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Hotels of Taormina

A hotel in Taormina is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Taormina hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Taormina are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Taormina hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Taormina hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Taormina have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Taormina
An upscale full service hotel facility in Taormina that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Taormina hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Taormina
Full service Taormina hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Taormina
Boutique hotels of Taormina are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Taormina boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Taormina may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Taormina
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Taormina travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Taormina focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Taormina
Small to medium-sized Taormina hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Taormina traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Taormina hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Taormina
A bed and breakfast in Taormina is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Taormina bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Taormina B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Taormina
Taormina hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Taormina hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Taormina
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Taormina hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Taormina lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Taormina
Taormina timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Taormina often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Taormina on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Taormina
A Taormina motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Taormina for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Taormina motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Taormina

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Taormina
Comune
Comune di Taormina
Taormina-pjt1.jpg
Coat of arms of Taormina
Coat of arms
Taormina is located in Italy
Taormina
Taormina
Location of Taormina in Italy
Coordinates:  / 37.85222; 15.29194  / 37.85222; 15.29194
Country Italy
Region Sicily
Province / Metropolitan city Messina (ME)
Frazioni Mazzeo, Trappitello, Villagonia, Chianchitta, Spisone, Mazzarò
Government
• Mayor Eligio Giardina
Area
• Total 13 km (5 sq mi)
Elevation 204 m (669 ft)
Population As of March 2009
• Total 11,075
• Density 850/km (2,200/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Taorminesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 98039
Dialing code 0942
Patron saint San Pancrazio di Taormina
Saint day 9 July
Website Official website (Italian)

Taormina (Greek: Ταυρομένιον, Tauromenion; Latin: Tauromenium; Sicilian: Taurmina) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Messina, on the east coast of the island of Sicily, Italy. Taormina has been a tourist destination since the 19th century. Its beaches, the most famous of which is Isola Bella, are accessible via an aerial tramway built in 1992 on the Ionian sea and via highways from Messina in the north and Catania in the south.

Taormina: History

Taormina: Ancient Tauromenion

The area around Taormina was inhabited by the Siculi even before the Greeks arrived on the Sicilian coast in 734 BC to found a town called Naxos. The theory that Tauromenion was founded by colonists from Naxos is confirmed by Strabo and other ancient writers.

The Teatro Greco ("Greek theatre").

The new settlement seems to have risen rapidly to prosperity, and was apparently already a considerable town at the time of Timoleon's expedition in 345 BC. It was the first place in Sicily where that leader landed, having eluded the vigilance of the Carthaginians, who were guarding the Straits of Messina, and crossed direct from Rhegium (modern Reggio di Calabria) to Tauromenium. The city was at that time still under the government of Andromachus, whose mild and equitable administration is said to have presented a strong contrast with that of the despots and tyrants of the other Sicilian cities. He welcomed Timoleon with open arms, and afforded him a secure resting place until he was enabled to carry out his plans in other parts of Sicily. Andromachus was not deprived of his position of power when all the other tyrants were expelled by Timoleon, but was permitted to retain it undisturbed till his death. Little is recorded about Tauromenium for some time after this. It is probable that it passed under the authority of Agathocles, who drove the historian Timaeus into exile; and some time after this it was subject to a domestic despot of the name of Tyndarion, who was contemporary with Hicetas of Syracuse and Phintias of Agrigentum. Tyndarion was one of those who concurred in inviting Pyrrhus into Sicily (278 BC), and when that monarch landed with his army at Tauromenium, joined him with all his forces, and supported him in his march upon Syracuse. A few years later we find that Tauromenium had fallen into the power of Hieron II of Syracuse, and was employed by him as a stronghold in the war against the Mamertines. (Id. p. 497.) It was also one of the cities which was left under his dominion by the treaty concluded with him by the Romans in 263 BC.

There is no doubt that Tauromenium continued to form a part of the kingdom of Syracuse until the death of Hieron, and that it only passed under the government of Rome when the whole island of Sicily was reduced to a Roman province; but we have scarcely any account of the part it took during the Second Punic War, though it would appear, from a hint in Appian, that it submitted to Marcellus on favorable terms; and it is probable that it was on that occasion it obtained the peculiarly favored position it enjoyed under the Roman dominion. For we learn from Cicero that Tauromenium was one of the three cities in Sicily which enjoyed the privileges of a civitas foederata or allied city, thus retaining a nominal independence, and was not even subject, like Messina, to the obligation of furnishing ships of war when called upon. The city, however, suffered severe calamities during the Servile War in Sicily (134–132 BC), having fallen into the hands of the insurgent slaves, who, on account of the great strength of its position, made it one of their chief posts, and were able for a long time to defy the arms of the consul Publius Rupilius. They held out until they were reduced to the most fearful extremities by famine, when the citadel was at length betrayed into the hands of the consul by one of their leaders named Sarapion, and the whole of the survivors put to the sword.

Tauromenium again played a conspicuous part during the wars of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, and, from its strength as a fortress, was one of the principal points of the position which he took up in 36 BC, for defence against Octavian. It became the scene also of a sea-fight between a part of the fleet of Octavian, commanded by the triumvir in person, and that of Pompeius, which terminated in the defeat and almost total destruction of the former. In the settlement of Sicily after the defeat of Pompeius, Tauromenium was one of the places selected by Augustus to receive a Roman colony, probably as a measure of precaution, on account of the strength of its situation, as we are told that he expelled the former inhabitants to make room for his new colonists. Strabo speaks of it as one of the cities on the east coast of Sicily that was still subsisting in his time, though inferior in population both to Messana and Catana. Both Pliny and Ptolemy assign it the rank of a colonia, and it seems to have been one of the few cities of Sicily that continued under the Roman Empire to be a place of some consideration. Its territory was noted for the excellence of its wine, and produced also a kind of marble which seems to have been highly valued. Juvenal also speaks of the sea off its rocky coast as producing the choicest mullets. The Itineraries place Tauromenium 32 miles from Messina, and the same distance from Catania. (Itin. Ant. p. 90; Tab. Peut.)

Taormina seen from Mount Venere, Peloritani mountains

Taormina: Middle ages and modern era

The courtyard of the 10th century Palazzo Corvaja

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Taormina continued to rank as one of the more important towns of Sicily, and because of the strength of its position was one of the last places that was retained by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperors; but it was taken by the Fatimids in 962 after a siege of 30 weeks. Taormina was renamed "Al-Mu'izziyya" in honour of Caliph al-Mu'izz (reigned 953–75). Muslim rule of the town (see History of Islam in southern Italy) lasted until 1078, when it was captured by the Norman count Roger I of Sicily. At this time Taormina and the surrounding Val Demone were still predominately Greek speaking.

After the fall of the Normans and of their German (imperial) heirs, the Hohenstaufen, Taormina followed the history of Sicily under the Angevins and then the Crown of Aragon. In 1410 King Martin II of Sicily was elected here by the Sicilian Parliament. Later Taormina was under Spanish suzerainty, receiving the status of "city" in the 17th century.

In 1675 it was besieged by the French, who had occupied Messina. Under the Bourbons dynasty of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, Taormina did not have a relevant role; however, it obtained an easier access when part of the Catrabico promontory was partially cut and a seaside road connecting it to Messina and Catania was created. It received also a station on the second-oldest railroad in the region. Starting from the 19th century Taormina became a popular tourist resort in the whole of Europe: people who visited Taormina include Oscar Wilde, Nicholas I of Russia, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Nietzsche (who here wrote his Thus Spoke Zarathustra), Richard Wagner and many others.

Taormina: Contemporary age

The Taormina coast

In the late 19th century Taormina gained further prominence as the place where Wilhelm von Gloeden worked most of his life as a photographer of predominantly male nudes. There is some speculation about Taormina being an early gentlemen's destination. Also credited for making Taormina popular was Otto Geleng, best known in his hometown of Berlin for his fine paintings, which he composed and painted in Italy but exhibited in Germany. What distinguishes Geleng, however, is his choice to depict the more southern regions where he captured the spectacular views and light of Sicily. He often painted the area's Greek colonial ruins, including Taormina. Taormina's first important tourist was Johann Wolfgang Goethe, who dedicated exalting pages to the city in his book entitled Italian Journey, but perhaps it was Geleng’s views that made its beauty talked about throughout Europe and turned the site into a famous tourist center. The artist arrived in Sicily at the age of 20 in search of new subjects for his paintings. On his way through Taormina he was so enamoured by the landscape that he decided to stop for part of the winter. Geleng began to paint everything that Taormina offered: ruins, sea, mountains, none of which were familiar to the rest of Europe. When his paintings were later exhibited in Berlin and Paris, many critics accused Geleng of having an ‘unbridled imagination’. At that, Geleng challenged them all to go to Taormina with him, promising that he would pay everyone's expenses if he were not telling the truth.

Taormina viewed from the bay of Giardini Naxos

During the early 20th century the town became a colony of expatriate artists, writers and intellectuals. Albert Stopford grew roses in his Edwardian garden; D. H. Lawrence stayed at the Fontana Vecchia from 1920 to 1922. (He wrote a number of his poems, novels, short stories and essays, and the travel book Sea and Sardinia.) Thirty years later, from April 1950 through September 1951, the same villa was home to Truman Capote, who wrote of his stay in the essay "Fontana Vecchia." Also Tennessee Williams, Jean Cocteau and Jean Marais visited the place. Charles Webster Leadbeater, the theosophical author, found out that Taormina had the right magnetics fields for Jiddu Krishnamurti to develop his talents, so the young Krishnamurti dwelt here from time to time. Halldór Laxness, the Icelandic author and Nobel Prize winner, worked here on the first modern Icelandic novel, Vefarinn mikli frá Kasmír. Taormina inspired the naming of 'Toormina', a suburb of Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia.

By this time Taormina had become "a polite synonym for Sodom" as Harold Acton described it. Later, however, after the Second World War Acton was visiting Taormina with Evelyn Waugh and, coming upon a board advertising “Ye Olde English Teas” he sighed and commented that Taormina 'was now quite as boring as Bournemouth'.

The 43rd G7 summit was held on May 26–27, 2017 in Taormina, Sicily, Italy.

Taormina: Ecclesiastical history

The Duomo dates from the 13th century
  • Established (circa 40?) as Diocese of Taormina (Curiate Italian) / Tauromenium (Latin) / Tauromenitan(us) (Latin adjective), according to devotional tradition (Vetus Martyrologium Romanum at date 3 April) by Saint Pancrace, a Cilician whom the Apostle Peter invited as first bishop. His successors over three centuries are also known solely from hagiography. The first historical document naming the bishopric is a letter from Pope Leo I, in 447 to the bishops of Sicily, on accusations that the (unnamed) bishop of Taormina, disappropriated church property.
  • Sicilia had no Metropolitan see, being politically Byzantine, while canonically dependent on the papal 'Western' Patriarchate of Rome. During the VIII century Iconoclasm controversy, Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian transferred the island to his capital's Patriarchate of Constantinople; around 800 a Metropolitan see was installed at Syracusa, whose first-ranking Taormina was according to the Notitiae Episcopatuum.
  • Suppressed in 902, without direct successor see, due to the Islamic conquest of Sicily
  • * After the XI century Catholic reconquest of Sicily by the Normans, the Taormina was not restored, but in 1082 its territory is reassigned to establish the Diocese of Troina (later merged into the Diocese of Messina).

Taormina: Residential bishops

  • Saint Pancrazio (Pancrace)
  • Evagrio
  • Saint Massimo (Maximus)
  • Saint Nico (? - death 23 March 273)
  • anonymus (in 447)
  • Rogato (in 501), attending the synod convoked in Rome by Pope Symmachus
  • Secondo (in March-April 559), in there letters from in Pope Pelagius I
  • Vittorino (Victorinus) (late sixth century) posthumously mentioned in a letter by Pope Gregory the Great (August 591) to the papal legate in Sicily, about church property disposessed during his episcopate in Taormina
  • Secondino ( 591 - after 603) received letters in 591 al 603 from the same pope Gregorio Magno, who sent Secondino two books on homilies to proofread
  • Giusto (in 649), participant in the Lateran council held by pope Martinus I against the heresy Monotheletism
  • Pietro (Peter), participant in the Roman synod held by pope Agatho in 680 to prepare the Sixth Ecumenical Council (680–681) in Constantinople.
  • Leontius (eighth century, known from a seal)
  • Nicetas (eighth century, known from a seal)
  • Johannes, attended the Council of Nicaea in 787
  • Zaccaria Cofo (from before 853) received the rank of Archbishop for his support to Patriarch Photius of Constantinople, but was deposed on 1 September 860 by Pope Nicholas I as confirmed by the council of Constantinople in 869-870.
  • Saint Procopio (? - death 906, decapitated by the Arab invaders.

Taormina: Titular see

The diocese was nominally restored in 1969 as Latin Titular bishopric of Taormina (Italian) / Tauromenium (Latin) / Tauromenitan(us) (Latin)

Taormina panorama of the square

It has had the following incumbents, so far not of the fitting Episcopal (lowest) rank but of higher archiepiscopal rank :

  • Titular Archbishop: Jean-Guenolé-Marie Daniélou (French), Jesuit Order (S.J.) (1969.04.11 – 1969.04.28), without actual prelature; later created Cardinal-Deacon of S. Saba (1969.04.30 – death 1974.05.20)
  • Titular Archbishop: Robert Emmet Lucey (1969.05.23 – resigned 1970.12.31) on emeritate, as former Bishop of Amarillo (Texas, USA) (1934.02.10 – 1941.01.23), Metropolitan Archbishop of San Antonio (Texas, USA) (1941.01.23 – retired 1969.05.23), died 1977
  • Titular Archbishop: Edoardo Rovida (Italian) (1971.07.31 – ...), as papal diplomat and emeritate : Apostolic Nuncio (ambassador) to Panama (1971.07.31 – 1977.08.13), Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to Zaire (1977.08.13 – 1981.03.07), Permanent Observer to Office of the United Nations and Specialized Institutions in Geneva (UNOG) (1981.03.07 – 1985.01.26), Apostolic Nuncio to Switzerland (1985.01.26 – 1993.03.15) and Apostolic Nuncio to Liechtenstein (1987.03.07 – 1993.03.15), Apostolic Nuncio to Portugal (1993.03.15 – retired 2002.10.12).

Taormina: Main sights

Casa Cipolla in Taormina dates from the 15th century

The present town of Taormina occupies the ancient site, on a hill which forms the last projecting point of the mountain ridge that extends along the coast from Cape Pelorus to this point. The site of the old town is about 250 metres (820 ft) above the sea, while a very steep and almost isolated rock, crowned by a Saracen castle, rises about 150 metres (490 ft) higher. This is the likely site of the ancient Arx or citadel, an inaccessible position mentioned by ancient writers. Portions of the ancient walls may be traced at intervals all round the brow of the hill, the whole of the summit of which was occupied by the ancient city. Numerous fragments of ancient buildings are scattered over its whole surface, including extensive reservoirs of water, sepulchres, tesselated pavements, etc., and the remains of a spacious edifice, commonly called a Naumachia, but the real purpose of which it is difficult to determine.

The Ancient theatre of Taormina is built for the most part of brick, and is therefore probably of Roman date, though the plan and arrangement are in accordance with those of Greek, rather than Roman, theatres; whence it is supposed that the present structure was rebuilt upon the foundations of an older theatre of the Greek period. With a diameter of 109 metres (358 ft) (after an expansion in the 2nd century), this theatre is the second largest of its kind in Sicily (after that of Syracuse); it is frequently used for operatic and theatrical performances and for concerts. The greater part of the original seats have disappeared, but the wall which surrounded the whole cavea is preserved, and the proscenium with the back wall of the scena and its appendages, of which only traces remain in most ancient theatres, are here preserved in singular integrity, and contribute much to the picturesque effect, as well as to the interest, of the ruin. From the fragments of architectural decorations still extant we learn that it was of the Corinthian order, and richly ornamented. Some portions of a temple are also visible, converted into the church of San Pancrazio, but the edifice is of small size.

View of Mt. Etna erupting as seen from Taormina

Taormina: Others

  • Palazzo Corvaja (10th century)
  • Baroque fountain (1635)
  • Church of San Domenico
  • Anglican Church of Saint George
  • Public Garden, Giardini della Villa Comunale

Taormina: Culture and tourism

Taormina as seen from the Saracen castle overlooking the town. The theatre is visible in the distance.

Just south of Taormina is the Isola Bella, a nature reserve; and further south, situated beside a bay, is the popular seaside resort of Giardini Naxos. Tours of the Capo Sant' Andrea grottos are also available.

The village of Taormina is perched on a cliff overlooking the Ionian sea. Besides the ancient Greek theatre, it has many old churches, lively bars, fine restaurants and antique shops. Taormina is approximately a forty-five-minute drive away from Europe's largest active volcano, Mount Etna.

Taormina: Cultural references

Icelandic writer Halldór Laxness, who won the Nobel prize for literature in 1955, wrote most of his first novel, Vefarinn mikli frá Kasmír ("The Great Weaver from Kashmir"), in Taormina which he then praised highly in his book of autobiographical essays, Skáldatími ("The Time of the Poet", 1963).

Between 1948 and 1999 the English writer Daphne Phelps lived in the Casa Cuseni designed and built by Robert Hawthorn Kitson in 1905, and entertained various friends including Bertrand Russell, Roald Dahl, Henry Faulkner, and Tennessee Williams.

The British songwriter Mark Knopfler evokes the town in his song "Lights of Taormina" extracted from his 2015 album Tracker.

Taormina: Events

Many exhibitions and events are organized during the summer in Taormina. The exceptional stage for pop and classical concerts, opera and important performances often recorded by television (for example, the ceremony of the Silver Ribbon Award, the Festivalbar, the Kore) is the Ancient Theatre. Since 1983, the most important performances are realized by Taormina Arte, the cultural institution which organizes one of the most famous music, theatre and dance festivals. Within the program of Taormina Arte there is the Taormina Film Fest, the well-known cinema festival, the heir of the Cinema Festival of Messina and Taormina, dating from 1960, which for about twenty years has hosted the David of Donatello Awards with the participation of the most famous Italian film stars. During the Taormina Film Fest the Silver Ribbons are now awarded, a prize created by Italian Film Journalists.

Since 2005, in October, Taormina Arte has organized the Giuseppe Sinopoli Festival, a festival dedicated completely to the great conductor, who died in 2001 and was for many years the artistic director of Taormina Arte.

Taormina: Famous locals

  • Tyndarion (278 BC) tyrant of Tauromenium
  • Francesco Buzzurro (born October 10, 1959) guitarist

Taormina: See also

  • List of Catholic dioceses in Italy
  • European archaeology

Taormina: References

  1. Diod. xvi. 68; Plut. Timol. 10.
  2. Diod. l. c.; Plut. l. c.
  3. Marcellin. Vit. Thucyd. § 27.
  4. Diod. xxii. Exc. H. p. 495.
  5. Diod. l. c. pp. 495, 496.
  6. Diod. xxiii. p. 502.
  7. Sic. 5
  8. Cic. Verr. ii. 6. 6, iii. 6, v. 19.
  9. Diod. xxxiv. Exc. Phot. p. 528; Oros. v. 9.
  10. Appian, B.C. v. 103, 105, 106-11, 116; Dion Cass. xlix. 5.
  11. Diod, xvi. 7.
  12. Strab. vi. pp. 267, 268.
  13. Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Ptol. iii. 4. § 9
  14. Plin. xiv. 6. s. 8
  15. Athen. v. p. 207.
  16. Juv. v. 93.
  17. Loud, G. A. (2007). The Latin Church in Norman Italy. Cambridge University Press. p. 494. ISBN 978-0-521-25551-6. Buy book ISBN 0-521-25551-1" "At the end of the twelfth century ... While in Apulia Greeks were in a majority – and indeed present in any numbers at all – only in the Salento peninsula in the extreme south, at the time of the conquest they had an overwhelming preponderance in Lucaina and central and southern Calabria, as well as comprising anything up to a third of the population of Sicily, concentrated especially in the north-east of the island, the Val Demone.
  18. http://www.passportmagazine.com/destinations/Taormina.php
  19. The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations Since the ... - Edward Chaney - Google Books
  20. "A Village to Make Us Proud", The Coffs Coast Advocate
  • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
  • Official website
  • Taormina Arte official website
  • Taormina
  • GCatholic - former & titular bishopric
  • TravelTaormina.com - Taormina Tourist Guide
  • Taormina Photo Essay
  • Rocco Pirri, Sicilia sacra, vol. I, Palermo 1733, pp. 488–490
  • Gaetano Moroni, lemma Taormina, in Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, vol. 72, Venice 1855, pp. 243–246
  • Giuseppe Cappelletti, Le Chiese d'Italia dalla loro origine sino ai nostri giorni, Venice 1870, vol. XXI, pp. 607–609
  • Giovanni di Giovanni, Storia ecclesiastica di Taormina, Palermo 1870
  • Francesco Lanzoni, Le diocesi d'Italia dalle origini al principio del secolo VII (an. 604), vol. II, Faenza 1927, pp. 616–624
  • Paul Fridolin Kehr, Italia Pontificia, X, Berlin 1975, pp. 349–354
  • Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 955
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