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Hotels of Sulaymaniyah
A hotel in Sulaymaniyah is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Sulaymaniyah hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Sulaymaniyah are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Sulaymaniyah hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Sulaymaniyah hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Sulaymaniyah have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:
Upscale luxury hotels in Sulaymaniyah
An upscale full service hotel facility in Sulaymaniyah that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Sulaymaniyah hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.
Full service hotels in Sulaymaniyah
Full service Sulaymaniyah hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.
Historic inns and boutique hotels in Sulaymaniyah
Boutique hotels of Sulaymaniyah are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Sulaymaniyah boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Sulaymaniyah may be classified as luxury hotels.
Focused or select service hotels in Sulaymaniyah
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Sulaymaniyah travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Sulaymaniyah focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.
Economy and limited service hotels in Sulaymaniyah
Small to medium-sized Sulaymaniyah hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Sulaymaniyah traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Sulaymaniyah hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.
Guest houses and B&Bs in Sulaymaniyah
A bed and breakfast in Sulaymaniyah is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Sulaymaniyah bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Sulaymaniyah B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.
Hostels in Sulaymaniyah
Sulaymaniyah hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Sulaymaniyah hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.
Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Sulaymaniyah
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Sulaymaniyah hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Sulaymaniyah lack an on-site restaurant.
Timeshare and destination clubs in Sulaymaniyah
Sulaymaniyah timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Sulaymaniyah often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Sulaymaniyah on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.
Motels in Sulaymaniyah
A Sulaymaniyah motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Sulaymaniyah for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Sulaymaniyah motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.
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Sulaymaniyah (Central Kurdish: سلێمانی, Silêmanî; Arabic: السليمانية, as-Sulaymāniyyah), also called Sulaimani or Slemani, is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan. Sulaymaniyah is surrounded by the Azmer Range, Goyija Range and the Qaiwan Range in the northeast, Baranan Mountain in the south and the Tasluja Hills in the west. The city has a semi-arid climate with very hot dry summers and cool wet winters. Sulaymaniyah served as the capital of the historic Kurdish principality of Baban from 1784 to 1850.
The modern city of Sulaymaniyah was founded on 14 November 1784 by the Kurdish prince Ibrahim Pasha Baban who named it after his father Sulaiman Pasha.
From its foundation Sulaymaniyah was always a center of great poets, writers, historians, politicians, scholars and singers, such as Nalî, Mahwi, and Piramerd.
Stela of Iddi-Sin, King of Simurrum. It dates back to the Old-Babylonian Period. From Qarachatan Village, Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Iraqi Kurdistan. The Sulaymaniyah Museum, Iraq
The region of Sulaymaniyah was known as Zamwa prior to the foundation of the modern city in 1784. The capital of the Kurdish Baban principality (1649–1850), before Sulaymaniyah was a territory named "Qelaçiwalan". At the time of the Babani's rule there were major conflicts between the Safavid dynasty and the Ottoman Empire. Qelaçiwalan became a battleground for the two rivals.
Being of strategic importance and lying deep inside Safavid territory, there was concern that Qelaçiwalan would be attacked and captured if the Babanies did not give the Safavids military support, as both Sultan Mahmud II and Nader Shah were trying to gain the support of the dispersed Kurdish Emirates. This obliged Mahmud Pasha of Baban in 1781 to think about moving the center of its Emirate to another safer place. He chose Melkendî, then a village but now a district in central Sulaymaniyah, to construct a number of Serahs for his political and armed units.
In 1783, Ibrahim Pasha of Baban became ruler of the Emirate and began the construction of a new city which would become the capital of the Baban Emirate. In 1784 he finished erecting a number of palaces for trade called Qeyserîs and bazaars, which were also used as baths, and began inviting people from the surrounding villages and Emirates to move to the newly established city. Soon Melkendî, which was originally intended to be the city itself, instead became one of its quarters and still is today.
In the early 1800s refugees from Ardalan moved to Sulaymaniyah including Mastura Ardalan, the widow of Khasraw Khani Ardalan, the ruler of the kingdom. Ardalan wrote an account of Kurdish history in Persian and was buried in Sulaymaniyah when he died in 1848.
From 1922 to 1924, Sulaymaniyah was designated the capital of the Kingdom of Kurdistan, a short lived unrecognized State declared by Iraqi Kurds following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1820, only 26 years after the creation of the city, a British man named Rech visited the city and estimated that its population was more than ten thousand, containing 2,144 families of which 2,000 were Muslim, 130 Jewish, and 14 Christian. Ottoman documents from 1907 suggest that there were 8,702 Muslim and 360 non-Muslim residents living in the city at that time. The Peshkawtin newspaper which was distributed in Sulaymaniyah in 1920 estimated its population to be around ten thousand.
According to Iraqi government documents, by 1947 the number of residents had increased to 23,475; by 1998 to 548,747, and in 2009 to 2,000,000.
Sulaymaniyah: Geography and climate
Sulaymaniyah Panorama in September 2015
The city is located in northern Iraq. Of the main population centers in the country, it is characterized by its cooler summer temperatures and its rainier winters. Average temperatures range from 0 °C (32 °F) to 39 °C (102 °F). In the winters, there can be a significant amount of snow.
Snow is not frequent in winter, but snow has fallen in Sulaymaniyah in January 2008, January 2010, February 2010, February 2011, March 2012, January 2013, and January 2015.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa).
Climate data for Sulaymaniyah
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Source: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 849m)
Public education is free from primary school until graduation from university. The University of Sulaymaniyah was opened in 1968 with instruction in Kurdish, Arabic, and English. It has faculties in engineering, agriculture, the arts, science, and medicine. It is the largest university in South Kurdistan.
A new University of Sulaymaniyah was established in 1991, teaching in Kurdish, English and Arabic. And the second new university is Sulaimani Polytechnic University was established in 2012, teaching in Kurdish, English and Arabic.
In 2007 The American University of Iraq – Sulaimani, (AUI-S) was a new addition to the American universities in the Middle East, graduating its fifth class in 2016. Instruction at this private, not-for-profit liberal arts university is in English only, featuring a US-accredited program in English as a Second Language (ESL).
The Komar University of Science and Technology, (KUST) - Sulaymaniyah was established and licensed by the Ministry of High Education and Scientific Research in Kurdistan Region Government, by the official letter no. 17867/7 on 18 October 2009. KUST is a private university governed by a Board of Trustees and run by an Administration Council. Its main campus is located in Sulaymaniyah. KUST offered its first teaching classes in 2010 with an English language summer course (levels 1 and 3).
Adnan Karim in a joint concert with the Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra conducted by the renowned Kurdish composer A.J. Sagerma performing classical Kurdish music
Sulaymaniyah is considered the center of the Sorani Kurdish culture in Kurdistan. It is recognized officially as the cultural capital of South Kurdistan. Development of Sorani as a modern literary language started in this city in the early 19th century, when many Kurdish poets such as Nalî, Piramerd, Muhamed Amin Zaki, Abdulla Goran, Muhamad Salih Dilan, Ahmad Hardi, Ibrahim Ahmad, Nuri Sheikh Salih Sheikh Ghani Barzinji, Sherko Bekas, and Bachtyar Ali published their works.
The city is known for its open, relatively liberal and tolerant society when compared to other cities of Kurdistan. According to Al-Jazeera, the city has a Chinatown as a result of attracting foreign investment. Around 500 Chinese people reside in the city according to Al Arabiya.
In 2006 the Movement for Change started in Sulaymaniyah and challenged what it called the "corrupt" and "nepotistic" Kurdish Government. The movement gained massive support from the city.
The two independent newspapers Hawlati and Awena and the two independent political magazines Lvin and Shock, are published and distributed in Sulaymaniyah city.
Sulaymaniyah is the only city in South Kurdistan that regularly celebrates world music day or Fête de la Musique. In one trip to the city, a journalist working for the BBC wrote about Sulaymaniyah's distinct culture: "Culture is hugely important to the Kurdish people, especially in Sulaymaniyah, but there is a strong pull to the west--modernisation and consumerism--driven perhaps by the satellite televisions they have had access to since they started running their own affairs...And at the university, students mill around the campus, chattering with each other and doing some last-minute cramming for their exams. The war only stopped lectures for a few weeks. There are probably more women than men and they are happy to air their views to anyone who asks."
Since 2003 Iraq has seen a huge economic boom. Sulaymaniyah's economy today relies on tourism, agriculture and a number of small factories, most of which are involved in the building trade.
In 2004 the Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis in Iraq released an in-depth survey of the Sulaymaniyah Governorate in which they surveyed each city. In this survey one can see the economic boom of 2003 mentioned earlier.
Kurdish artist Tara Jaff playing the Harp during a cultural gathering at Aram Gallery
The city was visited by more than 60,000 tourists in 2009. Sulaymaniyah attracted more than 15,000 Iranian tourists in the first quarter of 2010, many drawn by the fact it is not subject to strict laws faced at home. Newroz 2010 drew an exodus of Iranian tourists choosing to celebrate the event in the region.
Sulaimani Museum: It is the second biggest museum after the national museum in Baghdad. It is home to many Kurdish and ancient Persian artifacts dating back to 1792–1750 BC.
Victims of one of Saddam Hussein's campaigns are represented by broken glass and tiny lights at the Amna Suraka Museum (Kurdish: "Red Intelligence Museum") in Sulaymaniyah.
Amna Suraka Museum (Kurdish:"Red Intelligence Museum"): Located in a former Ba'ath intelligence headquarters and prison, it draws particular attention to the Ba'ath regime's brutal treatment of local Kurds. Visitors are guided through the prisons and interrogation rooms. The museum features many Soviet-era armored fighting vehicles, also it's defined as a dedicated museum for Sulaymaniyah only.
Sulaymaniyah: Notable people
Hadhrat Mawlânâ Khâlid-i Baghdâdî (1779–1827), sufist and Islamic thinker
Haji Kak Ahmedi Sheikh grandfather of king Mahmood Barzanji, (1792 - 1876), Islamic scholar and mufti.
Salim (1800–1866), poet.
Nalî (1800–1873), poet.
Mahwi (1830–1906), poet.
Said Pasha Kurd, (1834-1907), Ottoman statesman.
Mustafa Zihni Pasha (1838–1911), Ottoman official, Kurdish nationalist.
Saeb (1854–1910), poet.
Şerif Pasha, (1865-1951), Ottoman diplomat, ambassador and statesman.
Mustafa Yamulki (1866-1936), Minister of Education in the Kingdom of Kurdistan.
Haji Mala Saeed Kirkukli Zada (1866–1937), Minister of Justice in the Kingdom of Kurdistan.
Piramerd Tawfeq Mahmoud Hamza, (1867–1950), poet and journalist.
Mahmood Barzanji (1878–1956), king of Kurdistan (1922–1924)
Muhamed Amin Zaki (1880–1948), historian, statesman and politician.
Mufti Penjweni (1881–1952), poet.
Taufiq Wahby (1891–1984), linguist, politician and poet.
Ahmad Mukhtar Baban (1900–1976), prime Minister of Iraq 1958.
Abdulla Goran (1904–1962), founder of modern Kurdish poetry
Ibrahim Ahmad (1914–2000), novelist, poet and translator.
Jamal Nebez (born 1933), linguist.
Nawshirwan Mustafa (born 1944), politician, historian and media proprietor.
Ahmad Hardi (1922-2006), poet.
Sherko Bekas (1940-2013), contemporary poet.
Bachtyar Ali (born 1960), novelist
Mariwan Kanie (born 1966), intellectual.
Barham Salih (born 1960) politician.
Muhamad Salih Dilan (1927–1990), musician and poet.
Shahab Sheikh Nuri (1932–1976), politician.
Bahram Resul (born 1945), medical chemist and inventor
Dilshad Meriwani, (1947-1989), actor, poet, writer and journalist.
Rizgar Mohammed Amin (born 1958), judge.
Mahmoud Othman (born 1938), politician.
Xalîd Reşîd (born 1968), musician
Taha Baban, author, actor and lawyer
Adnan Karim, (born 1953), artist
Ali al-Qaradaghi, (born 1949), Islamic scholar and economist
Tomb of king Cyaxares of Media (region), Qyzqapan
Sulaymaniyah: Diplomatic missions
Islamic Republic of Iran, Girdi Consulkhana
Sulaymaniyah: Twin towns – Sister cities
Sulaymaniyah: See also
2011 Kurdish protests in Iraq
Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Sulaimaniya (former Eastern Catholic diocese)
"Sulaimani Polytechnic University". http://spu.edu.iq/. 2015-06-13. Retrieved 2015-06-13.External link in |publisher= (help)
Ali, Meer Ako. "Sulaimany: 227 years of glory". kurdistantribune.com. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
Salih Rasha, Akram. Sulaymaniyah 200 Years. Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan. pp. 503–504.
"The Leading Suly Government Site on the Net". sulygov.com. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
Goudsouzian, Tanya (21 November 2016). "Sulaimania: Saving the dream city of a Kurdish prince". aljazeera.com. Al-Jazeera. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
Prince, J. (1993), "A Kurdish State in Iraq" in Current History, January.
"Iraq under cold front bringing snow with below zero temperatures". Indian Muslims. Kuwait News Agency (KUNA). 12 January 2008. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2013. BAGHDAD, Jan 11 (KUNA) -- snow fell on large areas of Iraq following two days of low temperatures.
"Snow covers Sulaimaniya". National Iraqi News Agency (NINA). 26 January 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2013. Sulaimaniya (NINA) –The city of Sulaimaniya witnessed a heavy fall of snow that covered the entire city since Monday midnight. Reporter of the National Iraqi News Agency said “The citizens of Sulaimaniya woke up on Tuesday morning to see their city covered with snow and the street painted in white color.”
"Heavy Snow Blankets Sulaimaniya". Iraq Updates. 3 March 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
"Unusually heavy snow hits Iraq's Sulaimaniya". Al Arabiya. Reuters. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2013. An unusually heavy snowstorm blanketed Sulaimaniya city, in northern Iraq’s autonomous Kurdish region, on Saturday (January 12) as severe weather conditions continue to sweep through the region.
"11 Refugee Children Freeze to Death in Kurdistan Camps". Erbil. 12 January 2015. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
https://web.archive.org/web/20110603055955/http://www.komar.edu.iq. Archived from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-08.Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
(PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20110814004337/http://cosit.gov.iq/english/pdf/e_food_iraq1.pdf. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-12.Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
"Rudaw.NL, dé Opinieblog…". Rudaw.nl. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
"Rudaw.NL, dé Opinieblog…". Rudaw.nl. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
"Suleimaniya Museum: a small place for a great civilization". KurdishGlobe. 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2012-08-09.