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Hotels of Toulouse

A hotel in Toulouse is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Toulouse hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Toulouse are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Toulouse hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Toulouse hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Toulouse have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Toulouse
An upscale full service hotel facility in Toulouse that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Toulouse hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Toulouse
Full service Toulouse hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Toulouse
Boutique hotels of Toulouse are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Toulouse boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Toulouse may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Toulouse
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Toulouse travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Toulouse focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Toulouse
Small to medium-sized Toulouse hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Toulouse traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Toulouse hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Toulouse
A bed and breakfast in Toulouse is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Toulouse bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Toulouse B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Toulouse
Toulouse hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Toulouse hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Toulouse
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Toulouse hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Toulouse lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Toulouse
Toulouse timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Toulouse often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Toulouse on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Toulouse
A Toulouse motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Toulouse for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Toulouse motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Toulouse

Prefecture and commune
Hôpital de La Grave, Ariane 5 (Cité de l'espace), Basilica of Saint-Sernin, Place du Capitole, the very first Airbus A380, Musée des Augustins
Hôpital de La Grave, Ariane 5 (Cité de l'espace), Basilica of Saint-Sernin, Place du Capitole, the very first Airbus A380, Musée des Augustins
Coat of arms of Toulouse
Coat of arms
Motto: Per Tolosa totjorn mai.
(Occitan for "For Toulouse, always more")
Toulouse is located in France
Coordinates:  / 43.6045; 1.444  / 43.6045; 1.444
Country France
Region Occitanie
Department Haute-Garonne
Arrondissement Toulouse
Canton Toulouse-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11
Intercommunality Toulouse Métropole
• Mayor (2014–2020) Jean-Luc Moudenc (LR)
Area 118.3 km (45.7 sq mi)
• Urban (2010) 811.60 km (313.36 sq mi)
• Metro (2010) 5,381.49 km (2,077.80 sq mi)
Population (Jan. 2013) 1
• Rank 4th in France
• Density 0.0085/km (0.022/sq mi)
• Urban (Jan. 2013) 935,440
• Metro (Jan. 2013) 1,312,304
Demonym(s) English: Toulousian
French: Toulousain(e)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
INSEE/Postal code 31555 /
Website http://www.toulouse.fr/

French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Toulouse (UK: /tˈlz/; French pronunciation: [tuluz] locally: [tuˈluzə]; Occitan: Tolosa [tuˈluzɔ], Latin: Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie. The city is on the banks of the River Garonne, 150 kilometres (93 miles) from the Mediterranean Sea, 230 km (143 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean and 680 km (420 mi) from Paris. It is the fourth-largest city in France, with 466,297 inhabitants as of January 2014.

The Toulouse Metro area, with 1,312,304 inhabitants as of 2014, is France's fourth-largest metropolitan area, after Paris, Lyon and Marseille, and ahead of Lille and Bordeaux.

Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus (formerly EADS), the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, ATR and the Aerospace Valley. It also hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNES's Toulouse Space Centre (CST), the largest space centre in Europe. Thales Alenia Space, and Astrium Satellites also have a significant presence in Toulouse.

The University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe (founded in 1229) and, with more than 103,000 students, it is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the universities of Paris, Lyon and Lille.

The air route between Toulouse–Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014. According to the rankings of L'Express and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city.

The city was the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom in the 5th century and the capital of the province of Languedoc in the Late Middle Ages and early modern period (provinces were abolished during the French Revolution), making it the unofficial capital of the cultural region of Occitania (Southern France). It is now the capital of the Occitanie region, the largest region in Metropolitan France.

A city with unique architecture made of pinkish terracotta bricks, which earned it the nickname la Ville Rose ("the Pink City"), Toulouse counts two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Canal du Midi (designated in 1996 and shared with other cities), and the Basilica of St. Sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route.

Toulouse: Geography

Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Imperial conversion
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Toulouse: Hydrography

The city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne, Touch and Hers-Mort.

Toulouse: Climate

Toulouse has a humid subtropical climate (borderline Cfb/Cfa in the Köppen climate classification) which can be qualified as "submediterranean" due to its proximity to the Mediterranean climate zone.

Climate data for Toulouse (1981–2010 averages and records 1882–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.2
Average high °C (°F) 9.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.9
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
Record low °C (°F) −17.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.3
Average precipitation days 9.2 7.8 8.6 9.6 9.9 7.1 5.0 6.1 6.5 8.1 9.2 8.6 95.7
Average snowy days 2.1 2.0 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.6 7.5
Average relative humidity (%) 87 82 77 76 76 72 68 71 74 81 85 88 78.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 92.5 115.0 175.1 186.1 209.2 227.6 252.6 238.8 204.0 149.2 96.0 85.3 2,031.3
Source #1: Météo France
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)

Toulouse: History

Vomitorium at the Roman amphitheatre in Toulouse

Toulouse: Early history

The Garonne Valley was a central point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa (Τώλοσσα in Greek, and of its inhabitants, the Tolosates, first recorded in the 2nd century BC), it is of unknown meaning or origin, possibly from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, but has also been connected to the name of the Gaulish Volcae Tectosages.

Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC, when it became a Roman military outpost. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its major cities, in the early 6th century even serving as its capital, before it fell to the Franks under Clovis in 507 (Battle of Vouillé). From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm.

In 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse. Odo's victory was a small obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe, and Muslims finally occupied a large territory including Poitiers. Charles Martel, a decade later, won the Battle of Tours, also called the Battle of Poitiers.

The Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, and a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th century. The Battle of Toulouse of 844, pitting Charles the Bald against Pepin II of Aquitaine, was key in the Carolingian Civil War.

Toulouse: County of Toulouse

Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse was a leader of the First Crusade

During the Carolingian era, the town rose in status, becoming the capital of the County of Toulouse.

In the 12th century, consuls took over the running of the town and these proved to be difficult years. In particular, it was a time of religious turmoil. In Toulouse, the Cathars tried to set up a community here, but were routed by Simon de Montfort's troops. The Dominican Order was founded in Toulouse in 1215 by Saint Dominic in this context of struggle against the Cathar heresy. The subsequent arrival of the Inquisition led to a period of religious fervour during which time the Dominican Couvent des Jacobins was founded. Governed by Raimond II and a group of city nobles, Toulouse's urban boundaries stretched beyond its walls to the north and as far south as Saint Michel.

In the Treaty of Paris of 1229, Toulouse formally submitted to the crown of France. The county's sole heiress Joan was engaged to Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, a younger brother of Louis IX of France. The marriage became legal in 1241, but it remained childless so that after Joan's death the county fell to the crown of France by inheritance. Also in 1229, University of Toulouse was established after the Parisian model, intended as a means to dissolve the heretic movement.

Various monastic orders, like the congregation of the order of frères prêcheurs, were started. They found home in Les Jacobins. In parallel, a long period of inquisition began inside the Toulouse walls. The fear of repression obliged the notabilities to exile, or to convert themselves. The inquisition lasted nearly 400 years, making Toulouse its capital. Count Raimond VII was convicted of heresy and died in 1249 without an heir.

Toulouse: Within the Kingdom of France

In 1271, Toulouse was incorporated into the kingdom of France and declared a "royal city". With this accolade, it started to transform itself into an intellectual and artistic centre. In 1323 the Consistori del Gay Saber was established in Toulouse to preserve the lyric art of the troubadours. Toulouse became the centre of Occitan literary culture for the next hundred years; the Consistori was last active in 1484.

But the 14th century was to mark a downturn in the city's fortunes. First came a pogrom against Toulouse's Jewish population by Crusaders in 1320, then, in 1348, the Black Death, then the Hundred Years' War. Famine and floods also took their toll on the city. Despite strong immigration, the population lost 10,000 inhabitants in 70 years. By 1405 Toulouse had only 19,000 people.

It was not until the 15th century that Toulouse started to prosper. Reinforcing its place as an administrative center, the city grew richer, participating in the trade of Bordeaux wine with England, as well as cereals and textiles. A parliament was set up by Charles VII and the city's merchants grew ever wealthier. Their economic well-being was mostly based on a plant-based blue dye known as pastel, made from woad, which they exported throughout Europe. These pastel merchants built grand town houses and, before long, both architecture and the fine arts flourished in the city as never before.

The bubble finally burst in the mid-16th century. Another blue dye arrived from India, known as indigo. It wiped out the pastel trade in one fell swoop. Religious conflict broke out between the Catholics and the Protestant Calvinists. At the same time, buildings were destroyed by fire and there were yet more outbreaks of famine and plague.

The Capitole de Toulouse, Toulouse's city hall, is an example of the 18th-century architectural projects in the city.

In 1761, a Toulouse merchant, Jean Calas, was accused of murdering his own son to prevent his conversion to Catholicism. Calas was put to death a year later. Toulouse's persecution of Protestants such as Calas was widely condemned and religious intolerance did gradually disappear.

During the remainder of the 18th century, the city was slowly modernised. This included a period of urban rebuilding, which began in earnest from 1750. New projects included the building of the Jardin Royal. The Grand Rond also dates to this period, along with the Canal de Brienne and the Quai Dillon.

Toulouse: Within the French Republic

The Battle of Toulouse (1814) was one of the final battles of the Napoleonic Wars, four days after Napoleon's surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition. Toulouse, the regional capital, proved stoutly defended by Marshal Soult.

In 1856, the Matabiau Station was opened, launching a new age in transportation. Other transport improvements included the widening of streets to form more spacious boulevards. Gradually, Toulouse emerged as a modern French city.

During the early decades of the 20th century, Toulouse witnessed the mass arrival of immigrants from northern France, Italy and Spain. New industries were developed in the city, including aircraft and chemical manufacturing. The French airmail service was set up here as well. During the Second World War, Toulouse played a vital role in the Resistance movement.

In the 1960s, a new wave of immigrants arrived in the city, this time from Algeria. New homes were built and the city's boundaries were extended. Toulouse's industry interests have more recently expanded to include space exploration and electronics. Today, it is France's fourth-largest city.

Toulouse: Population

Historical population
Urban Area Metropolitan

The population of the city proper (French: commune) was 466,297 at the January 2014 census, with 1,312,304 inhabitants in the metropolitan area (within the 2010 borders of the metropolitan area), up from 1,169,865 at the January 2006 census (within the same 2010 borders of the metropolitan area). Thus, the metropolitan area registered a population growth rate of +1.34% per year between 2006 and 2011, the highest growth rate of any French metropolitan area larger than 500,000 inhabitants, although it is slightly lower than the growth rate registered between the 1999 and 2006 censuses.

Toulouse is the fourth largest city in France, after Paris, Marseille and Lyon, and the fourth-largest metropolitan area after Paris, Lyon, and Marseille.

Fueled by booming aerospace and high-tech industries, population growth of +1.49% a year in the metropolitan area in the 1990s (compared with +0.37% for metropolitan France), and a record +1.87% a year in the early 2000s (+0.68% for metropolitan France), which is the highest population growth of any French metropolitan area larger than 500,000 inhabitants, means the Toulouse metropolitan area overtook Lille as the fourth-largest metropolitan area of France at the 2006 census.

A local Jewish group estimates there are about 2,500 Jewish families in Toulouse. A Muslim association has estimated there are some 35,000 Muslims in town.

Toulouse: Government and politics

Toulouse: Toulouse Métropole

The Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse (Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Toulouse) was created in 2001 to better coordinate transport, infrastructure and economic policies between the city of Toulouse and its immediate independent suburbs. It succeeds a previous district which had been created in 1992 with less powers than the current council. It combines the city of Toulouse and 24 independent communes, covering an area of 380 km (147 sq mi), totalling a population of 583,229 inhabitants (as of 1999 census), 67% of whom live in the city of Toulouse proper. As of February 2004 estimate, the total population of the Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse was 651,209 inhabitants, 65.5% of whom live in the city of Toulouse. Due to local political feuds, the Community of Agglomeration only hosts 61% of the population of the metropolitan area, the other independent suburbs having refused to join in. Since 2009, the Community of agglomeration has become an urban community (in French: communauté urbaine). This has become a métropole in 2015, spanning 37 communes.

Toulouse: Local politics

Toulouse's city hall, the Capitole de Toulouse, and the square of the same name with the Occitan cross designed by Raymond Moretti on the ground
The fountain in Wilson Square (Place du Président Thomas Wilson) shows the poet Pèire Godolin

One of the major political figures in Toulouse was Dominique Baudis, the mayor of Toulouse between 1983 and 2001, member of the centrist UDF. First known as a journalist famous for his coverage of the war in Lebanon, 36-year-old Dominique Baudis succeeded his father Pierre Baudis in 1983 as mayor of Toulouse. (Pierre Baudis was mayor from 1971 to 1983.) The Baudis dynasty succeeded in turning Toulouse into a center-right stronghold, whereas historically the city had been left-leaning since the 19th century.

During his time as mayor, Toulouse's economy and population boomed. He tried to strengthen the international role of Toulouse (such as its Airbus operations), as well as revive the cultural heritage of the city. The Occitan cross, flag of Languedoc and symbol of the counts of Toulouse, was chosen as the new flag of the city, instead of the traditional coat of arms of Toulouse (which included the fleur de lis of the French monarchy). Many cultural institutions were created, in order to attract foreign expatriates and emphasise the city's past. For example, monuments dating from the time of the counts of Toulouse were restored, the city's symphonic concert hall (Halle aux Grains) was refurbished, a city theater was built, a Museum of Modern Art was founded, the Bemberg Foundation (European paintings and bronzes from the Renaissance to the 20th century) was established, a huge pop music concert venue (Zénith, the largest in France outside Paris) was built, the space museum and educational park Cité de l'Espace was founded, etc.

To deal with growth, major housing and transportation projects were launched. Perhaps the one for which Baudis is most famous is the Toulouse Metro: line A of the underground was opened in 1993, and Baudis succeeded in having work started on line B (which opened in 2007), despite strong local opposition to the anticipated costs. The creation of a system of underground car parking structures in Toulouse city centre was sharply criticised by the Green Party.

In 2000, Dominique Baudis was at the zenith of his popularity, with approval rates of 85%. He announced that he would not run for a fourth (6-year) term in 2001. He explained that with 3 terms he was already the longest-serving mayor of Toulouse since the French Revolution; he felt that change would be good for the city, and that the number of terms should be limited. He endorsed Philippe Douste-Blazy, then UDF mayor of Lourdes as his successor. Baudis has since been appointed president of the CSA (Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel) in Paris, the French equivalent of the American FCC.

Philippe Douste-Blazy narrowly won in the 2001 elections, which saw the left making its best showing in decades. Douste-Blazy had to deal with a reinvigorated political opposition, as well as with the dramatic explosion of the AZF plant in late 2001.

In March 2004, he entered the national government, and left Toulouse in the hands of his second-in-command Jean-Luc Moudenc, elected mayor by the municipal council. In March 2008, Moudenc was defeated by the Socialist Party's candidate Pierre Cohen.

At the next elections in 2014 Moudenc defeated Cohen in a rematch to re-take the job with more than 52% of the votes.

Toulouse: Mayors

Mayor Term start Term end Party
Raymond Badiou 1944 September 1958 SFIO
G. Carrère September 1958 16 October 1958 SFIO
Louis Bazerque 16 October 1958 1971 SFIO
Pierre Baudis March 1971 March 1983 UDF
Dominique Baudis March 1983 23 January 2001 UDF
Guy Hersant 23 January 2001 23 March 2001 UDF
Philippe Douste-Blazy 23 March 2001 30 April 2004 UDF
Françoise de Veyrinas 30 April 2004 6 May 2004 UMP
Jean-Luc Moudenc 6 May 2004 17 March 2008 UMP
Pierre Cohen 17 March 2008 4 April 2014 PS
Jean-Luc Moudenc 4 April 2014 incumbent UMP

Toulouse: Sights

Toulouse Cathedral

The Capitole de Toulouse (mainly 18th century), houses the Hôtel de Ville (city hall), the Théâtre du Capitole (opera house), and the 16th-century Donjon du Capitole tower. It is located on the Place du Capitole. The Cité de l'espace (Space City) is a theme park of space exploration. The Médiathèque José Cabanis is a library. The Jardin des Plantes is a large park spanning several blocks, including a museum, cafés, activities for children and a botanical garden. Toulouse has many hôtels particuliers (large single-family homes usually enclosing an inner courtyard), the most significant being the Hôtel d'Assézat, which now houses five centuries of European art from the Renaissance to the 19th century.

The Bazacle is a ford across the Garonne river, built in the late 12th century and also used for hydroelectricty. The river is crossed by the Pont Neuf from the 16th century.

Toulouse: Religious buildings

Toulouse Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse. Saint-Sernin Basilica, part of the Way of Saint James UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the largest Romanesque church in Europe. It contains what is widely considered to be the most beautiful pipe organ in France. The Daurade basilica, of the 18th–19th century, was founded as a temple to the Roman god Apollo before conversion to Christianity in 410 AD. The Church of the Jacobins, (French: Ensemble conventuel des Jacobins) in Toulouse is the burial place of Saint Thomas Aquinas.

Toulouse: Economy

The main Airbus factory in Blagnac, near Toulouse, lies next to Toulouse Airport

The main industries are aeronautics, space, electronics, information technology and biotechnology. Toulouse hosts the Airbus headquarters and assembly-lines of Airbus A320, A330, A350 and A380. (A320 lines also exist in Hamburg, Germany, Tianjin, China, and Mobile, Alabama, USA.) Airbus has its head office in Blagnac, near Toulouse. Airbus's France division has its main office in Toulouse. Toulouse also hosts the headquarters of ATR, Sigfox and Groupe Latécoère. The Concorde supersonic aircraft was also constructed in Toulouse.

Toulouse: Education

Portal of the college de l'Esquile (1556), a symbol of the University's seniority

Toulouse has the fourth-largest student population in France after Paris, Lyon and Lille with 103,000 students (2012).

Toulouse: Colleges and universities

The University of Toulouse (Université de Toulouse), established in 1229, is located here (now split into three separate universities). Like the universities in Oxford and Paris, the University of Toulouse was established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Arabs of Andalus and Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology-inspiring scientific discoveries and advances in the arts-as society began seeing itself in a new way. These colleges were supported by the Church, in hopes of reconciling Greek philosophy and Christian theology.

  • Catholic University of Toulouse
  • Université Toulouse I, Toulouse School of Economics and Institut d'études politiques de Toulouse
  • University of Toulouse-Jean Jaurès (Formerly University of Toulouse II – Le Mirail)
  • Université Paul Sabatier (Toulouse III)

Toulouse is also the home of Toulouse Business School (TBS), Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), the Institut supérieur européen de gestion group (ISEG Group), the Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action (ISEFAC), E-Artsup and several engineering schools:

  • ICAM Toulouse (Institut catholique d'arts et métiers)
  • INSA Toulouse
  • ISAE SUPAERO (Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace)
  • ENAC (École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile)
  • INP ENSEEIHT (École Nationale Supérieure d'Électronique, d'Électrotechnique, d'Informatique, d'Hydraulique et des Télécommunications)
  • ENSFEA (École nationale supérieure de formation de l’enseignement agricole)
  • INP ENSIACET (École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs en art chimique et technologique)
  • INP ENSAT ('École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Toulouse)
  • INP ENM (École Nationale de la Météorologie)
  • EPITA (École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées)
  • EPITECH (École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies or European Institute of Information Technology)
  • IPSA (Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées)
  • EIPurpan (École d'ingénieurs de Purpan)

Toulouse: Primary and secondary schools

The most well known high schools in Toulouse are Lycée Pierre-de-Fermat (fr), Lycée Saint-Joseph and Lycée Saint-Sernin. In 2012 a Jewish school was struck by an attack in which a rabbi, his two sons and the daughter of the school's director were murdered by Mohammed Merah.

International schools serving area expatriates are in nearby Colomiers:

  • International School of Toulouse
  • Deutsche Schule Toulouse (German school)

Toulouse: Transport

Line A of the Toulouse Metro.

Toulouse: Metro

In addition to an extensive bus system, the Toulouse Metro is a VAL (Véhicule Automatique Léger) metro system made up of driverless (automatic) rubber-tired trains. Line A runs for 12.5 km (7.8 mi) from Balma-Gramont in the north-east to Basso Cambo in the south-west. Line B, which opened in June 2007, serves 20 stations north to south and intersects line A at Jean Jaurès.

Toulouse: Train

The main railway station, with regional and national services, is Toulouse-Matabiau.

Line C has existed since line A was completed. It is not VAL but an urban railway line operated by SNCF. It connects to line A at Arènes. Two other stations located in Toulouse are also served by line C. Lardenne, formerly named "Gare des Capelles", changed its name in September 2003 when line C opened. Le TOEC station opened on 1 September 2003 with the creation of line C, allowing an urban train service in Toulouse and close western suburbs.

Similarly, Line D runs south from Toulouse Matabiau to Muret.

Toulouse: Tramway

The tramway line T1 (operating since December 2010), runs from Beauzelle to Toulouse passing through Blagnac. All urban bus, metro and tram services are operated by Tisséo. Tramway line T2 is a branch of the first line serving notably Toulouse Blagnac airport.

Toulouse: Bicycle

In 2007, a citywide bicycle rental scheme called VélôToulouse was introduced, with bicycles available from automated stations for a daily, weekly, monthly or yearly subscription.

Toulouse: Airports

Airports include:

  • Toulouse Blagnac, the principal local airport
  • Toulouse Lasbordes

The Canal du Midi begins in Toulouse and runs up to Sète.

Toulouse: Toulouse Public Transportation Statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Toulouse, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 44 min. 9.1% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 9 min, while 10.4% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7 km, while 8% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.

Toulouse: Communications

Toulouse is the home of Bonhoure Radio Tower, a 61-metre high lattice tower used for FM and TV transmission. In 2001 a large (100 km) optical fiber (symmetric 360Gbit/s) network named Infrastructure Métropolitaine de Télécommunications was deployed around the city and suburbs.

Toulouse: Culture

Musée des Augustins

The Théâtre du Capitole is the home of opera and ballet; there has been a theatre on the site since 1736. The Orchestre National du Capitole, long associated with Michel Plasson, plays at the Halle aux Grains.

Le Château d'Eau, an old 19th-century water-tower, was converted as a gallery in 1974 by Jean Dieuzaide, a French photographer from Toulouse and is now one of the oldest public places dedicated to photography in the world. Toulouse's art museums include the Musée des Augustins, the Musée des Abattoirs, the Musée Georges Labit, and the Fondation Bemberg in the Hôtel d'Assézat. The Musée Saint-Raymond is devoted to Antiquity and the Muséum de Toulouse to natural history.

Toulouse is the seat of the Académie des Jeux Floraux, the equivalent of the French Academy for the Occitan-speaking regions of southern France, making Toulouse the unofficial capital of Occitan culture. The traditional Cross of Toulouse (from Provence, under the name of cross of Provence), emblem of the County of Toulouse and commonly widespread around all of Occitania during the Middle Ages is the symbol of the city and of the newly founded Midi-Pyrénées région, as well as a popular Occitan symbol.

The city's gastronomic specialties include the Saucisse de Toulouse, a type of sausage, cassoulet Toulousain, a bean and pork stew, and garbure, a cabbage soup with poultry. Also, foie gras, the liver of an overfed duck or goose, is a delicacy mainly made in the Midi-Pyrénées.

Toulouse: Sport

Toulouse Olympique playing rugby league against Gateshead Thunder (June 2009)

Stade Toulousain of the Top 14 is considered one of the most successful rugby union clubs in all of Europe, having been crowned the Heineken Cup champions four times.

Toulouse Olympique represents the city in rugby league, playing in the English/European 2nd tier Championship from 2017.

The city also has a professional football team, Toulouse FC, who play in Ligue 1, the highest level of football in France, and won the 1957 Coupe de France Final. The club play at the Stadium Municipal, which was a venue during the 1998 FIFA World Cup and 2007 Rugby World Cup, as well as hosting important club rugby games and several Rugby League World Cups. Toulouse was also a host of EuroBasket 1999.

Toulouse: Notable people

Bust of mathematician Pierre de Fermat in the Capitole de Toulouse

Several notable Toulousains have been scientists, such as Jean Dausset, 1980 winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; 17th-century mathematician Pierre de Fermat, who spent his life in Toulouse, where he wrote Fermat's Last Theorem and was a lawyer in the city's Parlement; Paul Sabatier, 1912 winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; Albert Fert, 2007 winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics who grew up in Toulouse where he attended the Lycée Pierre-de-Fermat (fr) and Jean Tirole, owner of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, chairman and founder of the Toulouse School of Economics along with Jean-Jacques Laffont.

Musically, Toulouse is one of the two controversial, disputed birthplaces of Carlos Gardel (the other being Tacuarembo, Uruguay), probably the most prominent figure in the history of the tango. The city's most renowned songwriter is Claude Nougaro.

Concerning arts, Toulouse is the birthplace of Impressionist painter Henri Martin as well as sculptors Alexandre Falguière and Antonin Mercié. Moreover, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Antoine Bourdelle were trained at the Toulouse fine arts school. Post Impressionist painter Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's (1864-1901) father was Count Alphonse Charles de Toulouse-Lautrec Monfa (1838-1913) and was part of an aristocratic family of Counts of Toulouse, Odet de Foix, Vimcomte de Lautrec and the Viscounts of Montfa. French graffiti artist Cyril Kongo was born in Toulouse in 1969.

Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, one of the leaders of the First Crusade, was born in Toulouse. Aviation pioneer Clément Ader and psychiatrist Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol were also natives.

Toulouse: International relations

Toulouse: Twin towns and sister cities

Toulouse is twinned with:

  • United States Atlanta, United States, since 1975
  • Italy Bologna, Italy, since 1981
  • Spain Elche, Spain, since 1981
  • China Chongqing, China, since 1981
  • Ukraine Kiev, Ukraine, since 1975
  • Israel Tel Aviv, Israel, since 1962

Toulouse: Other cooperations

Toulouse also has accords of cooperation with the following towns:

  • Spain Zaragoza, Aragón, Spain
  • Chad N'Djamena, Chad
  • Vietnam Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Senegal Saint-Louis, Senegal
  • Germany Düsseldorf, Germany

Toulouse: Literature

Toulouse is a location briefly mentioned in the M.R. James short ghost story, Canon Alberic's Scrap-Book published in Ghost Stories of an Antiquary in 1904

Toulouse: See also

  • 138 Tolosa, an asteroid
  • Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse
  • André Abbal
  • Listing of the works of Alexandre Falguière
  • The works of Antonin Mercié

Toulouse: References

  1. "Insee – Populations légales 2012 – 31555-Toulouse". INSEE. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  2. "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – Unité urbaine 2010 de Toulouse (31701)". INSEE. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  3. "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – Aire urbaine 2010 de Toulouse (004)". INSEE. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
  4. "Toulouse". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  5. CNES. "Ademe.fr" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  6. Lefebvre, Olivier (2014). Atlas régional : effectifs d'étudiants en 2012-2013 (PDF). Paris: Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche.
  7. Infographic / Air transport in Europe Aertec, Eurostat
  8. Palmarès des villes les plus dynamiques : la revanche de la province L'Express
  9. Les villes les plus dynamiques de France Challenges
  10. Toulouse, métropole la plus dynamique La Dépêche du Midi
  11. Toulouse's Saint Sernin, Largest Romanesque Church in Europe Europe Close
  12. "Données climatiques de la station de Toulouse" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  13. "Climat Midi-Pyrénées" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  14. "Normes et records 1961–1990: Toulouse-Blagnac (31) – altitude 152m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  15. Albert Dauzat et Charles Rostaing, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de lieux en France, 2nd ed., Librairie Guénégaud 1978.
  16. Le Nom de Toulouse de Pierre Moret, 1996, Université Toulouse le Mirail – Toulouse II, p. 11; Histoire de Toulouse, 1974, p. 11.
  17. "Simon de Montfort et la croisade contre les Albigeois".
  18. " "Goldberg, Jeffrey. "Is it Time for the Jews to Leave Europe?" The Atlantic. April 2015.". Retrieved 2015-03-21.
  19. Biraben, Jean-Noël. La Population de Toulouse au XIVe et au XVe siècles [Pierre Wolff, Les Estimes toulousaines du XIVe et XVe siècles]. Journal des savants, 1964, p. 300.
  20. Brumont, Francis. La commercialisation du pastel toulousain (1350–1600). Privat presse, 1994, p. 27.
  21. "terredepastel.com". terredepastel.com. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  22. Irish, John. "Killings sour good life for high-flying Toulouse". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
  23. "Décret n° 2014-1078 du 22 septembre 2014 portant création de la métropole dénommée « Toulouse Métropole » | Legifrance". Retrieved 2017-06-30.
  24. "Toulouse politics information". Bonjourlafrance.com. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
  25. "Airbus A380 lands after making aviation history." USA Today. 27 April 2005. Updated 28 April 2005. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  26. "Contacts." Airbus. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  27. "Toulouse, France travel guide - Travel S Helper". TravelsHelper. Retrieved 2017-02-20.
  28. "Le RER toulousain entre en gares". ladepeche.fr. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  29. "VélôToulouse arrive...". La Dépêche du Midi (in French). Toulouse. 2007-11-11. Retrieved 2017-03-27.
  30. "Toulouse Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. CC-BY icon.svg Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  31. Bonhoure Transmission Tower at Structurae
  32. "Garonne-networks.com". Garonne-networks.com. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  33. "L'univers du Théâtre". Theatre-du-capitole.fr. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  34. "Orchestre National du Capitole de Toulouse". Onct.mairie-toulouse.fr. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  35. "'''''Le Château d'Eau''''' Official website" (in French). Galeriechateaudeau.org. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
  36. "Europe's Top Rugby Clubs – For Dummies". Dummies.com. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
  37. "ERC : Classement Européen". Ercrugby.com. 21 September 2010. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
  38. "Albert Fert retrouve son Toulouse". La Dépêche du Midi. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  39. "Les villes jumelées" (in French). Toulouse, France: Mairie de Toulouse. Retrieved 2015-07-05.
  40. "Accords de coopération" (in French). Toulouse, France: Mairie de Toulouse. Retrieved 2015-07-05.

Toulouse: Bibliography

  • Le Stang, Anne (2006). Histoire de Toulouse illustrée (in French). leperegrinateurediteur.com. ISBN 2-910352-44-7.
  • Kerrison, Helen & Jeremy (2008). The Practical Guide to Toulouse. leperegrinateurediteur.com. ISBN 2-910352-46-3.
  • (in French) ToulouseCity.com
  • Toulouse : pink, violets, red and black – Official French website
  • (in French) Official site
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