One of today's offers is an unique opportunity to instantly find the lowest prices on Tuscany hotels and book a best hotel in Tuscany saving up to 80%! You can do it quickly and easily with HotelsCombined, a world's leading free hotel metasearch engine that allows to search and compare the rates of all major hotel chains, top travel sites, and leading hotel booking websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com, etc., etc. The hotel price comparison service HotelsCombined means cheap Tuscany hotels booking, lowest prices on hotel reservation in Tuscany and airline tickets to Tuscany, Italy!
Tuscany Hotels Comparison & Online Booking
▪ Lowest prices on Tuscany hotels booking ▪ The discounts on Tuscany hotels up to 80% ▪ No booking fees on Tuscany hotels ▪ Detailed description & photos of Tuscany hotels ▪ Trusted ratings and reviews of Tuscany hotels ▪ Advanced Tuscany hotel search & comparison ▪ All Tuscany hotels on the map ▪ Interesting sights of Tuscany
What's important: you can compare and book not only Tuscany hotels and resorts, but also villas and holiday cottages, inns and B&Bs (bed and breakfast), condo hotels and apartments, timeshare properties, guest houses and pensions, campsites (campgrounds), motels and hostels in Tuscany. If you're going to Tuscany save your money and time, don't pay for the services of the greedy travel agencies. Instead, book the best hotel in Tuscany online, buy the cheapest airline tickets to Tuscany, and rent a car in Tuscany right now, paying the lowest price! Besides, here you can buy the Tuscany related books, guidebooks, souvenirs and other goods.
By the way, we would recommend you to combine your visit to Tuscany with other popular and interesting places of Italy, for example: Asciano, Tropea, Taranto, Peschiera del Garda, Pienza, Trentino-Alto Adige, Siena, Terracina, San Casciano dei Bagni, Rimini, Golfo Aranci, Herculaneum, Riomaggiore, Perugia, Turin, Sanremo, Fiumicino, Desenzano del Garda, Abano Terme, Fasano, Stresa, Mantua, Finale Ligure, Basilicata, Cortona, Pompeii, Sperlonga, Campania, Piedmont, Montecatini Terme, Prato, Chieti, Emilia-Romagna, Livorno, Verona, Liguria, Alberobello, Montepulciano, Lerici, Sardinia, Sestriere, Alassio, L'Aquila, Rome, Castiglione del Lago, Lazio, Matera, Lake Como, Calabria, Tivoli, Bormio, Misano Adriatico, Livigno, Monterosso al Mare, Malcesine, Civitavecchia, Bergamo, Parma, Castiglione della Pescaia, Greve in Chianti, Maratea, Fano, Naples, Taormina, Caorle, Rapallo, Città della Pieve, Val Gardena, Mestre, Viterbo, Urbino, Baveno, Apulia, Lignano Sabbiadoro, Olbia, Elba, Pitigliano, Amalfi Coast, Cattolica, Madonna di Campiglio, Catania, Gubbio, Ragusa, Cesena, Pistoia, Brindisi, Ravenna, Salerno, Treviso, Gallipoli, Cesenatico, Vieste, Bracciano, Milazzo, Riccione, Sinalunga, Agrigento, Rapolano Terme, San Gimignano, Siracusa, Umbria, Lombardy, Lake Garda, Breuil-Cervinia, Abruzzo, Portoferraio, Nardò, Sorrento, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Viareggio, Vernazza, Vesuvius, Chianciano Terme, Piacenza, Canazei, Monopoli, La Spezia, Cervia, Ascoli Piceno, Genoa, Fabriano, Alghero, Bellagio, Castiglion Fiorentino, Courmayeur, Arzachena, Bordighera, Polignano a Mare, Sottomarina, Costa Smeralda, Pescara, Tuscany, Carrara, Gaeta, Ancona, Monza, Riva del Garda, Peschici, Torrita di Siena, Veneto, Cefalù, Brescia, Lazise, Massa, Sirmione, Padua, Grosseto, Asti, Novara, Positano, Florence, Cagliari, Ischia, Arona, Bardolino, Ostuni, Fassa Valley, Montalcino, Verbania, Trieste, Bologna, Porto Cervo, Manarola, Dolomites, Vicenza, Sicily, Gabicce Mare, Savona, Bellaria-Igea Marina, Trento, Pordenone, Lecco, Lido di Jesolo, Otranto, Capri, Lake Maggiore, Arezzo, Imperia, Menaggio, Venice, Trapani, Forte dei Marmi, Bari, Palermo, Milan, Ercolano, Ortisei, Lampedusa, Merano, Castiglione d'Orcia, Chioggia, Porto Cesareo, Bolzano, Assisi, Sëlva, Lucca, Jesolo, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Messina, Pesaro, Benevento, Ferrara, Aosta Valley, Pisa, Portofino, Trani, Italian Alps, Ventimiglia, etc.
How to Book a Hotel in Tuscany
In order to book an accommodation in Tuscany enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Tuscany hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Tuscany map to estimate the distance from the main Tuscany attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Tuscany hotels and see their ratings.
When a hotel search in Tuscany is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Tuscany is waiting for you!
Hotels of Tuscany
A hotel in Tuscany is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Tuscany hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Tuscany are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Tuscany hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Tuscany hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Tuscany have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:
Upscale luxury hotels in Tuscany
An upscale full service hotel facility in Tuscany that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Tuscany hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.
Full service hotels in Tuscany
Full service Tuscany hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.
Historic inns and boutique hotels in Tuscany
Boutique hotels of Tuscany are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Tuscany boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Tuscany may be classified as luxury hotels.
Focused or select service hotels in Tuscany
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Tuscany travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Tuscany focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.
Economy and limited service hotels in Tuscany
Small to medium-sized Tuscany hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Tuscany traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Tuscany hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.
Guest houses and B&Bs in Tuscany
A bed and breakfast in Tuscany is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Tuscany bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Tuscany B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.
Hostels in Tuscany
Tuscany hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Tuscany hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.
Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Tuscany
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Tuscany hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Tuscany lack an on-site restaurant.
Timeshare and destination clubs in Tuscany
Tuscany timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Tuscany often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Tuscany on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.
Motels in Tuscany
A Tuscany motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Tuscany for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Tuscany motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.
HotelsCombined is the leading hotel metasearch engine founded in 2005, with headquarters in Sydney, Australia. It is widely recognized as the world's best hotel price comparison site and has won many of the most prestigious tourism industry awards. The site operates in over 40 languages, handles 120 different currencies and aggregates more than 2 million deals from hundreds of travel sites and hotel chains. The number of users counts more than 300,000 people a year with over $1,000,000,000 in estimated total cost of hotel reservations.
The main purpose of HotelsCombined hotel price comparison service is to help the travelers in finding a perfect accommodation option in Tuscany at the best price, eliminating the need to manually analyze hundreds of hotel booking sites and thousands of price offers. Through the partnership with the most popular hotel booking websites, online travel agencies and hotel chains, HotelsCombined allows its users to search for and compare the current rates on Tuscany hotels in a single search. It also provides an aggregated summary of hotel reviews and ratings from external sites.
The HotelsCombined's advanced technology allows to instantly find the available Tuscany hotels and process the offers of all leading travel websites, including Booking.com, Hotels.com, Agoda.com, etc. and many others (AccorHotels.com, AirAsiaGo.com, Amoma.com, AsiaTravel.com, BestWestern.com, Budgetplaces.com, EasyToBook.com, Elvoline.com, Expedia.com, Getaroom.com, Hilton.com, Homestay.com, Hotel.de, HotelClub.com, HotelsClick.com, HotelTravel.com, Housetrip.com, ihg.com, Interhome.com, Jovago.com, LateRooms.com, NH-Hotels.com, OnHotels.com, Otel.com, Prestigia.com, Skoosh.com, Splendia.com, Superbreak.com, Tiket.com, etc.). Due to the fast and easy-to-use search system you get the rates on available Tuscany hotels and book a preferable hotel on a website providing the lowest price.
All Tuscany Hotels & Hostels Online
HotelsCombined is recommended to those interested in Tuscany, Italy, HotelsCombined, Trivago, sale on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, discount coupons on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, best rates on Tuscany hotels, low prices on Tuscany hotels, best hotel in Tuscany, best Tuscany hotel, discounted Tuscany hotel booking, online Tuscany hotel reservation, Tuscany hotels comparison, hotel booking in Tuscany, luxury and cheap accomodation in Tuscany, Tuscany inns, Tuscany B&Bs, bed and breakfast in Tuscany, condo hotels and apartments in Tuscany, bargain Tuscany rentals, cheap Tuscany vacation rentals,Tuscany pensions and guest houses, cheap hotels and hostels of Tuscany, Tuscany motels, dormitories of Tuscany, dorms in Tuscany, Tuscany dormitory rooms, lowest rates on hotels in Tuscany, hotel prices comparison in Tuscany, travel to Tuscany, vacation in Tuscany, trip to Tuscany, trusted hotel reviews of Tuscany, sights and attractions of Tuscany, Tuscany guidebook, Tuscany guide, hotel booking in Tuscany, Italy, tours to Tuscany, etc.
Many people are also interested in the travel company in Tuscany, travel agency in Tuscany, excursions in Tuscany, tickets to Tuscany, airline tickets to Tuscany, Tuscany hotel booking, Tuscany hostels, dormitory of Tuscany, dorm in Tuscany, Tuscany dormitory, Tuscany airfares, Tuscany airline tickets, Tuscany tours, Tuscany travel, must-see places in Tuscany, Tuscany Booking.com, Tuscany hotels Trivago, Tuscany Expedia, Tuscany Airbnb, Tuscany TripAdvisor, Hotels Combined Tuscany, HotelsCombined Tuscany, Tuscany hotels and hostels, IT hotels and hostels, Black Friday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, Cyber Monday on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined, New Year's and Christmas sale HotelsCombined, hotelscombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, HotelsCombined.en, hotelscombined.com, Toszkána, Toskaana, Toscane, and so on.
While others are looking for the Tuscany, صوبہ ٹسکنی, Tuscana, Toskánsko, توسكانا, Տոսկանա, Tuschèna, ਤੋਸਕਾਨਾ, แคว้นตอสคานา, An Tuscáin, ტოსკანა, Таскана, トスカーナ州, Тосканæ, Toskane, 토스카나 주, Τοσκάνη, Toskania, Toscann-a, तोस्काना, טוסקנה, توسکانی, Toscan-a, Toskanio, ടസ്കനി, Toskāna, Toscana, Tuscia, 陀斯卡拿, تسکانہ, 托斯卡纳大区, Тоскана, ቶስካና, Tuscania. Thousands of people have already booked the hotels in Tuscany on the hotel booking site HotelsCombined. Don't wait, act now!
Travelling and vacation in Tuscany
For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation).
Region of Italy
Coat of arms
Enrico Rossi (MDP)
22,990.18 km (8,876.56 sq mi)
160/km (420/sq mi)
• Summer (DST)
€106.1 billion (2008)
GDP per capita
Tuscany (/ˈtʌskəni/TUSK-ə-nee; Italian: Toscana, pronounced [toˈskaːna]) is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 square miles) and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013). The regional capital is Florence (Firenze).
Tuscany is known for its landscapes, traditions, history, artistic legacy and its influence on high culture. It is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, and contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace. Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation".
Tuscany is traditionally a popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals in 2014 were Florence, Pisa, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto. The village of Castiglione della Pescaia is also the most visited seaside destination in the region, with seaside tourism accounting for approximately 40% of tourist arrivals in Tuscany. Additionally, Siena, Lucca, the Chianti region, Versilia and Val d'Orcia are also internationally renowned and particularly popular spots among travellers.
Seven Tuscan localities have been designated World Heritage Sites: the historic centre of Florence (1982); the Cathedral square of Pisa (1987); the historical centre of San Gimignano (1990); the historical centre of Siena (1995); the historical centre of Pienza (1996); the Val d'Orcia (2004), and the Medici Villas and Gardens (2013). Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the world's 89th most visited city, with over 1.834 million arrivals.
Thornthwaite climate classification of Tuscany
A: Im > 100 B: 80 < Im < 100 B1-B2: 20 < Im < 80
C2: 0 < Im < 20 C1: −33,3 < Im < 0 D: Im < −33,3
Roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north, Marche to the northeast, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast. The comune (municipality) of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Marche.
Tuscany has a western coastline on the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, among which is the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres (8,878 sq mi). Surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few (but fertile) plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds (66.5%) of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres (5,904 sq mi), and mountains (of which the highest are the Apennines), a further 25%, or 5,770 square kilometres (2,230 sq mi). Plains occupy 8.4% of the total area-1,930 square kilometres (750 sq mi)-mostly around the valley of the River Arno. Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence, Empoli and Pisa.
The climate is fairly mild in the coastal areas, and is harsher and rainy in the interior, with considerable fluctuations in temperature between winter and summer, giving the region a soil-building active freeze-thaw cycle, in part accounting for the region's once having served as a key breadbasket of ancient Rome.
Sunflower field in Maremma
Tuscan landscape near Siena
Hilly landscape in Val d'Orcia
Vineyard in Tuscany
Valley in Tuscany
Main article: History of Tuscany
Tuscany: Appennini and Villanovan cultures
Main articles: Apennine culture and Villanovan culture
Cinerary urns of the Villanovan culture
The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks. The Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called Apennine culture in the late second millennium BC (roughly 1350–1150 BC) who had trading relationships with the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations in the Aegean Sea. Following this, the Villanovan culture (1100–700 BC) saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan (paralleling Greece and the Aegean) before "Orientalization" occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose.
Main article: Etruscan civilization
The Chimera of Arezzo, Etruscan bronze, 400 BC
The Etruscans (Latin: Tusci) created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art. The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory. The civilization grew to fill the area between the Arno River and Tiber River from the 8th century BC, reaching its peak during the 7th and 6th centuries BC, finally succumbing to the Romans by the 1st century. Throughout their existence, they lost territory (in Campania) to Magna Graecia, Carthage and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, and later Rome, influenced the civilization to a great extent. One reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans.
Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa, Siena, and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, and the construction of many buildings, both public and private. However, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, and the region fell briefly to Goths, then was re-conquered by the Byzantine Empire. In the years following 572, the Longobards (Lombards) arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia.
Tuscany: Medieval period
Battle of Montaperti, 1260
See also: March of Tuscany
Pilgrims travelling along the Via Francigena between Rome and France brought wealth and development during the medieval period. The food and shelter required by these travellers fuelled the growth of communities around churches and taverns. The conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, factions supporting the Papacy or the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries, split the Tuscan people. The two factions gave rise to several powerful and rich medieval communes in Tuscany: Arezzo, Florence, Lucca, Pisa, and Siena. Balance between these communes was ensured by the assets they held: Pisa, a port; Siena, banking; and Lucca, banking and silk. But by the time of the Renaissance, Florence had become the cultural capital of Tuscany.
One family that benefitted from Florence's growing wealth and power was the ruling Medici family. Its scion Lorenzo de' Medici was one of the most famous of the Medici. The legacy of his influence is visible today in the prodigious expression of art and architecture in Florence. His famous descendant Catherine de' Medici married Prince Henry (later King Henry II) of France in 1533.
The Black Death epidemic hit Tuscany starting in 1348. It eventually killed 70% of the Tuscan population. According to Melissa Snell, "Florence lost a third of its population in the first six months of the plague, and from 45% to 75% of its population in the first year." In 1630, Florence and Tuscany were once again ravaged by the plague.
Guido of Arezzo
A page from Fibonacci's Liber Abaci (1202)
Battle of Giglio (1241)
Dante Alighieri, author of the Divine Comedy
Further information: The Renaissance and Italian Renaissance
Primavera (1482) by Botticelli
Hanging and burning of Girolamo Savonarola in Piazza della Signoria in Florence 1498 - Painting depicting Renaissance Florence
Tuscany, especially Florence, is regarded as the birthplace of the Renaissance. Though "Tuscany" remained a linguistic, cultural and geographic conception, rather than a political reality, in the 15th century, Florence extended its dominion in Tuscany through the annexation of Arezzo in 1384, the purchase of Pisa in 1405 and the suppression of a local resistance there (1406). Livorno was bought in 1421 and became the harbour of Florence.
From the leading city of Florence, the republic was from 1434 onward dominated by the increasingly monarchical Medici family. Initially, under Cosimo, Piero the Gouty, Lorenzo and Piero the Unfortunate, the forms of the republic were retained and the Medici ruled without a title, usually without even a formal office. These rulers presided over the Florentine Renaissance. There was a return to the republic from 1494 to 1512, when first Girolamo Savonarola then Piero Soderini oversaw the state. Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici retook the city with Spanish forces in 1512, before going to Rome to become Pope Leo X. Florence was dominated by a series of papal proxies until 1527 when the citizens declared the republic again, only to have it taken from them again in 1530 after a siege by an Imperial and Spanish army. At this point Pope Clement VII and Charles V appointed Alessandro de' Medici as the first formal hereditary ruler.
The Sienese commune was not incorporated into Tuscany until 1555, and during the 15th century Siena enjoyed a cultural 'Sienese Renaissance' with its own more conservative character. Lucca remained an independent republic until 1847 when it became part of Grand Duchy of Tuscany by the will of its people. Piombino and other strategic towns constituted the tiny State of the Presidi under Spanish control.
Leonardo da Vinci
Lorenzo de Medici
Niccolò Machiavelli, author of The Prince
Tuscany: Modern era
See also: Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Map of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
In the 16th century, the Medicis, rulers of Florence, annexed the Republic of Siena, creating the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The Medici family became extinct in 1737 with the death of Gian Gastone, and Tuscany was transferred to Francis, Duke of Lorraine and husband of Austrian Empress Maria Theresa, who let rule the country by his son. The dynasty of the Lorena ruled Tuscany until 1860, with the exception of the Napoleonic period, when most of the country was annexed to the French Empire. After the Second Italian War of Independence, a revolution evicted the last Grand Duke, and after a plebiscite Tuscany became part of the new Kingdom of Italy. From 1864 to 1870 Florence became the second capital of the kingdom.
Under Benito Mussolini, the area came under the dominance of local Fascist leaders such as Dino Perrone Compagni (from Florence), and Costanzo and Galeazzo Ciano (from Leghorn). Following the fall of Mussolini and the armistice of 8 September 1943, Tuscany became part of the Nazi-controlled Italian Social Republic, and was conquered almost totally by the Anglo-American forces during summer 1944. Following the end of the Social Republic, and the transition from the Kingdom to the modern Italian Republic, Tuscany once more flourished as a cultural centre of Italy. After the establishment of regional autonomy in 1975, Tuscany has always been ruled by centre-left governments.
Cosimo I de' Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany
Pinocchio, created by Carlo Collodi (1883)
An Italian partisan in Florence (August 1944)
Tuscany has an immense cultural and artistic heritage, expressed in the region's churches, palaces, art galleries, museums, villages and piazzas. Many of these artifacts are found in the main cities, such as Florence and Siena, but also in smaller villages scattered around the region, such as San Gimignano.
Tuscany has a unique artistic legacy, and Florence is one of the world's most important water-colour centres, even so that it is often nicknamed the "art palace of Italy" (the city is also believed to have the largest concentration of Renaissance art and architecture in the world). Painters such as Cimabue and Giotto, the fathers of Italian painting, lived in Florence and Tuscany, as well as Arnolfo and Andrea Pisano, renewers of architecture and sculpture; Brunelleschi, Donatello and Masaccio, forefathers of the Renaissance; Ghiberti and the Della Robbias, Filippo Lippi and Angelico; Botticelli, Paolo Uccello, and the universal genius of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.
The region contains numerous museums and art galleries, many housing some of the world's most precious works of art. Such museums include the Uffizi, which keeps Botticelli's The Birth of Venus, the Pitti Palace, and the Bargello, to name a few. Most of the frescos, sculptures and paintings in Tuscany are held in the region's abundant churches and cathedrals, such as Florence Cathedral, Siena Cathedral, Pisa Cathedral and the Collegiata di San Gimignano.
Tuscany: Art schools
A painting from the Sienese school by Pietro Lorenzetti
Main articles: Florentine school, Sienese school, and Lucchese School
In the medieval period and in the Renaissance, there were four main Tuscan art schools which competed against each other: the Florentine School, the Sienese School, the Pisan School and the Lucchese School.
The Florentine School refers to artists in, from or influenced by the naturalistic style developed in the 14th century, largely through the efforts of Giotto di Bondone, and in the 15th century the leading school of the world. Some of the best known artists of the Florentine School are Brunelleschi, Donatello, Michelangelo, Fra Angelico, Botticelli, Lippi, Masolino, and Masaccio.
The Sienese School of painting flourished in Siena between the 13th and 15th centuries and for a time rivaled Florence, though it was more conservative, being inclined towards the decorative beauty and elegant grace of late Gothic art. Its most important representatives include Duccio, whose work shows Byzantine influence; his pupil Simone Martini; Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti; Domenico and Taddeo di Bartolo; and Sassetta and Matteo di Giovanni. Unlike the naturalistic Florentine art, there is a mystical streak in Sienese art, characterized by a common focus on miraculous events, distortions of time and place, and often dreamlike coloration, with less attention to proportions. In the 16th century the Mannerists Beccafumi and Il Sodoma worked there. While Baldassare Peruzzi was born and trained in Siena, his major works and style reflect his long career in Rome. The economic and political decline of Siena by the 16th century, and its eventual subjugation by Florence, largely checked the development of Sienese painting, although it also meant that many Sienese works in churches and public buildings were not discarded or destroyed by new paintings or rebuilding. Siena remains a remarkably well-preserved Italian late-Medieval town.
The Lucchese School, also known as the School of Lucca and as the Pisan-Lucchese School, was a school of painting and sculpture that flourished in the 11th and 12th centuries in the western and southern part of the region, with an important center in Volterra. The art is mostly anonymous. Although not as elegant or delicate as the Florentine School, Lucchese works are remarkable for their monumentality.
Tuscany: Main artistic centres
In the province of Arezzo:
In the province of Florence:
In the Province of Grosseto:
In the province of Livorno:
In the province of Lucca:
Castelnuovo di Garfagnana
Castiglione di Garfagnana
In the province of Massa and Carrara:
Massa and Carrara
In the province of Pisa:
In the province of Prato:
Poggio a Caiano
In the province of Pistoia:
In the province of Siena:
Colle di Val d'Elsa
Main article: Tuscan dialect
Apart from standard Italian, the Tuscan dialect (dialetto toscano) is spoken in Tuscany. The Italian language is a "literary version" of Tuscan. It became the language of culture for all the people of Italy, thanks to the prestige of the masterpieces of Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. It would later become the official language of all the Italian states and of the Kingdom of Italy, when it was formed.
Main article: Music of Tuscany
See also: Music of Florence
Tuscany has a rich ancient and modern musical tradition, and has produced numerous composers and musicians, including Giacomo Puccini and Pietro Mascagni. Florence is the main musical centre of Tuscany. The city was at the heart of much of the Western musical tradition. It was there that the Florentine Camerata convened in the mid-16th century and experimented with setting tales of Greek mythology to music and staging, resulting in the first operas, fostering the further development of the operatic form, and the later developments of separate "classical" forms such as the symphony.
There are numerous musical centres in Tuscany. Arezzo is indelibly connected with the name of Guido d'Arezzo, the 11th-century monk who invented modern musical notation and the do-re-mi system of naming notes of the scale; Lucca hosted possibly the greatest Italian composer of Romanticism, Giacomo Puccini; and Siena is well known for the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, an organization that currently sponsors major musical activities such as the Siena Music Week and the Alfredo Casella International Composition Competition. Other important musical centres in Tuscany include Livorno, Pisa and Grosseto.
Tuscan poet and literary figure Petrarch
Several famous writers and poets are from Tuscany, most notably Florentine author Dante Alighieri. Tuscany's literary scene particularly thrived in the 13th century and the Renaissance.
In Tuscany, especially in the Middle Ages, popular love poetry existed. A school of imitators of the Sicilians was led by Dante da Maiano, but its literary originality took another line - that of humorous and satirical poetry. The democratic form of government created a style of poetry which stood strongly against the medieval mystic and chivalrous style. Devout invocation of God or of a lady came from the cloister and the castle; in the streets of the cities everything that had gone before was treated with ridicule or biting sarcasm. Folgóre da San Gimignano laughs when in his sonnets he tells a party of Sienese youths the occupations of every month in the year, or when he teaches a party of Florentine lads the pleasures of every day in the week. Cenne della Chitarra laughs when he parodies Folgore's sonnets. The sonnets of Rustico di Filippo are half-fun and half-satire, as is the work of Cecco Angiolieri of Siena, the oldest humorist we know, a far-off precursor of François Rabelais and Michel de Montaigne.
Another type of poetry also began in Tuscany. Guittone d'Arezzo made art abandon chivalry and Provençal forms for national motives and Latin forms. He attempted political poetry, and although his work is often obscure, he prepared the way for the Bolognese school. Bologna was the city of science, and philosophical poetry appeared there. Guido Guinizelli was the poet after the new fashion of the art. In his work the ideas of chivalry are changed and enlarged. Only those whose heart is pure can be blessed with true love, regardless of class. He refuted the traditional credo of courtly love, for which love is a subtle philosophy only a few chosen knights and princesses could grasp. Love is blind to blasons but not to a good heart when it finds one: when it succeeds it is the result of the spiritual, not physical affinity between two souls. Guinizzelli's democratic view can be better understood in the light of the greater equality and freedom enjoyed by the city-states of the center-north and the rise of a middle class eager to legitimise itself in the eyes of the old nobility, still regarded with respect and admiration but in fact dispossessed of its political power. Guinizelli's Canzoni make up the bible of Dolce Stil Novo, and one in particular, "Al cor gentil" ("To a Kind Heart") is considered the manifesto of the new movement which would bloom in Florence under Cavalcanti, Dante and their followers. His poetry has some of the faults of the school of d'Arezzo. Nevertheless, he marks a great development in the history of Italian art, especially because of his close connection with Dante's lyric poetry.
In the 13th century, there were several major allegorical poems. One of these is by Brunetto Latini, who was a close friend of Dante. His Tesoretto is a short poem, in seven-syllable verses, rhyming in couplets, in which the author professes to be lost in a wilderness and to meet with a lady, who represents Nature, from whom he receives much instruction. We see here the vision, the allegory, the instruction with a moral object, three elements which we shall find again in the Divine Comedy. Francesco da Barberino, a learned lawyer who was secretary to bishops, a judge, and a notary, wrote two little allegorical poems, the Documenti d'amore and Del reggimento e dei costumi delle donne. The poems today are generally studied not as literature, but for historical context. A fourth allegorical work was the Intelligenza, which is sometimes attributed to Compagni, but is probably only a translation of French poems.
In the 15th century, humanist and publisher Aldus Manutius published the Tuscan poets Petrarch and Dante Alighieri (Divine Comedy), creating the model for what became a standard for modern Italian.
An assortment of Tuscan foods (from Lucca): various wine and cheese, and different sorts of salamis and hams
Main article: Tuscan cuisine
See also: Tuscan wine
Simplicity is central to the Tuscan cuisine. Legumes, bread, cheese, vegetables, mushrooms and fresh fruit are used. Olive oil is made up of Moraiolo, Leccino and Frantoiano olives. White truffles from San Miniato appear in October and November. Beef of the highest quality comes from the Chiana Valley, specifically a breed known as Chianina used for Florentine steak. The indigenous Cinta Senese breed of pork is also produced.
Wine is a famous and common produce of Tuscany. Chianti is arguably the most well-known internationally. So many British tourists come to the area where Chianti wine is produced that this specific area has been nicknamed "Chiantishire".
Tuscany: Postage stamps
4 crazie stamp from 1851
Main article: Postage stamps and postal history of Tuscany
Between 1851 and 1860, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, an independent Italian state until 1859 when it joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, produced two postage stamp issues which are among the most prized classic stamp issues of the world, and include the most valuable Italian stamp. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was an independent Italian state from 1569 to 1859, but was occupied by France from 1808 to 1814. The Duchy comprised most of the present area of Tuscany, and its capital was Florence. In December 1859, the Grand Duchy officially ceased to exist, being joined to the duchies of Modena and Parma to form the United Provinces of Central Italy, which was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia a few months later in March 1860. In 1862 it became part of Italy, and joined the Italian postal system.
Vineyards in the Chianti region
The subsoil in Tuscany is relatively rich in mineral resources, with iron ore, copper, mercury and lignite mines, the famous soffioni (fumarole) at Larderello, and the vast marble mines in Versilia. Although its share is falling all the time, agriculture still contributes to the region's economy. In the region's inland areas cereals, potatoes, olives and grapes are grown. The swamplands, which used to be marshy, now produce vegetables, rice, tobacco, beets and sunflowers.
The industrial sector is dominated by mining, given the abundance of underground resources. Also of note are textiles, chemicals/pharmaceuticals, metalworking and steel, glass and ceramics, clothing and printing/publishing sectors. Smaller areas specialising in manufacturing and craft industries are found in the hinterland: the leather and footwear area in the south-west part of the province of Florence, the hot-house plant area in Pistoia, the ceramics and textile industries in the Prato area, scooters and motorcycles in Pontedera, and the processing of timber for the manufacture of wooden furniture in the Cascina area. The heavy industries (mining, steel and mechanical engineering) are concentrated along the coastal strip (Livorno and Pisa areas), where there are also important chemical industries. Also of note are the marble (Carrara area) and paper industries (Lucca area).
Maremma encapsulates the most visited seaside destinations in Tuscany. Above, the Tuscan littoral of Monte Argentario
Tuscany is a traditionally popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence, Pisa, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto. Additionally, the Chianti region, Versilia and Val d'Orcia are also internationally renowned and particularly popular spots among travellers.
As far as seaside tourism is concerned, which represents 40% of tourist arrivals in the region, Castiglione della Pescaia's sea has been repeatedly nominated as Italy's best sea by the Italian non-governmental environmentalist organisation Legambiente. Castiglione gained the first place in the most recent ranking too, published in 2015. The town is also the most visited seaside destination in Tuscany, and fourth most visited overall, with circa 1.3 million tourist arrivals recorded in 2015. Other popular seaside destination are Grosseto (second most popular after Castiglione), Orbetello (third most popular), Monte Argentario, Viareggio, Elba and Giglio Island.
Many towns and cities in Tuscany have great natural and architectural beauty. There are many visitors throughout the year. As a result, the services and distribution activities, so important to the region's economy, are wide-ranging and well-organised.
See also: Fashion in Florence and Fashion designers of Florence
The Via de' Tornabuoni in Florence, the city's top fashion and shopping street, contains some of the world's most luxurious clothing and jewelry houses, such as Cartier, Ferragamo, Gucci, Versace and Bulgari, to name a few.
The fashion and textile industry are the pillars of the Florentine economy. In the 15th century, Florentines were working with luxury textiles such as wool and silk. Today the greatest designers in Europe utilize the textile industry in Tuscany, and especially Florence.
Italy has one of the strongest textile industries in Europe, accounting for approximately one quarter of European production. Its turnover is over 25 billion euros. It is the third largest supplier of clothing after China and Japan. The Italian fashion industry generates 60% of its turnover abroad.
Source: ISTAT 2011
The population density of Tuscany, with 161 inhabitants per square kilometre (420/sq mi) in 2008, is below the national average (198.8/km or 515/sq mi). This is due to the low population density of the provinces of Arezzo, Siena, and especially Grosseto (50/km or 130/sq mi). The highest density is found in the province of Prato (675/km or 1,750/sq mi), followed by the provinces of Pistoia, Livorno, Florence and Lucca, peaking in the cities of Florence (more than 3,500/km or 9,100/sq mi), Livorno, Prato, Viareggio, Forte dei Marmi and Montecatini Terme (all with a population density of more than 1,000/km or 2,600/sq mi). The territorial distribution of the population is closely linked to the socio-cultural and, more recently, economic and industrial development of Tuscany.
Accordingly, the least densely populated areas are those where the main activity is agriculture, unlike the others where, despite the presence of a number of large industrial complexes, the main activities are connected with tourism and associated services, alongside many small firms in the leather, glass, paper and clothing sectors.
Italians make up 93% of the total population. Starting from the 1980s, the region has attracted a large flux of immigrants, particularly from China. There is also a significant community of British and American residents. As of 2008, the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 275,149 foreign-born immigrants live in Tuscany, equal to 7% of the total regional population.
Tuscany: Government and politics
Main article: Politics of Tuscany
Tuscany is a stronghold of the center-left Democratic Party, forming with Emilia-Romagna, Umbria and Marche the so-called Italian political "Red Quadrilateral". Since 1970, Tuscany has been continuously governed by the Socialist-Communist or PD-led governments. At the February 2013 elections, Tuscany gave more than 40% of its votes to Pier Luigi Bersani, and only 20.7% to Silvio Berlusconi. At the 2014 European elections, Tuscany gave 56.4% of its votes to Matteo Renzi's center-left Democratic Party. Tuscany was one of only three regions to vote YES in the 2016 Italian constitutional referendum.
Tuscany: Administrative divisions
Tuscany is divided into nine provinces and one Metropolitan City:
Province of Arezzo
Metropolitan City of Florence
Province of Grosseto
Province of Livorno
Province of Lucca
Province of Massa and Carrara
Province of Pisa
Province of Pistoia
Province of Prato
Province of Siena
Tuscany: See also
Cities and towns in Tuscany
People from Tuscany
Line of succession to the Tuscan throne
"Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Retrieved 10 March 2010.
"European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28% of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner London".
Burke, P., The European Renaissance: Centre and Peripheries (1998)
"La Maremma regina del turismo. Solo le città d'arte la superano. Castiglione presenze record". 8 October 2015.
Florence receives an average of 10 million tourists a year, making the city one of the most visited in the world.
Bremner, Caroline; Grant, Michelle (27 January 2014). "Top 100 City Destinations Ranking". Euromonitor International. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
"TOSCANA - Geography and history". Retrieved 9 March 2011. Text finalised in March 2004 - Eurostat.
Military Channel (Discovery Network) documentary series Rome: Power and Glory, episode "The Grasp of an Empire", copyright unknown, rebroadcast 11-12:00 hrs EDST, 2009-06-29.
Barker 2000, p. 5
Jones 2005, p. 2
Barker 2000, p. 1
Barker 2000, p. 4
Jones 2005, p. 3
Kohn, George C. (2008). Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present. ISBN 0-8160-6935-2.
Benedictow, Ole Jørgen (2004). The Black Death, 1346-1353: The Complete History. ISBN 0-85115-943-5.
"The Economic Impact of the Black Death". EH.Net.
Snell, Melissa (2006). "The Great Mortality". About.com Education. Retrieved 2009-04-19.
Cipolla, Carlo M. (1981). Fighting the Plague in Seventeenth Century Italy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Miner, Jennifer (2008-09-02). "Florence Art Tours, Florence Museums, Florence Architecture". Travelguide.affordabletours.com. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
"Florentine Art and Architecture". Annenberg Learner. Retrieved January 28, 2016.