cooler than what is found in much of the rest of India, due to its moderately high elevation and northerly position. The valley is surrounded by the Himalayas on all sides. Winters are cool, with daytime temperature averaging to 2.5 °C (36.5 °F), and drops below freezing point at night. Moderate to heavy snowfall occurs in winter and the highway connecting Srinagar with the rest of India faces frequent blockades due to icy roads and avalanches. Summers are warm with a July daytime average of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F). The average annual rainfall is around 720 millimetres (28 in). Spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest. The highest temperature reliably recorded is 38.3 °C (100.9 °F) and the lowest is −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F).

Climate data for Srinagar (1971–1986 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
Average high °C (°F) 7.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.5
Average low °C (°F) −2
Record low °C (°F) −14.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.6 7.3 10.2 8.8 8.1 5.7 7.9 6.8 3.5 2.8 2.8 5.1 75.6
Average relative humidity (%) 82 79 70 64 61 56 66 70 67 69 77 84 70.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 74.4 101.7 136.4 189.0 238.7 246.0 241.8 226.3 228.0 226.3 186.0 108.5 2,203.1
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.4 3.6 4.4 6.3 7.7 8.2 7.8 7.3 7.6 7.3 6.2 3.5 6.0
Source #1: NOAA, India Meteorological Department (records up to 2010)
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun 1945–1988)

Srinagar: Economy

Market boats on Mar Canal in Srinagar.

In November 2011, the City Mayors Foundation – an advocacy think tank – announced that Srinagar was the 92nd fastest growing urban areas in the world in terms of economic growth, based on actual data from 2006 onwards and projections to 2020.

Srinagar: Tourism

Srinagar is one of several places that have been called the "Venice of the East" or the "Kashmiri Venice" Lakes around the city include Dal Lake – noted for its houseboats – and Nigeen Lake. Apart from Dal lake and Nigeen lake city is also famous for wular lake and manasbal lake to the north of srinagar. Wular lake is one of the largest fresh water lakes in Asia.

The floating vegetable market on Dal Lake, the only one of its kind in India
Dal Lake and the shikaras.

Srinagar has some Mughal gardens, forming a part of those laid by the Mughal emperors across the Indian subcontinent. Those of Srinagar and its close vicinity include Chashma Shahi (the royal fountains); Pari Mahal (the palace of the fairies); Nishat Bagh (the garden of spring); Shalimar Bagh; the Naseem Bagh.

Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Botanical Garden is a botanical garden in the city, set up in 1969. The Indian government has included these gardens under "Mughal Gardens of Jammu and Kashmir" in the tentative list for sites to be included in world Heritage sites.

The Sher Garhi Palace houses administrative buildings from the state government. Another palace of the Maharajas, the Gulab Bhavan, has now become the Lalit Grand Palace hotel.

The Shankaracharya Temple which lies on a hill top in the middle of the city, besides the Kheer Bhawani Temple are important Hindu temples in the city.

Srinagar: Government and politics

The city is run by the Srinagar Municipal Corporation (SMC). The Srinagar district along with the adjoining Budgam and Ganderbal districts forms the Srinagar Parliamentary seat.

Srinagar: Stray dog controversy

Srinagar's city government attracted brief international attention in March 2008 when it announced a mass poisoning program aimed at eliminating the city's population of stray dogs. Officials estimate that 100,000 stray dogs roam the streets of the city, which has a human population of just under 900,000. In a survey conducted by an NGO, it was found that some residents welcomed this program, saying the city was overrun by dogs, while critics contended that more humane methods should be used to deal with the animals.

The situation has become alarming with local news reports coming up at frequent intervals highlighting people, especially children being mauled by street dogs.

Srinagar: Demographics

As of 2011 census Srinagar urban agglomeration had 1,273,312 population. Both the city and the urban agglomeration has average literacy rate of approximately 70%. The child population of both the city and the urban agglomeration is approximately 12% of the total population. Males constituted 53.0% and females 47% of the population. The sex ratio in the city area is 888 females per 1000 males, whereas in the urban agglomeration it is 880 per 1,000. The predominant religion of Srinagar is Islam with 96% of the population being Muslim. Hindus constitute the second largest religious group representing 2.75% of the population. The remaining population constitutes Sikhs, Buddhist and Jains.

Srinagar: Transport

Srinagar: Road

Srinagar International Airport
A passenger train at Srinagar Railway Station

The city is served by many highways, including National Highway 1A and National Highway 1D.

Srinagar: Air

Srinagar Airport has regular domestic flights to Leh, Jammu, Chandigarh, Delhi and Mumbai and occasional international flights. An expanded terminal capable of handling both domestic and international flights was inaugurated on 14 February 2009 with Air India Express flights to Dubai. Hajj flights also operate from this airport to Saudi Arabia.

Srinagar: Rail

Srinagar is a station on the 119 km (74 mi) long Kashmir railway that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla to Srinagar, Anantnag and Qazigund. The railway track also connects to Banihal across the Pir Panjal mountains through a newly constructed 11 km long Banihal tunnel, and subsequently to the Indian railway network after a few years. It takes approximately 9 minutes and 30 seconds for train to cross the tunnel. It is the longest rail tunnel in India. This railway system, proposed in 2001, is not expected to connect the Indian railway network until 2017 at the earliest, with a cost overrun of 55 billion INR. The train also runs during heavy snow.

There are proposals to develop a metro system in the city. The feasibility report for the Srinagar Metro is planned to be carried out by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation.

Srinagar: Cable car

Srinagar Cable Car
Makhdoom Sahib (Hari Parbat)
Malkhah cemetery

In December 2013, the 594m cable car allowing people to travel to the shrine of the Sufi saint Hamza Makhdoom on Hari Parbat was unveiled. The project is run by the Jammu and Kashmir Cable Car Corporation (JKCCC), and has been envisioned for 25 years. An investment of 300 million INR was made, and it is the second cable car in Kashmir after the Gulmarg Gondola.

Srinagar: Boat

Whilst popular since the 7th century, water transport is now mainly confined to Dal Lake, where shikaras (wooden boats) are used for local transport and tourism. There are efforts to revive transportation on the River Jhelum.

Srinagar: Culture

Hazratbal Shrine built in around 1700 AD
The Shankaracharya temple built in around 200 BC

Like the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar too has a distinctive blend of cultural heritage. Holy places in and around the city depict the historical cultural and religious diversity of the city as well as the Kashmir valley.

A view from Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Botanical Garden

Srinagar: Places of worship

There are many religious holy places in Srinagar. They include:

  • Hazratbal Shrine, only domed mosque in the city.
  • Jama Masjid, Srinagar, one of the oldest mosques in Kashmir
  • Aali Masjid, in Eidgah Locality
  • Hari Parbat hill hosts shrine of Sharika Mata temple
  • Shankaracharya temple
  • Kheer Bhawani Temple
  • Gurdwara Chatti Patshahi, located on Hari Parbat
  • Pathar Masjid

Additional structures include the Dastgeer Sahib shrine, Mazar-e-Shuhada, Roza Bal shrine, Khanqah of Shah Hamadan, Pathar Masjid ("The Stone Mosque"), Hamza Makhdoom shrine, tomb of the mother of Zain-ul-abidin, tomb of Pir Haji Muhammad, Akhun Mulla Shah Mosque, cemetery of Baha-ud-din Sahib, tomb and Madin Sahib Mosque at Zadibal.

Srinagar: Performing arts

Srinagar: Education

Srinagar is home to The National Institute of Technology Srinagar, formerly known as Regional Engineering College (REC Srinagar). It is one of the oldest among the National Institutes of Technology that were established during 2nd Five year plan. Other educational institutions are:


  • Tyndale Biscoe School
  • Burn Hall School
  • Mallinson Girls School

Medical colleges

  • Government Medical College, Srinagar
  • Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences
  • Government Dental College & Hospital,Srinagar


  • University of Kashmir
  • Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir
  • Central University of Kashmir

General degree colleges

  • Amar Singh College
  • Sri Pratap College
  • Islamia College of Science and Commerce, Srinagar

Srinagar: Sports

The city is home to the Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium, a stadium where international cricket matches have been played. The first international match was played in 1983 in which West Indies defeated India and the last international match was played in 1986 in which Australia defeated India by six wickets. Since then no international matches have been played in the stadium due to the security situation (although the situation has now improved quite considerably). Srinagar has an outdoor stadium namely Bakshi Stadium for hosting football matches. It is named after Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad. The city has a golf course named Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar located on the banks of Dal lake, which is considered as one of the best golf courses of India. Football is also followed by the youth of Srinagar and Polo ground is maintained for the particular sports recently.There are certain other sports being played but those are away from the main city like in Pahalgam (Water rafting), Gulmarg (skiing).

Srinagar: See also

  • Kashmir conflict
  • Downtown (Srinagar)
  • Kashmir Shaivism
  • Dah Hanu
  • List of State Protected Monuments in Jammu and Kashmir
  • List of colleges in Srinagar
  • Hazratbal
  • Chashme Shahi
  • Lal Chowk
  • Nishat Bagh
  • Shalimar Bagh, Srinagar

Srinagar: References

  1. 2011 census of India
  2. "Srinagar Municipal Corporation Demographics 2011". 2011 Census of India. Government of India. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
  3. "Kashmiri: A language of India". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
  4. M. Monier Monier–Williams, "Śrīnagar", in: The Great Sanskrit–English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1899
  5. A. R. Sankhyan (12 March 2008). "Surgery in Ancient India". In Helaine Selin. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 2060. ISBN 978-1-4020-4559-2.
  6. ISBN 978-81-208-0370-1.
  7. Nayanjot Lahiri (2015). Ashoka in Ancient India. Harvard University Press. pp. 378–380. ISBN 978-0-674-91525-1.
  8. ISBN 978-955-24-0065-0.
  9. Vincent Arthur Smith (1998). Asoka, the Buddhist Emperor of India. Asian Educational Services. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-81-206-1303-4.
  10. Mohammad Ishaq Khan (1978). History of Srinagar, 1846-1947: A Study in Socio-cultural Change. Aamir Publications.
  11. Vincent A. Smith (1999). The Early History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 162. ISBN 978-81-7156-618-1.
  12. "Profile of Srinagar". Indian Heritages Cities Network. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  13. Umar, Baba (28 February 2013). "'Nehru didn't want to publicise the Poonch rebellion because it would have strengthened Pakistan's case'". Tehelka. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  14. The Story of Kashmir Affairs – A Peep into the Past
  15. "Indo-Pakistan War of 1947". Peace Kashmir.
  16. Peerzada, Ashiq (27 December 2012). "'90 Srinagar massacre: SHRC orders fresh probe". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 1 March 2013. At least 52 people were allegedly killed in security forces' firing during a protest demonstration on January 21, 1990 near Gow Kadal, in heart of Srinagar.
  17. Dalrymple, William. Kashmir: The Scarred and the Beautiful. "The New York Review of Books." 1 May 2008.
  18. "Kashmir marks anniversary of Gaw Kadal Massacre in 1990". Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  19. "Muslims wage huge Kashmir protest". Chicago Tribune. 23 August 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2013. A Kashmiri Muslim watches a protest march Friday by hundreds of thousands of Muslims in Srinagar, Indian Kashmir's main city. It was the largest protest against Indian rule in the Himalayan region in more than a decade
  20. "Hundreds of Thousands March for Kashmir's Independence". The Epoch Times. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2013. Waving green Islamic flags and shouting "we want freedom", hundreds of thousands of Muslims marched peacefully in Indian Kashmir's main city on Friday
  21. "Muslims in huge Kashmir protest". BBC. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2013. Hundreds of thousands of Muslims have taken part in a protest rally called by separatist leaders in Indian-controlled Kashmir's main city, Srinagar.
  22. Hussein, AijazSt (12 February 2013). "India's hanging of Kashmiri man leads to fears of new unrest after 2 years of quiet". Star Tribune. Retrieved 1 March 2013. In all three years, hundreds of thousands of young men took to the streets, hurling rocks and abuse at Indian forces.
  23. "Paradise Lost". bbc.co.uk.
  24. "Violence against Kashmiri hindus". kashmirforum.org.
  25. "19/01/90: When Kashmiri Pandits fled Islamic terrorists". rediff.com. 19 January 2005. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  26. "Kashmiri Pandits offered three choices by Islamists". indiandefencereview.com.
  27. "Kashmiri Pandits: Why we never fled Kashmir". aljazeera.com. 2 August 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  28. "Kashmiri Pandits stage protest march in Srinagar". The Hindu. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2015. The protesters demanded minority status for the community and removal of nomenclature like migrants or non-migrants from official communication.
  29. "Extremes of India" (PDF). www.indpune.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  30. "Srinagar Climate Normals 1971-1986". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  31. "Klimatafel von Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir / Indische Union" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  32. "Srinagar among 100 fastest growing cities in world". Greater Kashmir.com. 17 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  33. "The Sydney Morning Herald - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  34. Holloway, James (1965-06-13). "Fabled Kashmir: An Emerald Set Among Pearls". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
  35. The Earthtimes (2007-09-24). "Can Kashmir become 'Venice of the East' again? | Earth Times News". Earthtimes.org. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
  36. "KashmirTreks". kashmirtreks.in.
  37. "Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Botanical Garden". discoveredindia.com.
  38. "Shankaracharya Temple". jktdc.in.
  39. "Indian authorities to poison 100K stray dogs - World news - South and Central Asia - NBC News". msnbc.com.
  40. "Stray dogs maul over 3 dozen". Greater Kashmir. 12 May 2012.
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  42. "Literacy in India". 2011 census of India. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
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  44. "2011 Census demographics of Srinagar".
  45. "Road Map with National Highways of India".
  46. "Srinagar International Airport". Airports Authority of India.
  47. "Kashmir rail by 2017-end, cost overrun Rs 5,500 cr". The Hindu Business Line. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  48. "Now, metro set to roll into Kashmir". Indian Express. 5 August 2013.
  49. Hassan, Ishfaq-ul (12 February 2010). "Omar Abdullah plans metro in Jammu, Srinagar". DNA. “We will soon have the feasibility of metro services in both cities analysed by experts. Ideally, we would like DMRC to send a team and prepare a project report,” minister for urban development Nasir Aslam Wani said.
  50. "Kashmir gets a dream ropeway". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 December 2013.
  51. Raina, Muzaffar (7 May 2012). "Boat down the Jhelum". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India.
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  55. "J&K stadium hosts football match after 25-year gap". Times of India. 16 July 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  56. "India". Robert Trent Jones – Golf Architects. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  • Srinagar travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Srinagar district administration
  • Official website of Jammu and Kashmir
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