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In order to book an accommodation in Transylvania enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Transylvania hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Transylvania map to estimate the distance from the main Transylvania attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Transylvania hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Transylvania is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Transylvania is waiting for you!

Hotels of Transylvania

A hotel in Transylvania is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Transylvania hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Transylvania are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Transylvania hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Transylvania hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Transylvania have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Transylvania
An upscale full service hotel facility in Transylvania that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Transylvania hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Transylvania
Full service Transylvania hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Transylvania
Boutique hotels of Transylvania are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Transylvania boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Transylvania may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Transylvania
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Transylvania travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Transylvania focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Transylvania
Small to medium-sized Transylvania hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Transylvania traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Transylvania hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Transylvania
A bed and breakfast in Transylvania is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Transylvania bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Transylvania B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Transylvania
Transylvania hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Transylvania hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Transylvania
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Transylvania hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Transylvania lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Transylvania
Transylvania timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Transylvania often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Transylvania on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Transylvania
A Transylvania motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Transylvania for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Transylvania motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Transylvania

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Transylvania
Transilvania/Ardeal (in Romanian)
Erdély (in Hungarian)
Siebenbürgen (in German)
Historical region of Romania
Apuseni Mountains near Arieșeni, Alba County
Apuseni Mountains near Arieșeni, Alba County
Coat of arms of Transylvania
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): "The Land Beyond the Forest"
  Transylvania proper  Banat, Crișana and Maramureș
Transylvania proper
Banat, Crișana and Maramureș
Coordinates:  / 46.76667; 23.58333  / 46.76667; 23.58333
Country Romania
Area
• Total 102,834 km (39,704 sq mi)
Population (2011)
• Total 7,309,291
• Density 71/km (180/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Transylvanian
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
• Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)

Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen or Transsilvanien, Latin: Transsilvania, see ) is a historical region located in what is today the central part of Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains. The term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical regions of Crișana, Maramureș, and the Romanian part of Banat.

The region of Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history. It also contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu and Târgu Mureș.

In the English-speaking world it has been commonly associated with vampires, due to the influence of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and its many film adaptations.

Transylvania: Names

Historical names of Transylvania are:

  • Latin: Ultrasilvania, Transsilvania
  • Romanian: Ardeal, Transilvania
  • Hungarian: Erdély
  • German: Siebenbürgen, Transsilvanien
  • Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjen
  • Polish: Siedmiogród, Transylwania
  • Turkish: Erdel, Transilvanya

Transylvania: Etymology

In Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal (pronounced [arˈde̯al]) or Transilvania (pronounced [transilˈvani.a]); in Hungarian as Erdély (pronounced [ɛrdeːj]); in German as Siebenbürgen (pronounced [ˈziːbn̩ˌbʏʁɡn̩]); and in Turkish as Transilvanya (pronounced [tɾansilˈvanja]) but historically as Erdel or Erdelistan; see also other denominations.

  • Transylvania was first referred to in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as ultra silvam, meaning "beyond the forest" (ultra meaning "beyond" or "on the far side of" and the accusative case of sylva (sylvam) "woods, forest"). Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods". Hungarian historians claim that the Medieval Latin form Ultrasylvania, later Transylvania, was a direct translation from the Hungarian form Erdő-elve. That also was used as an alternative name in German überwald (13-14th centuries) and Ukrainian Залісся (Zalissia).
  • The German name Siebenbürgen means "seven fortresses", after the seven (ethnic German) Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region. This is also the origin of the region's name in many other languages, such as the Bulgarian Седмиградско (Sedmigradsko), Polish Siedmiogród and the Ukrainian Семигород (Semyhorod).
  • The Hungarian form Erdély was first mentioned in the 12th-century Gesta Hungarorum as Erdeuleu (in modern script Erdőelü) or Erdő-elve. The word Erdő means forest in Hungarian, and the word Elve denotes a region in connection with this, similarly to the Hungarian name for Muntenia (Havas-elve, or land lying ahead of the snow-capped mountains). Erdel, Erdil, Erdelistan, the Turkish equivalents, or the Romanian Ardeal were borrowed from this form as well.
  • The first known written occurrence of the Romanian name Ardeal appeared in a document in 1432 as Ardeliu.

Transylvania: History

Ruins of Sarmizegetusa Regia
Roman city of Apulum

Transylvania has been dominated by several different peoples and countries throughout its history. It was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia (82 BC–106 AD). In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory, systematically exploiting its resources. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Visigoths, Huns, Gepids, Avars and Slavs. From 9th to 11th century Bulgarians ruled Transylvania. It is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Dark Ages (becoming the ancestors of modern Romanians) or the first Vlachs/Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula. There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest (see Origin of the Romanians).

The Magyars conquered much of Central Europe at the end of the 9th century. According to Gesta Hungarorum, Transylvania was ruled by the Vlach voivode Gelou before the Hungarians arrived. The Kingdom of Hungary established a partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula. Some historians assert Transylvania was settled by Hungarians in several stages between the 10th and 13th centuries, while others claim that it was already settled, since the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century.

Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of János Szapolyai. Later, in 1570 the kingdom was transformed into the Principality of Transylvania - which was ruled primarily by Calvinist Hungarian princes. These times the ethnic composition of Transylvania transformed from an estimated near equal number of the ethnic groups to a Romanian majority - Vasile Lupu estimates their number already more than one-third of the population of Transylvania in a letter addressed to the sultan around 1650. For most of this period, Transylvania, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.

A market scene in Transylvania, 1818

The Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. In 1687, the rulers of Transylvania recognized the suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I, and the region was officially attached to the Habsburg Empire. The Habsburgs acknowledged Principality of Transylvania as one of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, but the territory of principality was administratively separated from Habsburg Hungary and subjected to the direct rule of the emperor's governors. In 1699 the Turks legally acknowledged their loss of Transylvania in the Treaty of Karlowitz; however, some anti-Habsburg elements within the principality submitted to the emperor only in the 1711 Peace of Szatmár, and Habsburg control over Principality of Transylvania was consolidated. 54 years later (1765), the Grand Principality of Transylvania was reintroduced.

After the Ausgleich of 1867, the Principality of Transylvania was once again abolished. The territory was then turned into Transleithania, an addition to the newly established Austro-Hungarian Empire. Romanian intellectuals issued the Blaj Pronouncement in protest.

Following defeat in World War I, Austria-Hungary disintegrated. The ethnic Romanian majority in Transylvania elected representatives, who then proclaimed Union with Romania on December 1, 1918. The Proclamation of Union of Alba Iulia was adopted by the Deputies of the Romanians from Transylvania, and supported one month later by the vote of the Deputies of the Saxons from Transylvania. In 1920, the Treaty of Trianon as a result of the war, established a new border between Romania and Hungary, leaving the whole of Transylvania within the Romanian state. Hungary protested against the new borders, as over 1,600,000 Hungarian people and representing 31.6% of the Transylvanian population were living on the Romanian side of the border, mainly in Székely Land of Eastern Transylvania, and along the newly created border. In August 1940, Hungary gained about 40% of Transylvania by the Second Vienna Award, with the arbitration of Germany and Italy. The Second Vienna Award was voided on 12 September 1944 by the Allied Commission through the Armistice Agreement with Romania (Article 19); and the 1947 Treaty of Paris reaffirmed the borders between Romania and Hungary, as originally defined in Treaty of Trianon, 27 years earlier, thus confirming the return of Northern Transylvania to Romania. From 1947 to 1989, Transylvania, as the rest of Romania, was under a communist regime.

Stephen Catterson Smith: Peasants of Hodod, Transylvania, 1860s
German settlers known as Transylvanian Saxons
The National Assembly in Alba Iulia (December 1, 1918) which called for the region's union with Romania

Transylvania: Geography and ethnography

Turda Gorges seen from the west end, in Cluj county
Geogel, Romanian Orthodox wooden church
Geographical map of Romania

The Transylvanian Plateau, 300 to 500 metres (980–1,640 feet) high, is drained by the Mureș, Someș, Criș, and Olt rivers, as well as other tributaries of the Danube. This core of historical Transylvania roughly corresponds with nine counties of modern Romania. The plateau is almost entirely surrounded by the Eastern, Southern and Romanian Western branches of the Carpathian Mountains. The area includes the Transylvanian Plain.

Other areas to the west and north, which also became part of Romania in 1920, are since that time widely considered part of Transylvania.

  • Transylvania proper:
    • Amlaș
    • Țara Bârsei (Burzenland/Barcaság)
    • Chioar
    • Făgăraș (Fogaras)
    • Hațeg
    • Avchilan
    • Kalotaszeg (Țara Călatei)
    • Mărginimea Sibiului
    • The Transylvanian Plain (Câmpia Transilvaniei/Mezőség)
    • Székely Land
    • Țara Moților
    • Țara Năsăudului (Nösnerland/Naszód vidéke)
    • Ținutul Pădurenilor (ro)
  • Banat
  • Crișana
    • Țara Zarandului
  • Maramureș
    • Țara Lǎpușului
    • Țara Oașului

In common reference, the Western border of Transylvania has come to be identified with the present Romanian-Hungarian border, settled in the Treaty of Trianon, although geographically the two are not identical.

Transylvania: Administrative divisions

The area of the historical Voivodeship is 55,146 km (21,292 sq mi).

The regions granted to Romania in 1920 covered 23 counties including nearly 102,200 km (39,460 sq mi) (102,787–103,093 km in Hungarian sources and 102,200 km in contemporary Romanian documents). Nowadays, due to the several administrative reorganisations, the territory covers 16 counties (Romanian: judeţ), with an area of 99,837 km (38,547 sq mi), in central and northwest Romania.

The 16 counties are: Alba, Arad, Bihor, Bistriţa-Năsăud, Brașov, Caraș-Severin, Cluj, Covasna, Harghita, Hunedoara, Maramureș, Mureș, Sălaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, and Timiș.

Transylvania contains both largely urban counties, such as Brașov and Hunedoara counties, as well as largely rural ones, such as Bistriţa-Năsăud and Sălaj counties.

Transylvania: Cities

The 17th century Canalul Morii in Cluj-Napoca
Sibiu

The most populous cities (as of 2011 census):

  • Transylvania proper:
    • Cluj-Napoca (324,576)
    • Brașov (253,200)
    • Sibiu (147,245)
    • Târgu Mureș (134,290)
    • Alba Iulia (63,536)
  • Banat:
    • Timișoara (319,279)
    • Reșița (73,282)
  • Crișana:
    • Oradea (196,367)
    • Arad (159,074)
  • Maramureș:
    • Baia Mare (123,738)
    • Satu Mare (102,411)

Cluj-Napoca, commonly known as Cluj, is the second most populous city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Cluj County. From 1790 to 1848 and from 1861 to 1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania. Brașov is an important tourist destination, being the largest city in a mountain resorts area, and a central location, suitable for exploring Romania, with the distances to several tourist destinations (including the Black Sea resorts, the monasteries in northern Moldavia, and the wooden churches of Maramureș) being similar. Sibiu is one of the most important cultural centres of Romania and was designated the European Capital of Culture for the year 2007, along with the city of Luxembourg, and it was formerly the centre of the Transylvanian Saxon culture and between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 was the capital of the Principality of Transylvania. Alba Iulia is a city located on the Mureş River in Alba County, and since the High Middle Ages, the city has been the seat of Transylvania's Roman Catholic diocese. Between 1541 and 1690 it was the capital of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom and the latter Principality of Transylvania. Alba Iulia also has historical importance because at the end of World War I, representatives of the Romanian population of Transylvania gathered in Alba Iulia on 1 December 1918 to proclaim the union of Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania. In Transylvania, there are many medieval smaller towns such as Sighișoara, Mediaș, Sebeș and Bistrița.

Transylvania: Population

Transylvania: Historical population

Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910.

Official censuses with information on Transylvania's population have been conducted since the 18th century. On May 1, 1784 the Emperor Joseph II called for the first official census of the Habsburg Empire, including Transylvania. The data was published in 1787, and this census showed only the overall population (1,440,986 inhabitants). Fényes Elek, a 19th-century Hungarian statistician, estimated in 1842 that in the population of Transylvania for the years 1830-1840 the majority were 62.3% Romanians and 23.3% Hungarians.

In the last quarter of the 19th century, the Hungarian population of Transylvania increased from 24.9% in 1869 to 31.6%, as indicated in the 1910 Hungarian census. At the same time, the percentage of Romanian population decreased from 59.0% to 53.8% and the percentage of German population decreased from 11.9% to 10.7%, for a total population of 5,262,495. Magyarization policies greatly contributed to this shift.

The percentage of Romanian majority has significantly increased since the declaration of the union of Transylvania with Romania after World War I in 1918. The proportion of Hungarians in Transylvania was in steep decline as more of the region's inhabitants moved into urban areas, where the pressure to assimilate and Romanianize was greater. The expropriation of the estates of Magyar magnates, the distribution of the lands to the Romanian peasants, and the policy of cultural Romanianization that followed the Treaty of Trianon were major causes of friction between Hungary and Romania. Other factors include the emigration of non-Romanian peoples, assimilation and internal migration within Romania (estimates show that between 1945 and 1977, some 630,000 people moved from the Old Kingdom to Transylvania, and 280,000 from Transylvania to the Old Kingdom, most notably to Bucharest).

Transylvania: Current population

According to the results of the 2011 Population Census, the total population of Transylvania was 6.789.250 inhabitants and the ethnic groups were: Romanians - 70.62%, Hungarians - 17.92%, Roma - 3.99%, Ukrainians - 0.63%, Germans - 0.49%, other - 0.77%. Some 378,298 inhabitants (5.58%) have not declared their ethnicity. The presented data are from http://www.recensamantromania.ro/rezultate-2, the Table no. 7. The ethnic Hungarian population of Transylvania form a majority in the counties of Covasna (73.6%) and Harghita (84.8%). The Hungarians are also numerous in the following counties: Mureș (37.8%), Satu Mare (34.5%), Bihor (25.2%) and Sălaj (23.2%).

Transylvania: Economy

Farmers working in Transylvania

Transylvania is rich in mineral resources, notably lignite, iron, lead, manganese, gold, copper, natural gas, salt, and sulfur.

There are large iron and steel, chemical, and textile industries. Stock raising, agriculture, wine production and fruit growing are important occupations. Agriculture is widespread in the Transylvanian Plateau, including growing cereals, vegetables, viticulture and breeding cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry. Timber is another valuable resource.

IT, electronics and automotive industries are important in urban and university centers like Cluj-Napoca (Robert Bosch GmbH, Emerson Electric), Timișoara (Alcatel-Lucent, Flextronics and Continental AG), Brașov, Sibiu, Oradea and Arad. The cities of Cluj Napoca and Târgu Mureș are connected with a strong medical tradition, and according to the same classifications top performance hospitals exist there.

Native brands include: Roman of Brașov (trucks and buses), Azomureș of Târgu Mureș (fertilizers), Terapia of Cluj-Napoca (pharmaceuticals), Banca Transilvania of Cluj-Napoca (finance), Romgaz and Transgaz of Mediaș (natural gas), Jidvei of Alba county (alcoholic beverages), Timișoreana of Timișoara (alcoholic beverages) and others.

The Jiu Valley, located in the south of Hunedoara County, has been a major mining area throughout the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century, but many mines were closed down in the years following the collapse of the communist regime, forcing the region to diversify its economy.

Transylvania: Culture

George Coșbuc, Romanian poet, translator, teacher, and journalist, best known for his verses describing, praising and eulogizing rural life

The culture of Transylvania is complex, due to its varied history. Its culture has been historically linked to both Central Europe and Southeastern Europe; and it has significant Hungarian (see Hungarians in Romania) and German (see Germans of Romania) influences.

With regard to architecture, the Transylvanian Gothic style is preserved to this day in monuments such as the Black Church in Braşov (14th and 15th centuries) and a number of other cathedrals, as well as the Bran Castle in Braşov County (14th century), the Hunyad Castle in Hunedoara (15th century).

Notable writers such as Emil Cioran, Lucian Blaga, George Coșbuc, Octavian Goga and Liviu Rebreanu were born in Transylvania. The latter wrote the novel Ion, which introduces the reader to a depiction of the life of the peasants and intellectuals of Transylvania at the turn of the 20th century.

Transylvania: Religion

Christianity is the biggest religion in Transylvania. Transylvania has also been (and still is) a center for religions other than Eastern Orthodoxy - the religion that most Romanians follow. As such, there are significant numbers of inhabitants of Transylvania that follow Roman Catholicism, Greek Catholicism and Protestantism.

Denomination 1930 Percent Number 2011 Percent Number
Eastern Orthodoxy 34,85% 1.933.534 61,80% 4.463.058
Roman & Greek Catholicism 42,01% 2.330.439 10,74% 775.810
Mainline Protestant 18,72% 1.038.464 9,34% 675.107
Evangelical Protestant 0,66% 37.061 4,70% 339.472

There are small denominations like adventism, Jehova's Witnesses and more.

Other religions

  • Atheists and people without religion account for 0,27% of Transylvania's population.
  • There is a very small number of muslims (Islam) and jews (Judaism).

Data refers to extended Transylvania (with Banat, Crișana and Maramureș).

Transylvania: Tourist attractions

St. Michael's Church, Cluj-Napoca
Merry Cemetery of Săpânța
Biertan fortified church
Bran Castle
Salina Turda Salt Mine
  • Bran Castle, also known as Dracula's Castle
  • The medieval cities of Alba Iulia, Cluj-Napoca (European Youth Capital 2015), Sibiu (European Capital Of Culture in 2007), Târgu Mureș and Sighișoara (UNESCO World Heritage Site and alleged birthplace of Vlad Dracula)
  • The city of Brașov and the nearby Poiana Brașov ski resort
  • The city of Hunedoara with the 14th century Hunyadi Castle
  • The citadel and the Art Nouveau city centre of Oradea
  • The Densus Church, the oldest church in Romania in which services are still officiated
  • The Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains, including Sarmizegetusa Regia (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
  • The Roman forts including Sarmizegetusa Ulpia Traiana, Porolissum, Apulum, Potaissa and Drobeta
  • The Red Lake (Romania)
  • The Turda Gorge natural reserve
  • The Râșnov Citadel in Râșnov
  • The Maramureș region
    • The Merry Cemetery of Săpânța (the only of that kind in the world)
    • The Wooden Churches (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
    • The cities of Baia Mare and Sighetu Marmației
    • The villages in the Iza, Mara, and Viseu valleys
  • The Saxon fortified churches (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
  • Romanian traditions and folk culture, ASTRA National Museum Complex, Sibiu
  • Hungarian traditions and folk culture
  • The cafe culture, street theatre and cosmopolitan society of Sibiu, Cluj-Napoca and Timișoara
  • The Apuseni Mountains:
    • Țara Moților
    • The Bears Cave
    • Scarisoara Ice Cave, in Alba County, the third largest glacier cave in the world
  • The Rodna Mountains
  • The Salina Turda Salt Mine: according to Business Insider-one of the ten "coolest underground places in the world".

Transylvania: Festivals and events

Transylvania: Film festivals

  • Transilvania International Film Festival, Cluj-Napoca - Romania's biggest film festival
  • Gay Film Nights, Cluj-Napoca
  • Comedy Cluj, Cluj-Napoca
  • Humor Film Festival, Timișoara

Transylvania: Music festivals

  • Golden Stag Festival, Brașov
  • Gărâna Jazz Festival, Gărâna
  • Peninsula / Félsziget Festival, Târgu-Mureș
  • Untold Festival, Cluj-Napoca - Romania's biggest music festival
  • Toamna Muzicală Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca
  • Artmania Festival, Sibiu
  • Electric Castle Festival, Bontida, Cluj-Napoca

Transylvania: Others

  • Sighișoara Medieval Festival, Sighișoara
  • Sibiu International Theatre Festival
  • Festivalul Medieval Cetăți Transilvane Sibiu

Transylvania: Historical coat of arms of Transylvania

The first heraldic representations of Transylvania date from the 16th century. One of the predominant early symbols of Transylvania was the coat of arms of Sibiu city. In 1596 Levinus Hulsius created a coat of arms for the imperial province of Transylvania, consisting of a shield party per fess, with a rising eagle in the upper field and seven hills with towers on top in the lower field. He published it in his work "Chronologia", issued in Nuremberg the same year. The seal from 1597 of Sigismund Báthory, prince of Transylvania, reproduced the new coat of arms with some slight changes: in the upper field the eagle was flanked by a sun and a moon and in the lower field the hills were replaced by simple towers.

The seal of Michael the Brave from 1600 depicts the territory of the former Dacian kingdom: Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania:

  • The black eagle (Wallachia)
  • The aurochs head (Moldavia)
  • The seven hills (Transylvania).
  • Over the hills there were two rampant lions affronts, supporting the trunk of a tree, as a symbol of the reunited Dacian Kingdom.

The Diet of 1659 codified the representation of the privileged nations in Transylvania's coat of arms. It depicted a black turul on a blue background, representing the Hungarian nobility, a Sun and the Moon representing the Székelys, and seven red towers on a yellow background representing the seven fortified cities of the Transylvanian Saxons. The red dividing band was originally not part of the coat of arms.

Lugosi as Dracula

Following the publication of Emily Gerard's The Land Beyond the Forest (1888), Bram Stoker wrote his gothic horror novel Dracula in 1897, using Transylvania as a setting. With its success, Transylvania became associated in the English-speaking world with vampires. Since then it has been represented in fiction and literature as a land of mystery and magic. For example, in Paulo Coelho's novel The Witch of Portobello, the main character, Sherine Khalil, is described as a Transylvanian orphan with a Romani mother, in an effort to add to the character's exotic mystique. The so-called Transylvanian trilogy of historical novels by Miklos Banffy, The Writing on the Wall, is an extended treatment of the 19th- and early 20th-century social and political history of the country. Among the first actors to portray Dracula in film was Bela Lugosi, who was born in Banat, in present-day Romania.

The Munsters were also said to be from Transylvania, referring to it several times in the show both by name and as "The Old Country".

In the film The Rocky Horror Picture Show, Tim Curry played a character that comes from "Transsexual Transylvania."

The Sony Pictures Animation's animated Hotel Transylvania series takes place largely in Transylvania and nearby places. It recasts Dracula in a comic scenario.

In some versions of the story the Pied Piper of Hamelin leads the children of the village of Hamelin to Transylvania. The story may be an attempt to explain the migration of the Transylvanian Saxons from German lands.

Transylvania: See also

  • Prehistory of Transylvania
  • Siebenbürgenlied

Transylvania: References

  1. "Transylvania Society of Dracula Information". Afn.org. 1995-05-29. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  2. "Travel Advisory; Lure of Dracula In Transylvania". The New York Times. 1993-08-22.
  3. "Romania Transylvania". Icromania.com. 2007-04-15. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  4. Engel, Pál (2001). Realm of St. Stephen: History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526 (International Library of Historical Studies), page 24, London: I.B. Taurus. ISBN 1-86064-061-3
  5. Pascu, Ștefan (1972). "Voievodatul Transilvaniei". I: 22.
  6. István Lázár: Transylvania, a Short History, Simon Publications, Safety Harbor, Florida, 1996 + It was the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia (82 BC–106 AD). In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory, systematically exploiting its resources. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Visigoths, Huns, Gepids, Avars and Slavs. − [1]
  7. − Martyn C. Rady: Nobility, Land and Service in Medieval Hungary, Antony Grove Ltd, Great Britain, 2000 − [2]
  8. Gyula - it is possible that during the 10th century some of the holders of the title of gyula also used Gyula as a personal name, but the issue has been confused because the chronicler of one of the most important primary sources (the Gesta Hungarorum) has been shown to have used titles or even names of places as personal names in some cases.
  9. "Transylvania". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
  10. Engel, Pal; Andrew Ayton (2005). The Realm of St Stephen. London: Tauris. p. 27. ISBN 1-85043-977-X.
  11. "Transylvania", Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008 http://encarta.msn.com © 1997–2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
  12. K. HOREDT, Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII,Editura Academiei RSR, 1958 p. 113.
  13. I.M.Țiplic (2000). Considerații cu privire la liniile întarite de tipul prisacilor din transilvania, Acta terrae Septemcastrensis, I, pag. 147-164
  14. http://mek.oszk.hu/03400/03407/html/56.html
  15. Madgearu, Alexandru (2001). Românii în opera Notarului Anonim. Cluj-Napoca: Centrul de Studii Transilvane, Fundația Culturală Română. ISBN 973-577-249-3.
  16. Antonius Wrancius: Expeditionis Solymani in Moldaviam et Transsylvaniam libri duo. De situ Transsylvaniae, Moldaviae et Transalpinae liber tertius.
  17. Sándor Szilágyi: Erdély és az északkeleti háború. Levelek és okiratok Bp. 1890 I. 246-247, 255-256 - Sándor Szilágyi: Transylvania and the northeastern war. Letters and documents Bp. 1890 p. 246-247, 255-256
  18. "International Boundary Study - No. 47 – April 15, 1965 - Hungary – Romania (Rumania) Boundary" (PDF). US Bureau of Intelligence and Research.
  19. "Diploma Leopoldinum (Transylvanian history)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  20. "Transylvania (region, Romania)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  21. Peter F. Sugar. Southeastern Europe Under Ottoman Rule, 1354–1804 (History of East Central Europe), University of Washington Press, July 1983, page 163, https://books.google.com/books?id=LOln4TGdDHYC&pg=PA163&dq=independent+principality+that+was+not+reunited+with+Hungary&lr=
  22. John F. Cadzow, Andrew Ludanyi, Louis J. Elteto, Transylvania: The Roots of Ethnic Conflict, Kent State University Press, 1983, page 79, https://books.google.com/books?id=fX5pAAAAMAAJ&q=diploma+leopoldinum+transylvania&dq=diploma+leopoldinum+transylvania&lr=&pgis=1
  23. Paul Lendvai, Ann Major. "The Hungarians: A Thousand Years of Victory in Defeat" C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2003, page 146; https://books.google.com/books?id=9yCmAQGTW28C&pg=PA146&dq=diploma+leopoldinum+transylvania&lr=
  24. "Definition of Grand Principality of Transylvania in the Free Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  25. The Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy and Romanian Political Autonomy in Paşcu, Ştefan. A History of Transylvania. Dorset Press, New York, 1990.
  26. Történelmi világatlasz [World Atlas of History] (in Hungarian). ISBN 963-352-519-5.
  27. Transilvania at romaniatraveltourism.com
  28. Transylvania at 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  29. http://www.recensamantromania.ro/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/REZULTATE-DEFINITIVE-RPL_2011.pdf
  30. "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. July 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  31. Sibiu Cultural Capital Website
  32. http://www.hungarian-history.hu/lib/transy/transy03.htm
  33. Elek Fényes, Magyarország statistikája, Vol. 1, Trattner-Károlyi, Pest. VII, 1842
  34. Seton-Watson, Robert William (1933). "The Problem of Treaty Revision and the Hungarian Frontiers". International Affairs. 12 (4): 481–503. JSTOR 2603603. doi:10.2307/2603603.
  35. Varga, E. Árpád, Hungarians in Transylvania between 1870 and 1995, Translation by Tamás Sályi, Budapest, March 1999, pp. 30-34
  36. "Transylvania". Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
  37. Varga, E. Árpád, Hungarians in Transylvania between 1870 and 1995, Translation by Tamás Sályi, Budapest, March 1999, p. 31
  38. http://www.ms.ro/upload/CLASIFICAREA%20SPITALELOR-1.pdf
  39. "Cultura". 2007-12-31. Archived from the original on December 31, 2007. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  40. Earl A. Pope, "Protestantism in Romania", in Sabrina Petra Ramet (ed.), Protestantism and Politics in Eastern Europe and Russia: The Communist and Postcommunist Eras, ISBN 0-8223-1241-7
  41. "Travel to Romania - Densus Church (Hunedoara)". Romanianmonasteries.org. 2006-05-31. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  42. http://sibiupeople.ro/en/reports/732
  43. "Apuseni Caves". Itsromania.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  44. "Zilele Filmului de Umor 2014". timisoreni.ro. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  45. "O nouă ediție a Zilelor Filmului de Umor la Timișoara". HotNewsRo. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  46. Dan Cernovodeanu, Știința și arta heraldică în România, Bucharest, 1977, p. 130
  47. "Coat of arms of Dacia (medieval)". Archived from the original on 9 April 2014.
  48. Ströhl, Hugo Gerard (1890). Oesterreichish-Ungarische Wappenrolle (PDF). Vienna: Verlag vom Anton Schroll & C°. p. XV. Retrieved 24 November 2011.

K. Horedt (1958) Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII, Editura Academiei RSR, 1958 p. 113

Transylvania: Further reading

  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • ISBN 1-59017-166-7). Fermor travelled across Transylvania in the summer of 1934, and wrote about it in this account first published more than 50 years later, in 1986.
  • Zoltán Farkas and Judit Sós, Transylvania Guidebook
  • ISBN 978-80-89286-45-4)
  • RTI Radio - Radio Transsylvania International
  • Tolerant Transylvania - Why Transylvania will not become another Kosovo, Katherine Lovatt, in Central Europe Review, Vol 1, No 14 27 September 1999.
  • The History Of Transylvania And The Transylvanian Saxons by Dr. Konrad Gündisch, Oldenburg, Germany
  • Transylvania, its Products and its People, by Charles Boner, 1865
  • (in Hungarian) Transylvanian Family History Database
  • Authentic Transylvania
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