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Hotels of Tarnów
A hotel in Tarnów is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Tarnów hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Tarnów are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Tarnów hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Tarnów hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Tarnów have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:
Upscale luxury hotels in Tarnów
An upscale full service hotel facility in Tarnów that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Tarnów hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.
Full service hotels in Tarnów
Full service Tarnów hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.
Historic inns and boutique hotels in Tarnów
Boutique hotels of Tarnów are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Tarnów boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Tarnów may be classified as luxury hotels.
Focused or select service hotels in Tarnów
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Tarnów travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Tarnów focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.
Economy and limited service hotels in Tarnów
Small to medium-sized Tarnów hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Tarnów traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Tarnów hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.
Guest houses and B&Bs in Tarnów
A bed and breakfast in Tarnów is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Tarnów bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Tarnów B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.
Hostels in Tarnów
Tarnów hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Tarnów hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.
Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Tarnów
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Tarnów hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Tarnów lack an on-site restaurant.
Timeshare and destination clubs in Tarnów
Tarnów timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Tarnów often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Tarnów on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.
Motels in Tarnów
A Tarnów motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Tarnów for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Tarnów motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.
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Tarnów (Polish pronunciation: [ˈtarnuf] ( listen); German: Tarnau; Yiddish: טאָרנע, Torne) is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants as of June 2009 (metro area 269,000 inhabitants). The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east-west connection from Lviv to Kraków. Also from Tarnów two additional lines depart: a southward railway line to the Slovak border via Stróże, as well as a minor northward line to Szczucin (now defunct).
Tarnów: Etymology and location
Tarnów lies at the Carpathian foothills, on the Dunajec and the Biała rivers. The area of the city is 72.4 square kilometres (28.0 sq mi). It is divided into sixteen districts, known in Polish as osiedla. A few kilometers west of the city lies the district of Mościce, built in the late 1920s, together with a large chemical plant. The district was named after President of Poland, Ignacy Mościcki.
The first documented mention of the settlement dates back to 1105, spelled as Tharnow. The name later evolved to Tarnowo (1229), Tarnów (1327), and Tharnow (1473). The place name, Tarnów, is widely used in different forms across Slavic Europe, and lands which used to be inhabited by Slavs, such as eastern Germany, Hungary, and northern Greece. There is a German town, Tarnow, Greek Tyrnavos (also spelled as Tirnovo), Czech Trnov, Bulgarian Veliko Tarnovo and Malko Tarnovo, as well as different Trnovos/Trnowos in Slovenia, Slovakia, Serbia, Bosnia, and Macedonia. The name Tarnów comes from an early Slavic word trn/tarn, which means a thorn, or an area covered by thorny plants.
Already in the mid-9th century, on the Tarnów’s St. Martin Mount (Góra sw. Marcina, 2.5 kilometes from the centre of today’s city), a Slavic gord was established, probably by the Vistulans. Due to efforts of local archaeologists, we know that the size of the gord was almost 16 hectares, and it was surrounded by a rampart. The settlement was probably destroyed in the 1030s or the 1050s, during either a popular rebellion against Christianity (see Baptism of Poland), or Czech invasion of Lesser Poland. In the mid-11th century, a new gord was established on the Biała river. It was a royal property, which in the late 11th or early 12th century was handed over to the Tyniec Benedictine Abbey. The name Tarnów, with a different spelling, was for the first time mentioned in a document of Papal legate, Cardinal Gilles de Paris (1124).
The first documented mention of Tarnów occurs in the year 1309, when a list of miracles of Kinga of Poland specifies a woman named Marta, who was resident of the settlement. In 1327, a knight named Spicymir (Leliwa coat of arms) purchased a village of Tarnów Wielki, and three years later, founded his own private town. On March 7, 1330, King Władysław I the Elbow-high granted Magdeburg rights to Tarnów. In the same year, construction of a castle on the St. Martin Hill was completed by Castellan of Kraków, Spycimir Leliwita of Leliwa coat of arms (its ruins can still be seen).
Tarnów remained in the hands of the Leliwa family, out of which in the 15th century the Tarnowski family emerged. In the 14th century, numerous German settlers immigrated from Kraków and Nowy Sącz (see Walddeutsche, Ostsiedlung). During the 17th century Scottish immigrants began to come in large numbers. In 1528 the exiled King of Hungary János Szapolyai lived in the town. The town prospered during the Polish Golden Age, when it belonged to Hetman Jan Tarnowski (1488-1561). In the mid-16th century, its population was app. 1,200, with 200 houses located within town’s defensive wall (the wall itself had been built in the mid-15th century, and expanded in the early 16th century). In 1467, the waterworks and sewage systems were completed, with large cisterns filled with drinking water built in the main market square. In the 16th century, during the period known as Polish Golden Age, Tarnów had a school, a synagogue, a Calvinist prayer house, Roman Catholic churches, and up to twelve guilds
Tarnów: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Tarnów Cathedral preserved one of the most beautiful examples of renaissance and mannerist tomb monuments in the country.
After the death of Jan Tarnowski (16 May 1561), Italian sculptor Jan Maria Padovano began creating one of the most beautiful examples of Renaissance headstones in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The monument of hetman Tarnowski is almost 14 meters tall, and stands in St. Anne Chapel, which is located in northern nave of the Tarnów Cathedral. Padovano completed his work in 1573; furthermore, he designed the Renaissance town hall, and oversaw its remodeling in the 1560s. At that time, in 28 niches of the town hall were portraits of members of the Tarnowski family - from Spicymir Leliwita to Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski, who died in 1567. In 1570 Tarnów became property of the Ostrogski family, after Zofia Tarnowska, the daughter of the hetman, married prince Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski. In 1588, after Konstanty’s death, the town changed hands several times, belonging to different families, which slowed its development. Until the Partitions of Poland, Tarnów belonged to the County of Pilzno, Sandomierz Voivodeship. The town, like almost all locations of Lesser Poland, was devastated in October 1655, during the Swedish invasion of Poland, and as a result, its population declined from 2,000 to 768. In 1723, the town became property of the Sanguszko family, which purchased it from the Lubomirski family.
Tarnów: Habsburg Empire
After the first partition of Poland (1772), Tarnów was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, and remained in Austrian Galicia until late 1918. Austrian rule initially brought positive changes, as the town ceased to be private property, became the seat of a county (German: kreis), and of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tarnów (1783). On March 14, 1794, Józef Bem was born in Tarnów. In the 1830s, under the influence of events in Congress Poland (see November Uprising), Tarnów emerged as a center of Polish conspirational organizations. Plans for a national uprising in Galicia failed in early 1846, when local peasants began murdering the nobility in the Galician slaughter. The massacre, led by Jakub Szela (born in Smarżowa), began on February 18, 1846. Szela’s peasant units surrounded and attacked manor houses and settlements located in three counties - Sanok, Jasło, and Tarnów. The revolt got out of hand and the Austrians had to put it down.
Tarnów went through the period of quick development in the second half of the 19th century, due to the program of construction of railway system. In 1852, the town received rail connection with Kraków, due to the Galician Railway of Archduke Charles Louis, and in 1870, its population was 21,779. In 1878, gas lighting was introduced, and three years later, first daily newspaper appeared. In 1888, the Diocese Museum was founded by Rev. Jozef Baba, and in 1910, Tarnów received modern waterworks, a power plant and a new complex of the main rail station. The city remained a hotspot of Polish conspirational activities, with up to 20% of all members of the Polish Legions in World War I coming from Tarnów and its area. On November 10, 1914, units of the Russian Imperial Army captured Tarnów, and remained in the city until May 6, 1915 (see Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive). In the early stages of the offensive, Tarnów was shelled by German-Austrian heavy artillery, which brought destruction to some of its districts.
Market Square with historic and colourful tenements
Tarnów: Second Polish Republic
Tarnów was one of the first Polish cities to be freed during the rebirth of Poland following World War I. The Polish Legions liberated the city on the night of October 30–31, 1918. In the Second Polish Republic, Tarnów belonged to Kraków Voivodeship, and gave the newly established country many outstanding figures, such as Franciszek Latinik and Wincenty Witos. In early 1927, construction of a large chemical plant was initiated in the suburban village of Świerczków (pl), which is now a part of the industrial borough of Mościce, a district of the city. Before the outbreak of World War II, the population of Tarnów was 40,000, of which almost half were Jewish.
Tarnów: 1939 invasion of Poland
On August 28, 1939, a Nazi saboteur conducted the Tarnów rail station bomb attack killing 20 civilians, two days before the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany. The city was overrun by the German forces on September 7, 1939. Tarnów was incorporated into the General Government territory as the seat of the Kreishauptmanschaft Tarnow district on October 26, 1939.
On June 14, 1940, the first mass transport left the Tarnów station to Auschwitz concentration camp, with 728 Polish political prisoners. All throughout the German occupation of Poland Tarnów was an important center of the Armia Krajowa (AK) and other resistance organizations. In the mid-1944, AK’s 16th Infantry Regiment “Barbara” took part in Operation Tempest. The Wehrmacht retreated from Tarnów on January 18, 1945, and the city was captured by the Red Army. A few months later, the Museum of Tarnów Land was opened, and Tarnów began a postwar recovery. In 1957, State Theatre of Ludwik Solski was opened, and in 1975 Tarnów became the capital of a voivodeship.
First transport of Polish captives deported from Tarnów to Auschwitz concentration camp during German AB-Aktion in Poland, June 1940
Tarnów: The Jews of Tarnów
Before World War II, about 25,000 Jews lived in Tarnów. Jews, whose recorded presence in the town went back to the mid-15th century, comprised about half of the town's total population. A large portion of Jewish business in Tarnów was devoted to garment and hat manufacturing. The Jewish community was ideologically diverse and included religious Hasidim, secular Zionists, and many more.
Immediately following the German occupation of the city on September 8, 1939, the persecution of the Jews began. German units burned down most of the city's synagogues on September 9 and drafted Jews for forced-labor projects. Tarnów was incorporated into the Generalgouvernement. Many Tarnów Jews fled to the east, while a large influx of refugees from elsewhere in occupied Poland continued to increase the town's Jewish population. In early November, the Germans ordered the establishment of a Jewish council (Judenrat) to transmit orders and regulations to the Jewish community. Among the duties of the Jewish council were enforcement of special taxation on the community and providing workers for forced labor.
Jewish men from Tarnów Ghetto are humiliated and tortured by German policemen
During 1941, life for the Jews of Tarnów became increasingly precarious. The Germans imposed a large collective fine on the community. Jews were required to hand in their valuables. Roundups for labor became more frequent and killings became more commonplace and arbitrary. Deportations from Tarnów began in June 1942, when about 13,500 Jews were sent to the Belzec extermination camp. The first major act in the extermination of the Jews of Tarnów was the so-called "first operation" from 11–19 June 1942. The Germans gathered thousands of Jews in the Rynek (market place), and then they were tortured and killed. During this time period, on the streets of the town and in the Jewish cemetery, about 3,000 Jews were shot; in the woods of Zbylitowska Góra a few kilometers away from Tarnów a further 7,000 were murdered. According to a document from Michal Borawski born in 1926, featured at the entry of the Bimah as part of the panel offered by the Batorego Foundation, the street stairs ("małe schody" or little stairs) from the town-center to the Bernardynski street (where the Bernardine Monastery is located), had to be cleaned of the blood by the local fire brigade for three days.
Existing remains of the old synagogue
After the June deportations, the Germans forced the surviving Jews of Tarnów, along with thousands of Jews from neighboring towns, into the new Tarnów Ghetto. The ghetto was surrounded by a high wooden fence. Living conditions in the ghetto were deplorable, marked by severe food shortages, a lack of sanitary facilities, and a forced-labor regimen in factories and workshops producing goods for the German war industry. In September 1942, the Germans ordered all ghetto residents to report to Targowica Square, where they were subjected to a 'selection' in which those deemed 'non-essential' were singled out for deportation to Belzec. About 8,000 people were deported. Thereafter, deportations from Tarnów to extermination camps continued sporadically; the Germans deported a group of 2,500 in November 1942.
Tarnów: Holocaust resistance
In the midst of the 1942 deportations, some Jews in Tarnów organized a Jewish resistance movement. Many of the resistance leaders were young Zionists involved in the Hashomer Hatzair youth movement. Many of those who left the ghetto to join the partisans fighting in the forests later fell in battle with SS units. Other resisters sought to establish escape routes to Hungary, but with limited success. The Germans decided to destroy the Tarnów ghetto in September 1943. The surviving 10,000 Jews were deported, 7,000 of them to Auschwitz and 3,000 to the Plaszow concentration camp in Kraków. In late 1943, Tarnów was declared "free of Jews" (Judenrein). By the end of the war, the overwhelming majority of Tarnów Jews had been murdered by the Germans. Although 700 Jews returned in 1945, some of them soon left the city. Many moved to Israel.
Tarnów is one of the warmest cities in Poland. The average temperature in January is −0.4 °C (31 °F) and 19.8 °C (68 °F) in July. It is claimed that Tarnów has the longest summer in Poland spreading from mid May to mid September (above 118 days).
Tarnów is an important center of economy and industry. The city has chemical plants including Zakłady Azotowe w Tarnowie-Mościcach S.A., Becker Farby Przemysłowe Sp. z o.o., Summit Packaging Polska Sp. z o.o.; as well as food plants (Fritar), building materials (Leier Polska S.A., Bruk-Bet), textiles (Spółdzielnia "Tarnowska Odzież, Tarnospin, Tarkonfex"), and several warehouses, as well as a distribution center of the Lidl supermarket chain. Tarnów is an important center of natural gas industry, with headquarters of three different gas corporations.
Tarnów is an important road and rail hub. It lies at the intersection of two major roads - the motorway along European route E40, and the National Road nr. 73, which goes from Kielce to Jasło. Furthermore, the city is a rail junction, with four lines: three main electrified routes (westward to Kraków, eastward to Dębica and southward to Nowy Sącz), as well as secondary-importance local connection to Szczucin. The history of rail transport in Tarnów dates back to the year 1856, when the Galician Railway of Archduke Charles Louis reached the city. The architectural complex of Tarnów Main Station, fashioned after the Lviv railway station was completed in 1906 by the Austrian Partition. Since 2010, Tarnów station houses a gallery of modern art, the only such gallery located in a rail station in Poland. Tarnów also has three additional stations: Tarnów Mościce, as well as Tarnów Północny and Tarnów Klikowa, both of which are currently out of service.
The city's public transport system consists of 29 municipal bus routes, which provide convenient transportation to all districts. In 1911-1942 Tarnów had a tram line, with the length of 2.5 kilometres, since replaced by buses.
Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Tarnów constituency in 2005 included: Urszula Augustyn, PO, Edward Czesak, PiS, Aleksander Grad, PO, Barbara Marianowska, PiS, Józef Rojek, PiS, Wiesław Woda, PSL and Michał Wojtkiewicz, PiS. Member of the European Parliament elected in 2007 was Urszula Gacek, PO, EPP-ED.
Panorama of the Old Town in Tarnów
Points of interest around the city include:
Market Square in the Old Town, with medieval urban layout of streets and tenement houses, some from the Renaissance period,
14th century Town Hall,
Mikolajowski House (1524), the oldest tenement house in Tarnow,
Ruins of the Tarnowski family castle,
Remains of the Old Synagogue,
Remains of the 14th - 16th century defensive wall,
16th century two fortified towers,
Bernadine Abbey complex,
Late 16th century Florecki House,
18th and 19th century manor houses in the suburbs,
Jewish Cemetery, founded in 1583,
Old Cemetery (late 18th century),
Sanguszko Palace at Gumniska,
Rail Station (1855),
City Park (1866),
Mausoleum of Józef Bem,
Roman Catholic churches, such as the Tarnów Cathedral (14th century, renovated in 1889-1900), and Holy Trinity church (16th century).
Małopolska Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomiczna
Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa in Tarnów
Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu
John Paul II High School in Tarnów
Unia Tarnów - speedway team, championship of Poland in 2004, 2005 and 2012. Sponsored by Mościce Nitrate Factory. Also called Jaskółki (Swallows)
ZKS Unia Tarnów - Zakładowy Klub Sportowy Unia Tarnów (Workplace Sports Club United Tarnów) - Soccer team, currently in the I League in the Polska Liga 2005/2006 season.
Tarnovia Tarnów - Soccer team, also in II League in the Polska Liga 2005/2006 season.
Unia Wisła Paged Tarnów - men's basketball team, 6th in Era Basket Liga in 2003/2004 season.
Besides Catholics other Christian denominations are also present in Tarnów including: Baptist Church, Free Brothers Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Methodist Church, Pentecostal Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church and the non-denominational Evangelical Movement "The Lord is my Banner". Before World War II there was a large population of Jews comprising half of the city's population, but now there remain just monuments of their past presence.
According to 2007 Catholic Church statistics provided by the Instytut Statystyki Kościoła Katolickiego SAC, Tarnów is the most religious city in Poland, with 72.5% of the congregation of the Diocese of Tarnów attending Mass weekly. However, as noted by the Institute director, Father Witold Zdaniewicz, the church teachings are not being followed in the area of intimacy.
Tarnów: International relations
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Tarnów: Twin towns - Sister cities
Tarnów is twinned with:
Trenčín in Slovakia
Kiskőrös in Hungary
Schoten in Belgium
Blackburn in United Kingdom
Casalmaggiore in Italy
Veszprém in Hungary
Nowy Sącz in Poland
Kotlas in Russia
Ternopil in Ukraine
Bila Tserkva in Ukraine
Vinnytsia in Ukraine
Tarnów: Notable residents
Józef Bem (1794–1850), Polish general
Roman Brandstaetter (1906–1987), a Jewish writer
Józef Cyrankiewicz (1911–1989)
Charles Denner (1926–1995), French actor
Jacek Dukaj (b. 1974)
Ignace J(ay). Gelb (1907–1985), a Jewish American ancient historian, Assyriologist
Allan Gray (born Josef Żmigród, 1902–1973), composer
Michał Heller (b. 1936)
Rabbi Löb Judah ben Isaac
Bartosz Kapustka (b. 1996), footballer
Jozef Kapustka (b. 1969), pianist
Naphtali Keller (January 25, 1834 - August 5, 1865, Rožnava, Moravia), Jewish scholar; son of Israel Mendel Keller
Leon Kellner (1859 - ?), Jewish scholar
Tadeusz Klimecki (November 23, 1895 - July 4, 1943, Gibraltar), Chief of Polish General Staff
José Krakover (es) (November 2, 1883 - April 28, 1957, La Plata, Argentina), Jewish Photographer
Thomas Bosco-Cwiok (b. 1989), Polish Professional Golfer
Krystyna Kuperberg (born Trybulec, 1944, Tarnów)
Siegfried Lipiner (1856, Jarosław - 1911), a Galician-Austrian Jewish poet
Anny Ondra (1903–1987), Czech movie star
Joseph Öttinger (May 7, 1818 - October 2, 1895, Kraków), Galician-Jewish physician
Tony Rickardsson (), motorcycle speedway rider, honorable resident (since June 22, 2006)
Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko (1842, Tarnów – 1903), a szlachcic, conservative politician
Wilhelm Sasnal (born 1972, Tarnów), a Polish painter
Jan Szczepanik (1872, Rudniki - 1926, Tarnów), a Polish inventor
Jan Tarnowski (means "John of Tarnów", Lithuanian: Jonas Tarnauskis) (1488, Tarnów - 1561), a szlachcic
Jan of Tarnów (c.1349-1409)
Jan of Tarnów (1367–1433)
Rafał z Tarnowa (c. 1330-1373)
Rabbi Marcus Weissmann-Chajes (1830–1914), Jewish scholar
Rabbi Salo Wittmayer Baron (1895–1989), Jewish historian
Franciszek Zachara (1898–1966), composer and pianist
Stanisław Opałko (pl) (1911-1993), industrialist and politician
Agata Mróz-Olszewska (1982-2008), The Polish volleyball Player, The twos Champions Europe in volleyball .
Mateusz Klich (1990–present), footballer
Gmina Miasta Tarnowa. "Kalendarium miasta Tarnowa". Retrieved 2016-04-01.
Zdzisław Spieralski, Jan Tarnowski 1488-1561, Warszawa 1977, p. 124-125.
(English) "Volume 24". The Penny cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. C. Knight. 1842. p. 66.
"Tarnow". Ushmm.org. OTRS Ticket. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
Jewish Community in Tarnów on Virtual Shtetl, the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw.
Adam Bartosz, In the footsteps of the Jews of Tarnów, 2007 Archived 2 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
"Batorego Foundation english homepage". Batory.org.pl. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
"TARNW, Weather History and Climate Data". Worldclimate.com. 2007-02-04. Retrieved 2009-05-06.