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Hotels of Valenzuela

A hotel in Valenzuela is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Valenzuela hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Valenzuela are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Valenzuela hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Valenzuela hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Valenzuela have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Valenzuela
An upscale full service hotel facility in Valenzuela that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Valenzuela hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Valenzuela
Full service Valenzuela hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Valenzuela
Boutique hotels of Valenzuela are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Valenzuela boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Valenzuela may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Valenzuela
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Valenzuela travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Valenzuela focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Valenzuela
Small to medium-sized Valenzuela hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Valenzuela traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Valenzuela hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Valenzuela
A bed and breakfast in Valenzuela is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Valenzuela bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Valenzuela B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Valenzuela
Valenzuela hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Valenzuela hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Valenzuela
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Valenzuela hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Valenzuela lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Valenzuela
Valenzuela timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Valenzuela often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Valenzuela on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Valenzuela
A Valenzuela motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Valenzuela for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Valenzuela motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Valenzuela

Highly Urbanized City
City of Valenzuela
Montage of Valenzuela. Clockwise from top-left: Hall of Justice; Pío Valenzuela Residence; People's Park; San Diego de Alcala Church; Valenzuela City Hall
Montage of Valenzuela. Clockwise from top-left: Hall of Justice; Pío Valenzuela Residence; People's Park; San Diego de Alcala Church; Valenzuela City Hall
Flag of Valenzuela
Official seal of Valenzuela
Nickname(s): "Vibrant City"
Anthem: "" ("Valenzuela Hymn")
Location within Metro Manila
Location within Metro Manila
Valenzuela is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates:  / 14.7; 120.98  / 14.7; 120.98
Country Philippines
Region National Capital Region
(Third district)
Province None
Legislative districts 1st and 2nd
Established November 12, 1623
Cityhood February 14, 1998
Founded by Juan Taranco and Juan Monsod
Barangays 33
• Type Strong mayor-council government (LGU)
• Representatives
  • 1 – Weslie T. Gatchalian (NPC)
  • 2 – Eric M. Martinez (PDP-Laban)
• Mayor Rexlon T. Gatchalian (NPC)
Vice Mayor Lorena C. Natividad-Borja (NPC)
• City 45.75 km (17.66 sq mi)
Area rank 119th of 145 cities
Elevation 38 m (125 ft)
Population (2015 census)
• City 620,422
• Rank 13th of 145 cities
• Density 14,000/km (35,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Valenzuelano, Valenzuelaño
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 1440–48; 1469; 0550; 0560
Area code +63 (0)02
Spoken languages Tagalog, English, Chinese, Spanish and other regional languages

Valenzuela (/vɒlənzjˈɛlɑː/; Tagalog pronunciation: [ˌbɐlenswelɐ] or [ˌbɐlensuwelɐʔ]), officially the City of Valenzuela (Filipino: Lungsod ng Valenzuela) (ISO: PH-00; PSGC: 137504000) or simply Valenzuela City, is the 119th largest city in the Philippines and one of the 16 cities that comprised the National Capital Region, located about 14 km (7.9 miles) north of the country's capital city, Manila. Valenzuela is categorized by virtue of Republic Act Nos. 7160 and 8526 as a highly urbanized, first-class city based on income classification and number of population. A landlocked chartered city located on the island of Luzon, it is bordered by the province of Bulacan, Quezon City, Caloocan and Malabon. Valenzuela shares border and access to Tenejeros-Tullahan River with Malabon. With total area of 45.75 square kilometers and a population of 620,422 in August 2015, Valenzuela is the 13th most populous city in the Philippines. The city is composed of about 72% Tagalog people followed by 5% Bicolanos with a small percentage of foreign nationals.

Valenzuela was named after Pío Valenzuela, a doctor and a member of the Katipunan. The city was originally called Polo; which was initially formed in 1621 and later formalized two years later, after separation from Meycauayan. The infamous Battle of Malinta of the Philippine–American War was fought in Polo in 1899. In 1960, President Carlos P. Garcia ordered the split of Polo's southern barangays to form an earlier town Valenzuela. The split revoked by President Diosdado Macapagal in 1963 and the merge was named Valenzuela. The modern-day Valenzuela with its borders was chartered in 1998.

Owing to the cross migration of people across the country and its location as the northernmost point of Metro Manila, Valenzuela has developed into a multicultural metropolis. A former agricultural rural area, Valenzuela has grown into a major economic and industrial center of the Philippines when a large number of industries relocated to the central parts of the city.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Toponymy

In Spanish, Valenzuela is a diminutive form of Valencia which means "little Valencia". The name Valenzuela is also the surname of Pío Valenzuela, a Tagalog physician who was one of the leaders of Katipunan. He was regarded as a member of the Katipunan triumvirate that started the Philippine Revolution against Spanish colonial authorities in 1896. He also served as the provisional chairman for the Katipunan.

Valenzuela was originally called Polo. The name Polo was derived from the Tagalog term pulô, which means island, even though the area was not an island. The original town of Polo was surrounded by the rivers from the north and Tullahan River on the south.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: History

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Spanish era

For hundreds of years, present-day Valenzuela, Obando and Novaliches (now in Quezon City) were parts of Bulacan. Areas now covered by Valenzuela included a Spanish friar's hacienda, small political settlements and a Spanish garrison. These areas were known as Polo. The region was bounded by the Tullahan River on the south and streams of branching Río Grande de Pampanga on some areas.

When Manila became an archdiocese in 1595, regular friars who had already established permanent churches in Catanghalan, Bulacan decided that the sitio of Polo be separated from the town and have its own church to cater its increasing spiritual needs. Through successive efforts of Franciscan Fray Juan Taranco and Don Juan Monsod, sitio Polo was successfully separated from Catanghalan on November 7, 1621, the feast day of the town's new patron, San Diego de Alcala (as appeared on the historical records in Errecciones de los Pueblos of the Philippine National Archives). Thus, the first cabeza de barangay of the new town of Polo was Monsod while Taranco run the parish which would become the present-day San Diego de Alcalá parish on a small tavern. The separation was made legal upon the orders of Governor-General Alonso Fajardo de Entenza on November 12, 1623. Later, the date of November 12 is adopted as the foundation day of the city.

From 1627-1629, construction of a parochial church dedicated to San Diego de Alcala started, under the supervision of Fr. José Valencia, aided by Juan Tibay. In 1852, the church was repaired and remodeled under the direction of Fr. Vicente. The church was later rededicated to another patron, the Nuestra Senora de la Inmaculada Concepcion. A convent was also built, followed by a common house (casa tribunal) that had a rectangular prison cell and a school house made of stone. Later on, the small sitio of Obando was separated from Polo and incorporated to Bulacan by the Marquis of Brindisi.

After the British successfully occupied Manila and surrounding suburbs in 1762–1764 during the Seven Years' War, the colonial government led by Simón de Anda y Salazar fled to Bacolor, Pampanga through Polo. The British followed Anda, and at one point staying in sitio Mabolo while waiting for orders from Governor Dawsonne Drake. They explored the nearby communities of Malanday, Wakas, Dalandanan, Pasolo, Rincon and Malinta. The terrified local population fled and sought refuge in the forests of Viente Reales where many of them died of malaria. The British proceeded to Malolos, Bulacan where they were ambushed by the stationed Spanish soldiers. After the war, the local population of Polo returned to their homes by May 12, 1763 after days of reconstruction. Today, May 12 every year is celebrated as the feast of San Roque and memorial to those who died in the Seven Years' War.

In 1856, sitio Novaliches was split from Polo to become an independent town. On June 3, 1865, a strong earthquake destroyed the belfry of San Diego, followed by an epidemic that killed thousands of people.

In 1869, Filipino physician and patriot Pío Valenzuela was born in Polo. He would be later known as one of the key leaders of the Katipunan, which he joined in 1892 at the age of 23. His admission to the society led to the more recruits from Polo, including Ulpiano Fernández, Gregorio Flamenco, Crispiniano Agustines, and Faustino Duque. Fernández held a special role in the Katipunan as printer of Ang Kalayaan newspaper when Valenzuela was the chief editor.

A constituted branch of the Katipunan was established in Polo on February 1, 1896. The town joined other revolutionaries when the Philippine Revolution broke. One of the notable battles in Polo occurred in sitios Bitik and Pasong Balite in Pugad-Baboy, where the locals won under the command of General Tiburcio de León y Gregorio. During the revolution, the Spanish massacred many residents, most of them in Malinta. Suspected revolutionaries were hanged and tortured to death. Many were forced to admit guilt or shout innocent names; others were shot without trial.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: American era and Japanese occupation

Portrait of Filipino physician and revolutionary Pio Valenzuela: the city was named after him.
Valenzuela was named after Pío Valenzuela, a Filipino revolutionary who was born in Polo in 1869.

The Americans imposed military government when they acquire Philippines from Spain as part of the peace treaty of the Spanish–American War. They appointed Dr. Pío Valenzuela as the first president (presidente municipal) of Polo on September 6, 1899. He resigned in February 1901, and an election was held. Later that year, the government proclaimed Rufino Valenzuela, a relative of Pío as the second president and first elected president of the town.

When the Philippine–American War broke out in 1899, the Americans were directed to capture Emilio Aguinaldo who was escaping to Malolos, Bulacan. Polo was one of the towns where Aguinaldo retreated, thus it received heavy casualties on the first stages of the war. On February 22, 1899, General Antonio Luna camped at Polo after an unsuccessful engagement with the American forces in Caloocan.

The entrance of the Japanese in Polo during the Second World War was met with no resistance. The people during the Japanese time enjoyed prosperity for Polo became a market town. There were more signs of cooperation and social contact among the inhabitants but on the contrary, fear of reprisals from the Japanese predominated. There were too many murders committed. The place became a center of Makapili and spies who troubled the peaceful civilians. The sudden appearance of the Japanese added terror to the place.

The reign of terror climaxed on December 10, 1944. It was a day of mourning for the people of Polo and Obando when the Japanese massacred more than hundred males in both towns. About 1:00 am on this day up to the setting of the sun cries could be heard from the municipal building when males were tortured to death. Mayor Feliciano Ponciano met the same fate when he died on cruel death together with other municipal officials.

When liberation came, the town was partly burned by the approaching the military forces of combined Filipino and American regiments who used flamethrowers. They bombed and shelled big houses in the town not exempting even the more than 300 years old church of San Diego.

The historical old bridge connecting northern and southern areas of the town was destroyed by the Japanese thus separating Polo in two parts. The northern part was at once liberated by joint Filipino and American troops while the southern part, which includes the municipal center poblacion was still under the Japanese banner. The Japanese abandoned the town on February 11, 1945 when the combined troops were able to cross the river and took the town.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Modern history

Barangay hall of Balangkas.
Welcome (boundary) arch view from Obando, Bulacan.

On July 21, 1960, President Carlos P. Garcia signed Executive Order No. 401 which divided Polo into two: Polo and Valenzuela. Polo comprised the northern barangays of Wawang Pulo, Poblacion, Palasan, Arkong Bato, Pariancillo Villa, Balangkas, Mabolo, Coloong, Malanday, Bisig, Tagalag, Rincon, Pasolo, Punturin, Bignay, Viente Reales, and Dalandanan. Valenzuela, on the other hand, comprised the southern barangays of Karuhatan, Marulas, Malinta, Ugong, Mapulang Lupa, Canumay, Maysan, Parada, Paso de Blas, Bagbaguin and Torres Bugallón (now Gen. T. de Leon).

The division soon proved to be detrimental to economic growth in each town, so Bulacan Second district Representative to the Fifth Congress Rogaciano Mercado and Senator Francisco Soc Rodrigo filed a bill which sought the reunification of the two towns. On September 11, 1963, President Diosdado Macapagal signed Executive Order No. 46 which reunified Valenzuela and Polo, adapting Valenzuela as the name of the resulting town.

In 1967, mayor Ignacio Santiago, Sr. bought lots in Karuhatan in which the new municipal hall would be built. Misinterpretation of property surveys and tax appropriation issues sparked the debate on which barangay should the municipal hall be belonged to: Karuhatan or Maysan. To resolve the issue, Santiago ordered the creation of a new barangay which was called Poblacion II, a reference to the old Poblacion barangay.

On November 7, 1975, jurisdiction over Valenzuela was moved from the province of Bulacan to Metro Manila. Metro Manila was then headed by First Lady Imelda Marcos as its governor.

In 1968, M.H. del Pilar St. was renovated and converted into the M.H. del Pilar Superhighway. In the same year, MacArthur Highway a segment of MacArthur Highway was constructed in Valenzuela. MacArthur Highway connects Manila to northern provinces of the Philippines.

The passage of the Local Government Code in 1991 provided local governments autonomy which has allowed them develop into self-reliant communities. On February 14, 1998, President Fidel V. Ramos signed Republic Act No. 8526, which converted the municipality of Valenzuela into a highly urbanized chartered city. The law also ordered the division of the newly created city into two legislative districts. When the law was ratified on December 30, 1998, Valenzuela became the 12th city to be admitted in Metro Manila and the 83rd in the Philippines.

In 2002, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo proclaimed July 11 every year as Valenzuela Day, which was an official holiday in the city that commemorates the birth date of Pío Valenzuela. However, in 2008, the date of the city's charter day was transferred to February 14. Today, Valenzuela City celebrates Valenzuela Day and Valenzuela Foundation Day on February 14 and November. 12 respectively

On May 13, 2015, a fire broke out in Kentex Manufacturing factory in barangay Ugong, killing 74 people in the incident. In 2016, the Ombudsman ordered the dismissal of mayor Rex Gatchalian and other city officials due to grave misconduct and negligence of duty during the incident. This is dubbed as the third worst fire incident in the country.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Geography

Satellite image of Valenzuela.

Valenzuela is located at  / 14.68278; 120.96694 and is about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) north of country's capital, Manila. Manila Bay, the country's top port for trade and industry is located about 16.3 kilometres (10.1 mi) west of the city. Valenzuela is bordered in the north by the town of Obando and the city of Meycauayan in Bulacan, the city of Navotas in the west, Malabon in the south and Quezon City and northern portion of Caloocan in the east.

The highest elevation point is 38 metres (125 ft) above sea level. Having a surface gradient of 0.55% and a gentle slope, hilly landscape is located in the industrial section of the city in Canumay. The average elevation point is 2 metres (6.6 ft) above sea level.

Apart from the political borders set by the law, Valenzuela and Malabon is also separated by the 15-kilometer Tenejeros-Tullahan River or simply Tullahan River. The river obtained its name from tulya or clam due to the abundance of such shellfish in the area. Tullahan is a part of the Marilao-Meycauayan-Obando river system of central Luzon. It is now considered biologically dead and one of the dirtiest river system in the world, though the city government believes the river is not dead. Tullahan riverbanks used to be lined with mangrove trees and rich with freshwater fish and crabs. Children used to play in the river before it was polluted by developing industries near it.

In an effort to save the river, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Metropolitan Manila Development Authority and the local governments of Valenzuela and Malabon signed partnerships with private and non-government organizations to dredge the area.

Increased climate variability, that is associated with global warming, has brought with it periods of heavy rainfall and high tides which in turn results in stagnant water which can stay in the area for up to 4 weeks due to insufficient drainage and improper solid waste disposal. People are often stranded inside their homes and are exposed to water-borne diseases such as dengue and leptospirosis. Better early warning systems are needed to manage the risk associated with increased rainfall.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Climate

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: BBC Weather (Manila)
Imperial conversion
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Due to its location in Metro Manila, rainfall and climate in Valenzuela is almost similar to the country's capital Manila. The location of Valenzuela in the western side of the Philippines made Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAG-ASA) to classify its weather scheme as Type I. Wind coming from the Pacific Ocean is generally blocked by the Sierra Madre mountain range, several kilometers east of the city.

Its proximity to the equator tends to make its temperature to rise and fall into very small range: from as low as 20 °C (68 °F) to as high as 35 °C (95 °F), although humidity makes these warm to hot temperatures feel much hotter. The Köppen climate system classifies Valenzuela climate as a borderline tropical monsoon (Am) and tropical savanna (Aw) due to its location and precipitation characteristics. This means that the city has two pronounced seasons: dry and wet seasons.

Humidity levels are usually high in the morning especially during June–November which makes it feel warmer. Lowest humidity levels are recorded in the evening during wet season. Discomfort from heat and humidity is extreme during May and June, otherwise it is higher compared to other places in the country. Average sunlight is maximum at 254.25 hours during April and minimum at 113 hours during July, August and September.

Climate data for Valenzuela, Philippines
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.6
Average low °C (°F) 21.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Ecology

The vegetation in Valenzuela was originally covered with grasslands suitable for agriculture. Because of rapid development of industries and economy, land use converts grass covers into cemented roads. However, the government put into efforts of preserving vegetation such as constructing community vegetable gardens and techno-demo farms all over the city. In 2003, these gardens numbered up to two functioning farms.

Flora and fauna in Valenzuela includes the common plants and animals found in Luzon, such as domesticated mammals. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau declared a two-hectare mangrove/swampy area in Villa Encarnacion, barangay Malanday as an ecotourism site. Every year, about 100 species of migratory birds such as black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and other native birds such as moorhen (Gallinula sp.), swamphen (Porphyrio sp.) and Philippine duck (Anas luzonica) flock the area. Wooden view decks are built to facilitate spectators, enthusiasts and visitors while having bird watching and counting activities.

In 2007, ordinary fishing ponds in Tagalag and Coloong were transformed into fishing spots which attracts anglers every year for a prize catch. Fish tournaments are held every year to increase tourism and livelihood in the area.

In 2008, the Supreme Court of the Philippines mandated Regional Trial Court branch 171 as an environmental court handling all environment cases in Valenzuela.

Thomas Hodge-Smith noted in 1939 that Valenzuela is rich of black tektites occurring in spheroidal and cylindrical shapes and are free of bubbles.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Government and politics

First district
First (left) and second(right) legislative districts of Valenzuela.
The Valenzuela City Hall Complex in barangay Malinta.
See also: Mayors of Valenzuela

Like other cities in the Philippines, Valenzuela is governed by a mayor and vice mayor who are elected to three-year terms. The mayor is the executive head who leads the city's departments in the execution of city ordinances and in the delivery of public services. The vice mayor heads a legislative council that is composed of 13 members: six councilors from the first district, six councilors from the second district and one ex officio office held by the Association of Barangay Chairmen President as the barangay sector representative. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies in the form of ordinances and resolutions.

The city is geographically part of, but not politically related to, the third district of Metro Manila.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: City officials

The incumbent mayor and vice mayor of the city are Rexlon T. Gatchalian and Lorena C. Natividad-Borja respectively.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Administrative division

Main article: List of barangays in Valenzuela
Political map of Valenzuela

Valenzuela is composed of 33 barangays, the smallest administrative unit in the city. A barangay is equivalent to an American village and a British ward. The barangay is headed by the barangay captain or punong barangay and his council or mga kagawad duly elected by the residents. In the legislative level, Valenzuela is divided into two congressional districts: first district contains 24 barangays of the northern half of the city, while the second district contains the remaining 9 barangays of the southern portion of the city.

Unlike barangays, legislative districts has no political leader, but are represented by congressional representatives in the House of Representatives.

Representatives, officials and members of the city council
Designation First district Second district
Representatives Weslie T. Gatchalian (NPC) Eric M. Martinez (PDP-Laban)
Mayor Rexlon T. Gatchalian (NPC)
Vice Mayor Lorena C. Natividad-Borja (NPC)
Councilors Marlon Paulo D. Alejandrino (NPC) Rosalie D. Esteban (Liberal)
Ramon L. Encarnacion (NPC) Kimberly Ann D. Galang (NPC)
Ricardo Ricarr C. Enriquez (NPC) Ma. Cecilia V. Mayo (Liberal)
Antonio R. Espiritu (NPC) Lailanie P. Nolasco (NPC)
Rovin Andrew M. Feliciano (PDP-Laban) Crissha Charee M. Pineda (NPC)
Jennifer P. Pingree-Esplana (NPC) Kristian Rome T. Sy (UNA)
ABC President Fernando Francisco
Barangay District Area (ha) Population



(per ha)

Arkong Bato 1st 34.40 10,004 290.814
Bagbaguin 2nd 159.10 13,770 86.55
Balangkas 1st 73.30 11,892 162.24
Bignay 1st 268.80 27,059 100.67
Bisig 1st 45.60 1,333 45.6
Canumay East 1st 217.30 28,213 57.35
Canumay West 1st 141.30 22,215 157.22
Coloong 1st 223.80 11,154 49.84
Dalandanan 1st 93.90 18,733 199.50
Gen. T. de Leon 2nd 366.90 89,441 243.77
Isla 1st 39.60 4,793 121.04
Karuhatan 2nd 190.60 40,996 215.09
Lawang Bato 1st 287.50 19,301 67.13
Lingunan 1st 115.90 21,217 183.06
Mabolo 1st 115.00 1,217 10.58
Malanday 1st 295.60 17,948 60.72
Malinta 1st 174.10 48,397 277.98
Mapulang Lupa 2nd 140.80 27,354 194.28
Marulas 2nd 224.70 53,978 240.22
Maysan 2nd 253.30 24,293 95.91
Palasan 1st 15.60 6,089 390.32
Parada 2nd 34.40 14,894 432.97
Pariancillo Villa 1st 5.00 1,634 326.80
Paso de Blas 2nd 155.00 13,350 86.13
Pasolo 1st 79.50 6,395 80.44
Poblacion 1st 3.40 372 109.41
Polo 1st 5.20 1,103 212.12
Punturin 1st 162.20 20,930 129.04
Rincon 1st 24.40 6,603 270.61
Tagalag 1st 101.00 3,209 31.77
Ugong 2nd 307.20 41,821 136.14
Veinte Reales 1st 192.90 22,949 118.97
Wawang Pulo 1st 27.80 3,516 126.47
Valenzuela 4,575.10 620,422 135.61

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Court system and police

The Supreme Court of the Philippines recognizes five regional trial courts and two metropolitan trial courts within Valenzuela that have an over-all jurisdiction in the populace of the city.

The Valenzuela City Police Station (VCPS) is one of the four city police stations in the Northern Police District under the jurisdiction of the Nation Capital Region Police office. Today, there are more than 500 police officers working for the VCPS, which puts the police-residents ratio in the city at 1:16,000.

In 2007, the Valenzuela City Peace and Order Council, of which the VCPS is a member, was hailed 2nd placer for the Best Peace and Order Council award that was conferred by the Department of Interior and Local Government, the NCRPO, and the Manila Peace and Order Council. In 2012, the VCPS was cited by the NCRPO for having the best Women and Children Protection Desk in the metro.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Demographics

The demonym of Valenzuela is Valenzuelano for males and Valenzuelana for females; it is sometimes spelled as Valenzuelaño.

Based on the 2015 census, Valenzuela City has a total population of 620,422, the 7th most populous in the NCR and 13th in the Philippines. This is an increase of 7.8 percent from 575,356 people in 2010, at an annual growth rate of a 1.45%.

The five most populous barangays are: Gen. T. de Leon (89,441), Marulas (53,978), Malinta (48,397), Ugong (41,821) and Karuhatan (40,996).

Valenzuela City household population in 2010, on the other hand, is at 574,840. Almost half, 50.2 per cent, are males. Females comprise 49.8 per cent of the population, with a total number of 286, 548. The city has a sex ratio of 101 males for every 100 females, the second highest ratio in the region, after Navotas, which has a sex ratio of 102 males per 100 females. Seven out of ten Valenzuela City residents, 66.7 per cent, belong to the working-age group, or those aged 15 to 64. The remaining 33.3 are aged 0 to below 15 and 65 and above, which are classified as the dependent age group.

Household population by age group and sex, and sex ratio by age group, City of Valenzuela, 2010

City population is expected to reach the 700,000-mark by mid-2022.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Culture

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: "Himig Valenzuela"

"Himig Valenzuela", or "Valenzuela Hymn", is the official song of the city. It is sung during flag ceremonies of private and public schools as well as government institutions along with the Philippine national anthem, "Lupang Hinirang". The hymn was composed by Edwin Ortega which has the primary objective to promote unity, progress and patriotism among the city's citizens.

City ordinance number 18 mandated all citizens of Valenzuela to sing the hymn in all meetings and public occasions.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Feasts and holidays

In 2007, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed Republic Act number 9428 which sets February 14 every year as a special non-working holiday to commemorate cityhood of Valenzuela in 1998. On the same hand, November 12 each year is declared by the city government as the city's foundation day, looking back the establishment of then-Polo in 1623. There are misunderstandings before regarding the date of the actual foundation of the town, however, this date was decided by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines to be the town's creation, since Spanish colonizers adopted a town's patron saint feast day as its date of creation.

Each barangay in Valenzuela have their own feast. Most of them launch celebrations during May and April to honor patron saints and bounty harvest. Every April 26, a santacruzan is performed along with Sta. Cruz Festival in Barangay Isla. A santacruzan is a novena procession commemorating St. Helena's mythical finding of the cross. St. Helena was the mother of Constantine the Great. According to legends, 300 years after the death of Christ, at the age of 75, she went to Calvary to conduct a search for the Cross. After some archeological diggings at the site of the Crucifixion, she unearthed three crosses. She tested each one by making a sick servant lie on all three. The cross where the servant recovered was identified as Christ's. St. Helena's feast day falls on August 8 but the anniversary of the finding of the Cross is on May 3, in the Philippines, this celebration took the form of the Mexican Santa Cruz de Mayo.

Mano Po, San Roque Festival is celebrated every May 12 in Mabolo. In Valenzuela, San Roque is also known as the patron saint of the unmarried. There are countless tales of single girls who danced and prayed in the procession and who claim to have found their husband during the fiesta. The festival is almost similar to Obando Fertility Rites where romantic hopefuls dance to San Roque requesting to find their true love. Street dancing and procession along the city’s major thoroughfares in commemoration of the feast of San Roque, highlighting the customs and traditional celebration of the festival. This also commemorates townsfolk victory after the British departed the country following the end of Seven Years' War with Spain.

The Feast of San Diego de Alcala is commemorated every November 12 in Poblacion. This is a celebration of the feast of the oldest church in Valenzuela which includes annual boat racing, street dancing and different fabulous activities of the festival. As part of the San Diego de Alcala Feast Day, a unique food festival in the country is celebrated which features the famous putong Polo, the small but classy kakanin which was originally created in the town of Polo. This rice cake was a recipient of Manuel Quezon Presidential Award in 1931 which was cited having its exotic taste and amazingly long shelf-life. The celebration, known as Putong Polo Festival includes a parade featuring artistic creations from the rice cake which showcases creativity among the residents.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Services

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Education

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela main building in Malinta.
Valenzuela City Polytechnic College entry marker in Parada.
The Valenzuela City School of Mathematics and Science in 2014.
Further information: Division of City Schools–Valenzuela

The city collaborates with other institutions, government or private, to bring quality education among its citizens under the "WIN ang Edukasyon Program" (roughly means Education WIN sic Program, WIN is the nickname of the current mayor Sherwin Gatchalian). In 2010, the government, in partnership with the local school board, funded the purchase and construction of computer laboratories in 10 secondary schools all having a net worth of Php 17.7M (or about US$410,000 as of April 2011). This also includes the distribution of Php 1.46M (or about US$34,000 as of April 2011) computers in Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela and Valenzuela City Polytechnic College, as part of Department of Education's ICT4E Strategic Plan. In this project, information and communication technology education is extended and expanded among all students. In 2009, the City Engineering Office repaired sidewalks and drainage to assist students especially during the wet season; they also repaired and constructed new buildings and classrooms to some schools in the city. Under the same program, elementary school students received free mathematics and English workbooks published by the government especially designed for Valenzuelanos. The steady increase of 3.4% enrollment rate each year forces the government to construct new buildings and classrooms to meet the target 1:45 teacher-to-student ratio, contrary to the current count of 1:50 ratio alternating in three shifts. WIN ang Edukasyon Program was done in partnership with the Synergeia Foundation, a non-government organization that aims to improve education in local governments in the Philippines.

At the same time, WIN ang Edukasyon Program also spearheads the yearly training of some mathematics and English language teachers assigned to Grades 1 and 2 pupils. The seminar focuses on how to enhance reading skills, language proficiency and mathematics of the students they are teaching through re-acquaintance with various drills and activities. This was done with the efforts of lecturers from Ateneo de Manila University and Bulacan State University using the approach developed by the UP Diliman's College of Education.

The government owns Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela and Valenzuela City Polytechnic College that serve as the city's state university and technical school for residents and non-residents respectively. The Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela (PLV) or University of the City of Valenzuela, was established in 2002 and is located within the perimeters of the old city hall in barangay Poblacion. In 2009, the city council passed Resolution No. 194 series of 2008 which authorized the government to purchase lots costing PhP 33M (or about US$750,000 as of April 2011) in nearby Children of Mary Immaculate College as part of the university's expansion. Mayor Sherwin Gatchalian assisted the development, which has an over-all cost of PhP 75M (or about US$1.7M as of April 2011) loaned from Development Bank of the Philippines. The newly purchased lots are used to construct an annex building which will house the departments of business administration and accountancy. The Board of Regents expected an increase of enrollment from 800 to 3,000 students in the next few years.

Valenzuela City Polytechnic College (VCPC) was allotted with additional Php 18M (or about US$420,000 as of April 2011) budget in 2009 from the city fund which will be used for expansion and upgrade of the college.

There are also privately owned academic institutions including the Our Lady of Fatima University (OLFU). OLFU was previously granted by Commission on Higher Education an autonomy, which includes independence from monitoring and evaluation services by the Commission though still entitled by subsidies and other financial grants from the national government whenever possible. The autonomous status of the university was approved on March 11, 2009 and expired last March 30, 2014.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Healthcare

Valenzuela City Emergency Hospital in Dalandanan.

There are numerous hospitals in Valenzuela like the city-run Valenzuela City Emergency Hospital and the Valenzuela City General Hospital. There are also privately owned hospitals like Calalang General Hospital, Sanctissimo Rosario General Hospital and Fatima University Medical Center, a tertiary private hospital under the administration of Our Lady of Fatima University. The soon-to-rise Valenzuela City West Emergency Hospital and Dialysis Center is located in barangay Dalandanan, adjacent to Valenzuela City Astrodome and Dalandanan National High School. It will render adequate healthcare services to underprivileged residents at a minimal fee.

The city implements VC Cares Program which is designed for individuals who are unable to provide healthcare and basic necessities for themselves or meet special emergency situations of need. While health care service and financial assistance are generally the forms of assistance given, these may be supplemented by other forms of assistance, as well as problem-solving and referral services. Appropriate referrals may be made to other agencies or institutions where complementary services may be obtained.

According to the 2002 Commission on Audit, the city reported accomplishment per health center ranging from as low as 42.26% to as high as 206% and vaccine utilization of 33% to 90% compared to normal 46% to 377% per basic requirements.

There are swampy areas on Valenzuela and there is a stagnant water in Tullahan River on the south, which make citizens vulnerable to mosquito-linked diseases such as dengue and malaria. Though malaria is not a common case in Valenzuela–the city ranks consistently among top five dengue-infected regions in the Philippines with around 560% chance of recurrence every year. In the second quarter of 2008, however, only 500% increase was reported compared to the same period in 2007.

In September 2009, the Department of Health distributed free Olyset anti-dengue nets treated permethrin insecticide to Gen. T. de Leon High School. Over 150 rolls of the nets were given and installed to the windows of the said school, as part of DOH's "Dalaw sa Barangay: Aksyon Kontra Dengue" (Visit Barangay: Action against Dengue) campaign.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Shopping centers and utilities

On October 28, 2005 SM Center Valenzuela was inaugurated. Other shopping sites such as Puregold Valenzuela, the newly renovated South Supermarket and the newly opened Puregold Paso de Blas is also located in the city. All these stores compete against each other since most have the same product offerings as diversified groceries. People from the city with more major shopping needs normally head south to cities such as Quezon City and Manila, since they have bigger malls and commercial centers with more diverse trade goods.

Water supply for the city is supplied by the Metropolitan Water Works and Sewerage System (MWSS)' west concessionaire Maynilad Water Services, Inc (MWSI). As of 2006, the city has at least 68% water service coverage as determined by the Regulatory Office of the MWSS. Each customer receives at least 7 psi water pressure, which means supply can reach for up to two floors for residential use. Maynilad is owned and currently operated by DMCI Holdings, Inc.–Metro Pacific Investments Corporation (DMCI-MPIC).

On June 2, 2010, the Sitero Francisco Memorial National High School in barangay Ugong unveiled its first solar generators, the first time for a school in the Philippines. The six 1-kW photovoltaic solar arrays installed to light nine-classrooms are bought from Wanxiang America Corporation through the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) and are part of the solar energy initiative of the city. The arrays were shipped from Illinois, installation were paid by the city government. First district representative Rex Gatchalian and former second district councilor Shalani Soledad headed the switching ceremony, that made it the first-ever solar-powered school in the country. The solar panels can generate 1 kW to 5 kW of electricity per hour depending on the intensity of sunlight. Unused solar energy is stored in eight deep-cycle batteries which can be used after sunset. The panels also continue to absorb light from the night sky.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Waste management

According to the 2002 Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Report of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Valenzuela has the highest number of identified recycling companies in the region. It was also said that recycling centers related to plastic materials are relatively higher than other recyclable objects like metals, paper, glass among others. Accordingly, the city government allocates an amount of about 785.70 Philippine pesos (approx. US$18 as of April 2011) for every transportation and collection costs of a ton of waste material. In 2003, the city generated about 307.70 tons of waste every day. In 2001, it was reported by ADB that the city has as high as 25% solid waste management cost recovery rate through service charges on households and other enterprises for operational activities associated with waste collection, treatment and disposal. That same year, the city's proposal to implement a community-based solid waste management project in barangay Mapulang Lupa, was approved by the national government, which involves social mobilization, training of personnel, implementation of segregated collection and establishment of materials recovery facility and windows composting operation among others. The city government was granted a maximum of US$25,000 from Asian Development Bank for the operation of the project.

In 1988, the city opened its first waste disposal facility, the Lingunan Controlled Dumpsite. Every year, the facility collects and processed only about 60% of the entire city's waste with landfilling and recycling services. The dumpsite uses rice hull ash as daily cover and odor control material for the waste collected in the area. Lingunan Controlled Dumpsite also conducted some limited waste segregation and resource recovery operations prior to burial of residual waste. In 2006, the controlled dumpsite was closed per MMDA order in 2003 and was subsequently converted into a sanitary landfill as directed by RA 9003.

In statistics, 60% of the wastes collected in the city are collected, hauled and dumped in controlled dumpsites while 5% are retrieved and recycled and 35% are thrown everywhere in the city. Half of all these wastes are non-biodegradable wastes which include plastics, Styrofoams and rubbers alike, while the remaining are biodegradable wastes which is 70% food and kitchen wastes, 20% plant wastes and 10% animal wastes. In 2002, there are about 30 small and big junkshops that collect recyclable materials and 20 schools that require their students to bring recyclable stuff as school project.

The city spearheaded Metro Manila's implementation of full-pledged waste management program in 1999 when it became the first area in the region to allocate 2.8-hectare land in barangay Marulas, to serve an ecology center and location for the city's waste management program's operation center. Biodegradable wastes in this area are converted to fertilizers. In 2004, the city government funded the repair of 29 garbage trucks and purchase of another 20 trucks that may increase the capacity of Waste Management Office to do full rounds of garbage every week.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Justice management

In a joint study conducted by the Supreme Court of the Philippines and the United Nations Development Programme in July 2003 assessing inmate and institutional management among selected municipal and city jails in the National Capital Region, it was found that Valenzuela City Jail has a congestion rate of 170%. According to the study, the excess number of inmates in Metro Manila jails resulted into outbreak of various ailments such as psychiatric disorders, pulmonary tubercolosis and skin diseases. The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology recommends the implementation of release programs under applicable laws.

The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP) of Valenzuela is located along Valenzuela Hall of Justice in barangay Karuhatan. It was formerly located at the old city hall in barangay Maysan which was transferred by mayor Sherwin Gatchalian in 2010 along with other trial courts, the police headquarters and prosecutor's office of the city. That same year, the BJMP launched the Alternative Learning System program, in partnership with the local government and Department of Education (DepEd), as part of the rehabilitation programs to city jail inmates. Successful passers of the program received certification of DepEd as proof of completion of secondary education.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Transportation

North Luzon Expressway with views going southbound (up), northbound (middle) and from Malinta Exit (down).

The KM 30 Mac Arthur Highway Intersection of Circumferential Road 5, or C5, a fork of NLEx, is located in barangay Karuhatan, Valenzuela. The northern side of the exit leads to Central Luzon while the southern will take users to Bonifacio Shrine in Balintawak, Quezon City. On the same hand, KM 28 NLEx Interchange of C5 in barangay Paso de Blas connects the Smart Connect Interchange of NLEx to C5 that goes to Central Luzon, Cagayan Valley, Ilocos Region and Cordillera Administrative Region. The cloverleaf is also connected to Mindanao Avenue in Quezon City through Segment 8.1 of NLEx, which also links Manila to NLEx. km 28 NLEx Interchange is also known as Malinta Exit due to its proximity to barangay Malinta, as well as Tollgate to residents. NLEX Segment 9 is a four lane, 2.42 kilometer expressway that runs from the SMART Connect Interchange to MacArthur Highway in Karuhatan. This segment opened to traffic on March 18, 2015 and a part of C-5 Road North Extension.

Valenzuela is also connected to Bulacan through MacArthur Highway which ends at Bonifacio Monument in Grace Park, Caloocan.

One of the well-known bridge in Valenzuela is the Tullahan bridge in barangay Marulas that connects the city to barangay Potrero in Malabon. Tullahan bridge is part of MacArthur Highway that was built during the Spanish era as a way of transporting vehicles over Tullahan River. In the span of years, it was renovated repeatedly, most recent was in 2008, though defects on the bridge began to appear barely six months after it opened for public use.

The city is webbed by hundreds of roads where 99.622% of them has a surface type of concrete while the remaining 0.378% were made of dirt. The Department of Public Works and Highways recognizes nine national bridges in Valenzuela, listed below. Other bridges are just minors that connect small cliffs and former landfill areas, like Malinta Bridge in barangay Malinta. City roads has an average road density of 1.155 kilometer of road per 100 square-kilometer of land area. Each road has an average road section of 155 sections and spans 54.267 km.

Bus companies founded terminals in barangay Malanday, northernmost locality of Valenzuela along the border with Bulacan, though there are terminals situated in barangays Dalandanan and Karuhatan as well. This includes Laguna Star Bus, PAMANA Transport Service, Inc., CEM Trans Services and Philippine Corinthian Liner, Inc. among others. These buses are lined with Metro Manila destinations only, usually in Alabang or Baclaran with routes along EDSA. Bus traffic is also dense at barangays Paso de Blas and Bagbaguin due to its proximity to KM 28 NLEx Interchange and bus terminals in Novaliches, Quezon City. Other modes of transportation includes jeepneys (with routes usually from Malanday to Recto, Santa Cruz, Divisoria, Pier 15 South Harbor & T. M. Kalaw in Manila and Grace Park & Monumento in Caloocan and Malinta to Malolos City, Baliuag and Sta. Maria along MacArthur Highway) for general mass transportation, tricycles (or trikes) for small-scale transportation and taxicabs for upper middle classes.

There are no airports and ports in Valenzuela.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: External relations

See also: List of sister cities in the Philippines

Valenzuela is twinned with the following towns and cities:

Country Place Region / State Date
South Korea South Korea Bucheon Gyeonggi 2006
Philippines Philippines No flag.svg Santa Cruz No flag.svg Marinduque 2008
Philippines Philippines No flag.svg Koronadal South Cotabato 2011
Philippines Philippines Calapan Oriental Mindoro 2011
Philippines Philippines Narvacan Ilocos Sur 2012
Philippines Philippines Angeles Pampanga 2012
Philippines Philippines Bustos Bulacan 2014
Philippines Philippines Ozamiz City Misamis Occidental 2015
Philippines Philippines Pagadian City Zamboanga del Sur 2015

Valenzuela has friendship links (with no formal constitution) with the following towns and cities. Agreements usually forged towards industrial, cultural or academic exchanges and understanding.

  • China Yangzhou (扬州), Jiangsu (江苏), People's Republic of China
  • United States Kauai, Hawaii, United States

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: Notable people

  • Virgilio "Billy" Abarrientos, member of the Crispa Redmanizers.
  • Marvelous Alejo (born 1996), Filipino actress and singer.
  • Eugenio Angeles (1868-1977), former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines from 1967 to 1968.
  • Bobbit Carlos (born 1957), former mayor (1995-2004) and representative (2004-2007).
  • Danilo L. Concepcion, former youth sector representative to the Interim Batasang Pambansa (1978-1984), former Vice President for Legal Affairs of University of the Philippines, and Dean of UP College of Law since 2011.
  • Glaiza de Castro (born 1988), Filipina actress and singer.
  • Ford Valencia (born 1995), Pinoy Boyband Superstar winner, member of Boyband PH.
  • Gerard "Gerry" Esplana (born 1966), former athlete (1993-2003), former member of Presto Tivolis, Sta. Lucia Realtors and Shell Turbo Chargers, and former city councilor (2004-2013).
  • Franzen Fajardo (born 1982), actor, TV host, and former reality show contestant.
  • Florentino V. Floro, Jr. (born 1953), former judge.
  • Rex Gatchalian (born 1979), former representative (2007-2013) and incumbent mayor since 2013.
  • Win Gatchalian (born 1974), former mayor (2004-2013), representative (2001-2004, 2013-2016) and Senator of the Philippines.
  • Magi Gunigundo (born 1964), representative from 1998-2004 and 2007-2016.
  • Robert "Bobby" Jose, member of the 1989 Petron Blaze Boosters Grand Slam team and was the PBA All Star during his rookie year.
  • Charee Pineda (born 1990), actress and city councilor since 2013.
  • Ignacio Santiago, Sr., former mayor (1956-1959 and 1964-1967) of Valenzuela, then governor of Bulacan from 1968 to 1986.
  • Pablo Santiago, Sr. (died 1998), film director and producer.
  • Randy Santiago (born 1960), actor, television host, singer, songwriter, producer, director and entrepreneur.
  • Raymart Santiago (born 1973), action star and comedian.
  • Guillermo S. Santos (1915-1991), former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1977 to 1980.
  • José Serapio, former mayor (1912-1917) and former governor of Bulacan (1900-1901).
  • Shalani Soledad (Shalani Soledad-Romulo) (born 1980), former city councilor (2004-2013) and TV personality.
  • Msgr. Mario DJ Arenas (1955-2014), the founder of Museo Valenzuela Foundation, Inc. & Valenzuela Historical and Cultural Society and the writer of Valenzuela: Ang Bayani at ang Bayan, a comprehensive book about the historical and cultural background of the city. Also he founded the Holy Cross Savings and Credit Cooperative and served as the parish priests of Holy Cross parish in Barangay Gen. T. de Leon, National Shrine of The Divine Mercy in Marilao, Bulacan and Barasoain Church in Malolos City, Bulacan.
  • Pío Valenzuela (1869-1956), physician, patriot, writer and member of the Katipunan society. Namesake of Valenzuela.

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: See also

  • Geography of Manila
  • Greater Manila Area
  • Imperial Manila
  • List of parks in Manila
  • List of populated places in Metro Manila
  • List of renamed cities and municipalities in the Philippines
  • Mega Manila
  • Public transport in Manila
  • Transportation in Metro Manila

Valenzuela, Metro Manila: References

  1. "NCR: Third District". National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  2. "Letter to the Director of the NHCP". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  3. "ARAW NG VALENZUELA 2012 Kasaysayan, Kasarinlan, Kaunlaran" (in Tagalog). Museo Valenzuela. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  4. "Executive Summary of the 1999 Annual Audit Report on the City of Valenzuela". Commission on Audit. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  5. "Valenzuela City: The City". Valenzuela City. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  6. "Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
  7. "Republic Act No. 8526 An Act Converting the Municipality of Valenzuela into a Highly-Urbanized City to be Known as the City of Valenzuela". Retrieved 23 April 2011. Article I, Section 2. The Municipality of Valenzuela is hereby converted into a highly urbanized city to be known as the City of Valenzuela, (...)
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