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In order to book an accommodation in Venice enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Venice hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Venice map to estimate the distance from the main Venice attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Venice hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Venice is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Venice is waiting for you!

Hotels of Venice

A hotel in Venice is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Venice hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Venice are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Venice hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Venice hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Venice have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Venice
An upscale full service hotel facility in Venice that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Venice hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Venice
Full service Venice hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Venice
Boutique hotels of Venice are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Venice boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Venice may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Venice
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Venice travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Venice focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Venice
Small to medium-sized Venice hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Venice traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Venice hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Venice
A bed and breakfast in Venice is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Venice bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Venice B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Venice
Venice hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Venice hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Venice
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Venice hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Venice lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Venice
Venice timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Venice often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Venice on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Venice
A Venice motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Venice for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Venice motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Venice

"Venezia" redirects here. For other uses, see Venezia (disambiguation) and Venice (disambiguation).

Not to be confused with Venezuela.

Italian: Venezia
Venetian: Venesia
Comune di Venezia
A collage of Venice: at the top left is the Piazza San Marco, followed by a view of the city, then the Grand Canal, and (smaller) the interior of La Fenice and, finally, the Island of San Giorgio Maggiore.
A collage of Venice: at the top left is the Piazza San Marco, followed by a view of the city, then the Grand Canal, and (smaller) the interior of La Fenice and, finally, the Island of San Giorgio Maggiore.
Flag of Venice
Coat of arms of Venice
Coat of arms
Venice is located in Italy
Location of Venice in Italy
Coordinates:  / 45.43750; 12.33583  / 45.43750; 12.33583
Country Italy
Region Veneto
Province / Metropolitan city Metropolitan City of Venice
Frazioni Chirignago, Favaro Veneto, Mestre, Marghera, Murano, Burano, Giudecca, Lido, Zelarino
• Mayor Luigi Brugnaro (Ind.)
• Total 414.57 km (160.07 sq mi)
Elevation 1 m (3 ft)
Population (2014)
• Total 264,579
• Density 640/km (1,700/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Venetian
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 30100
Dialing code 041
Patron saint St. Mark the Evangelist
Saint day 25 April
Website Official website
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Venice and its Lagoon
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Venice in spring, with the Rialto Bridge in the background.
Location Italy
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi
Reference 394
UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1987 (11th Session)
File:VenedigVomSchiff2002Video.ogvPlay media
Venice seen from ship.
Grand Canal from Rialto to Ca'Foscari
View of San Marco basin in 1697.
The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola, Canaletto, about 1738. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
Venice view from the Bridge Foscari, to the Bridge Santa Margherita.
Gondola Punta e Basilica Salute.

Venice (English /ˈvɛnɪs/ VEN-iss; Italian: Venezia [veˈnɛtsja]; Venetian: Venesia [veˈnɛsja]) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by bridges. These are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, and artwork. The lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site.

In 2014, 264,579 people resided in Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historic city of Venice (Centro storico). Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE), with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is a statistical metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy.

The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC. The city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. Venice has been known as the "La Dominante," "Serenissima," "Queen of the Adriatic," "City of Water," "City of Masks," "City of Bridges," "The Floating City," and "City of Canals."

The Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as a very important center of commerce (especially silk, grain, and spice) and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century. The City State of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its peak in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history.

It is also known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.. Venice has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of 2016.

Venice: Etymology

The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most likely taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic, Lombard, and Frankish control. The name Venetia, however, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, and called by the Greeks Eneti (Ἐνετοί). The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti, Baltic Veneti, and the Slavic Wends. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen ("love"), so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color 'sea-blue', is also possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire (to come), such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam ("Yet, I have come!"), the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or even with venia ("forgiveness") are fanciful. The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia [viˈnɛːdʒa]; (Venetian: Venèxia [veˈnɛzja]; Latin: Venetiae; Slovene: Benetke).

Venice: History

See also: History of the Republic of Venice and Timeline of Venice

Venice: Origins

Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice, tradition and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees from Roman cities near Venice such as Padua, Aquileia, Treviso, Altino and Concordia (modern Portogruaro) and from the undefended countryside, who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as incolae lacunae ("lagoon dwellers"). The traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto (Rivoalto, "High Shore") - said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421 (the Feast of the Annunciation).

Beginning as early as AD 166 to 168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main center in the area, the current Oderzo. The Roman defences were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire a small strip of coast in the current Veneto, including Venice. The Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy (the Exarch) appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople, but Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes; and with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. The tribuni maiores, the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the Lagoon, dated from c. 568.

The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio Anafesto, was actually Exarch Paul, and his successor, Marcello Tegalliano, was Paul's magister militum (General: literally, "Master of Soldiers"). In 726 the soldiers and citizens of the Exarchate rose in a rebellion over the iconoclastic controversy at the urging of Pope Gregory II. The Exarch was murdered and many officials put to flight in the chaos. At about this time, the people of the lagoon elected their own leader for the first time, although the relationship of this to the uprisings is not clear. Ursus was the first of 117 "doges" (doge is the Venetian dialect development of the Latin dux ("leader"); the corresponding word in English is duke, in standard Italian duce.) Whatever his original views, Ursus supported Emperor Leo III's successful military expedition to recover Ravenna, sending both men and ships. In recognition of this, Venice was "granted numerous privileges and concessions" and Ursus, who had personally taken the field, was confirmed by Leo as dux and given the added title of hypatus (Greek for "Consul".)

In 751 the Lombard King Aistulf conquered most of the Exarchate of Ravenna, leaving Venice a lonely and increasingly autonomous Byzantine outpost. During this period, the seat of the local Byzantine governor (the "duke/dux", later "doge"), was situated in Malamocco. Settlement on the islands in the lagoon probably increased with the Lombard conquest of other Byzantine territories, as refugees sought asylum there. In 775/6 the episcopal seat of Olivolo (San Pietro di Castello; Helipolis) was created. During the reign of duke Agnello Particiaco (811–827) the ducal seat moved from Malamocco to the highly protected Rialto, the current location of Venice. The monastery of St Zachary and the first ducal palace and basilica of St. Mark, as well as a walled defense (civitatis murus) between Olivolo and Rialto, were subsequently built here.

Charlemagne sought to subdue the city to his own rule. He ordered the Pope to expel the Venetians from the Pentapolis along the Adriatic coast, and Charlemagne's own son Pepin of Italy, king of the Lombards under the authority of his father, embarked on a siege of Venice itself. This, however, proved a costly failure. The siege lasted six months, with Pepin's army ravaged by the diseases of the local swamps and eventually forced to withdraw (810). A few months later, Pepin himself died, apparently as a result of a disease contracted there. In the aftermath, an agreement between Charlemagne and the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus in 814 recognized Venice as Byzantine territory and granted the city trading rights along the Adriatic coast.

In 828 the new city's prestige increased with the acquisition of the claimed relics of St Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria, which were placed in the new basilica. (Winged lions, visible throughout Venice, symbolise St Mark.) The patriarchal seat also moved to Rialto. As the community continued to develop and as Byzantine power waned, its autonomy grew, leading to eventual independence.

Venice: Expansion

Piazza San Marco in Venice, with St Mark's Campanile and Basilica in the background.
These Horses of Saint Mark are a replica of the Triumphal Quadriga captured in Constantinople in 1204 and carried to Venice as a trophy.

From the 9th to the 12th century, Venice developed into a city state (an Italian thalassocracy or Repubblica Marinara: the other three of these were Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi). Its strategic position at the head of the Adriatic made Venetian naval and commercial power almost invulnerable. With the elimination of pirates along the Dalmatian coast, the city became a flourishing trade center between Western Europe and the rest of the world (especially the Byzantine Empire and Asia) with a naval power protecting sea routes from Islamic piracy.

The Republic of Venice seized a number of places on the eastern shores of the Adriatic before 1200, mostly for commercial reasons, because pirates based there were a menace to trade. The Doge already carried the titles of Duke of Dalmatia and Duke of Istria. Later mainland possessions, which extended across Lake Garda as far west as the Adda River, were known as the "Terraferma", and were acquired partly as a buffer against belligerent neighbours, partly to guarantee Alpine trade routes, and partly to ensure the supply of mainland wheat, on which the city depended. In building its maritime commercial empire, the Republic dominated the trade in salt, acquired control of most of the islands in the Aegean, including Cyprus and Crete, and became a major power-broker in the Near East. By the standards of the time, Venice's stewardship of its mainland territories was relatively enlightened and the citizens of such towns as Bergamo, Brescia and Verona rallied to the defence of Venetian sovereignty when it was threatened by invaders.

Venice remained closely associated with Constantinople, being twice granted trading privileges in the Eastern Roman Empire, through the so-called Golden Bulls or "chrysobulls" in return for aiding the Eastern Empire to resist Norman and Turkish incursions. In the first chrysobull, Venice acknowledged its homage to the Empire; but not in the second, reflecting the decline of Byzantium and the rise of Venice's power.

Venice became an imperial power following the Fourth Crusade, which, having veered off course, culminated in 1204 by capturing and sacking Constantinople and establishing the Latin Empire. As a result of this conquest, considerable Byzantine plunder was brought back to Venice. This plunder included the gilt bronze horses from the Hippodrome of Constantinople, which were originally placed above the entrance to the cathedral of Venice, St Mark's Basilica, although the originals have been replaced with replicas and are now stored within the basilica. After the fall of Constantinople, the former Roman Empire was partitioned among the Latin crusaders and the Venetians. Venice subsequently carved out a sphere of influence in the Mediterranean known as the Duchy of the Archipelago, and captured Crete.

The seizure of Constantinople proved as decisive a factor in ending the Byzantine Empire as the loss of the Anatolian themes after Manzikert. Although the Byzantines recovered control of the ravaged city a half-century later, the Byzantine Empire was terminally weakened, and existed as a ghost of its old self until Sultan Mehmet The Conqueror took the city in 1453.

View of San Giorgio Maggiore Island from St. Mark's Campanile.

Situated on the Adriatic Sea, Venice always traded extensively with the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world. By the late 13th century, Venice was the most prosperous city in all of Europe. At the peak of its power and wealth, it had 36,000 sailors operating 3,300 ships, dominating Mediterranean commerce. Venice's leading families vied with each other to build the grandest palaces and support the work of the greatest and most talented artists. The city was governed by the Great Council, which was made up of members of the noble families of Venice. The Great Council appointed all public officials and elected a Senate of 200 to 300 individuals. Since this group was too large for efficient administration, a Council of Ten (also called the Ducal Council or the Signoria), controlled much of the administration of the city. One member of the great council was elected "Doge", or duke, the chief executive, who usually held the title until his death; although several Doges were forced by pressure from their oligarchical peers to resign and retire into monastic seclusion when they were felt to have been discredited by political failure.

The Venetian government structure was similar in some ways to the republican system of ancient Rome, with an elected chief executive (the Doge), a senate-like assembly of nobles, and a mass of citizens with limited political power, who originally had the power to grant or withhold their approval of each newly elected Doge. Church and various private properties were tied to military service, although there was no knight tenure within the city itself. The Cavalieri di San Marco was the only order of chivalry ever instituted in Venice, and no citizen could accept or join a foreign order without the government's consent. Venice remained a republic throughout its independent period, and politics and the military were kept separate, except when on occasion the Doge personally headed the military. War was regarded as a continuation of commerce by other means (hence, the city's early production of large numbers of mercenaries for service elsewhere, and later its reliance on foreign mercenaries when the ruling class was preoccupied with commerce).

Francesco Guardi, The Grand Canal, 1760 (Art Institute of Chicago).
Photograph of Guardi's Regatta in Venice at the Frick Art Reference Library.

Although the people of Venice generally remained orthodox Roman Catholics, the state of Venice was notable for its freedom from religious fanaticism and executed nobody for religious heresy during the Counter-Reformation. This apparent lack of zeal contributed to Venice's frequent conflicts with the Papacy. In this context, the writings of the Anglican divine William Bedell are particularly illuminating. Venice was threatened with the interdict on a number of occasions, and twice suffered its imposition. The second, most noted, occasion was in 1606, by order of Pope Paul V.

Venetian ambassadors sent home still-extant secret reports of the politics and rumours of European courts, providing fascinating information to modern historians.

The newly invented German printing press spread rapidly throughout Europe in the 15th century, and Venice was quick to adopt it. By 1482, Venice was the printing capital of the world, and the leading printer was Aldus Manutius, who invented paperback books that could be carried in a saddlebag. His Aldine Editions included translations of nearly all the known Greek manuscripts of the era.

Venice: Decline

The Grand Canal in Venice.

Venice's long decline started in the 15th century, when it first made an unsuccessful attempt to hold Thessalonica against the Ottomans (1423–1430). It also sent ships to help defend Constantinople against the besieging Turks (1453). After Constantinople fell to Sultan Mehmet II, he declared war on Venice. The war lasted thirty years and cost Venice much of its eastern Mediterranean possessions. Next, Christopher Columbus discovered the New World in 1492. Then Vasco da Gama of Portugal found a sea route to India by rounding the Cape of Good Hope during his first voyage of 1497–99, destroying Venice's land route monopoly. France, England and the Dutch Republic followed. Venice's oared galleys were at a disadvantage when it came to traversing the great oceans, and therefore Venice was left behind in the race for colonies.

The Black Death devastated Venice in 1348 and once again between 1575 and 1577. In three years, the plague killed some 50,000 people. In 1630, the Italian plague of 1629–31 killed a third of Venice's 150,000 citizens. Venice began to lose its position as a center of international trade during the later part of the Renaissance as Portugal became Europe's principal intermediary in the trade with the East, striking at the very foundation of Venice's great wealth; while France and Spain fought for hegemony over Italy in the Italian Wars, marginalising its political influence. However, the Venetian empire was a major exporter of agricultural products, and until the mid-18th century, a significant manufacturing center.

Venice: Modern age

1870s panoramic view of Venice.

During the 18th century, Venice became perhaps the most elegant and refined city in Europe, greatly influencing art, architecture and literature. But the Republic lost its independence when Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Venice on 12 May 1797 during the War of the First Coalition. Napoleon was seen as something of a liberator by the city's Jewish population, although it can be argued they had lived with fewer restrictions in Venice. He removed the gates of the Ghetto and ended the restrictions on when and where Jews could live and travel in the city.

Venice became Austrian territory when Napoleon signed the Treaty of Campo Formio on 12 October 1797. The Austrians took control of the city on 18 January 1798. But Venice was taken from Austria by the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 and became part of Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy; however it was returned to Austria following Napoleon's defeat in 1814, when it became part of the Austrian-held Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. In 1848–9, a revolt briefly re-established the Venetian Republic under Daniele Manin. In 1866, after the Third Italian War of Independence, Venice, along with the rest of the Veneto, became part of the newly created Kingdom of Italy.

During the Second World War, the historic city was largely free from attack, the only aggressive effort of note being Operation Bowler, a successful Royal Air Force precision strike on the German naval operations in the city in March 1945. The targets were destroyed with virtually no architectural damage inflicted on the city itself. However the industrial areas in Mestre and Marghera and the railway lines to Padua, Trieste and Trento were repeatedly bombed. On 29 April 1945, New Zealand troops under Freyberg of the Eighth Army reached Venice and relieved the city and the mainland, which were already in partisan hands.

Venice: Subsidence

Further information: Acqua alta
Acqua alta, or high water in Venice.
Venice and surroundings in false colour, from Terra. The picture is oriented with North at the top.

Subsidence, the gradual lowering of the surface of Venice, has led to the seasonal Acqua alta when much of the city's surface is occasionally covered at high tide.

Venice: Foundations

The buildings of Venice are constructed on closely spaced wooden piles. Most of these piles are still intact after centuries of submersion. The foundations rest on plates of Istrian limestone placed on top of the piles, and buildings of brick or stone sit above these footings. The piles penetrate a softer layer of sand and mud until they reach a much harder layer of compressed clay.

Submerged by water, in oxygen-poor conditions, wood does not decay as rapidly as on the surface.

Most of these piles were made from trunks of alder trees, a wood noted for its water resistance. The alder came from the westernmost part of today's Slovenia (resulting in the barren land of the Kras region), in two regions of Croatia, Lika and Gorski kotar (resulting in the barren slopes of Velebit) and south of Montenegro.

Venice: History

The city is often threatened by flood tides pushing in from the Adriatic between autumn and early spring. Six hundred years ago, Venetians protected themselves from land-based attacks by diverting all the major rivers flowing into the lagoon and thus preventing sediment from filling the area around the city. This created an ever-deeper lagoon environment.

In 1604, to defray the cost of flood relief, Venice introduced what could be considered the first example of a 'stamp tax'. When the revenue fell short of expectations in 1608, Venice introduced paper with the superscription 'AQ' and imprinted instructions, which was to be used for 'letters to officials'. At first, this was to be a temporary tax, but it remained in effect until the fall of the Republic in 1797. Shortly after the introduction of the tax, Spain produced similar paper for general taxation purposes, and the practice spread to other countries.

During the 20th century, when many artesian wells were sunk into the periphery of the lagoon to draw water for local industry, Venice began to subside. It was realised that extraction of water from the aquifer was the cause. The sinking has slowed markedly since artesian wells were banned in the 1960s. However, the city is still threatened by more frequent low-level floods (called Acqua alta, "high water") that creep to a height of several centimetres over its quays, regularly following certain tides. In many old houses, the former staircases used to unload goods are now flooded, rendering the former ground floor uninhabitable.

Studies indicate that the city continues sinking at a relatively slow rate of 1-2mm per annum; therefore, the state of alert has not been revoked. In May 2003, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi inaugurated the MOSE project (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico), an experimental model for evaluating the performance of hollow floatable gates; the idea is to fix a series of 78 hollow pontoons to the sea bed across the three entrances to the lagoon. When tides are predicted to rise above 110 centimetres, the pontoons will be filled with air, causing them to float and block the incoming water from the Adriatic Sea. This engineering work is due to be completed by 2016.

Venice: Geography

Sestieri of Venice:
Cannaregio; Castello; Dorsoduro; San Marco; San Polo; Santa Croce.

The whole pensolon (municipality) is divided into 6 boroughs. One of these (the historic city) is divided into six areas called sestieri: Cannaregio, San Polo, Dorsoduro (including the Giudecca and Isola Sacca Fisola), Santa Croce, San Marco (including San Giorgio Maggiore) and Castello (including San Pietro di Castello and Sant'Elena). Each sestiere was administered by a procurator and his staff. Nowadays each sestiere is a statistical and historical area without any degree of autonomy. The six fingers or flanges of the ferro on the bow of a gondola represent the six sestieri.

The sestieri are divided into parishes – initially 70 in 1033, but reduced under Napoleon and now numbering just 38. These parishes predate the sestieri, which were created in about 1170. Each parish exhibited unique characteristics but also belonged to an integrated network. The community chose its own patron saint, staged its own festivals, congregated around its own market center, constructed its own bell towers and developed its own customs.

Other islands of the Venetian Lagoon do not form part of any of the sestieri, having historically enjoyed a considerable degree of autonomy.

Each sestiere has its own house numbering system. Each house has a unique number in the district, from one to several thousand, generally numbered from one corner of the area to another, but not usually in a readily understandable manner.

Venice: Climate

According to the Köppen climate classification, Venice has a Humid subtropical climate (Cfa), with cool winters and very warm summers. The 24-hour average in January is 3.3 °C (37.9 °F), and for July this figure is 23.0 °C (73.4 °F). Precipitation is spread relatively evenly throughout the year, and averages 748 millimetres (29.4 in).

Climate data for Venice (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.3
Average low °C (°F) −0.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 47.0
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.0 5.2 5.7 8.3 8.2 8.6 5.9 6.1 5.9 6.7 5.8 5.9 78.3
Average relative humidity (%) 81 77 75 75 73 74 71 72 75 77 79 81 75.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 80.6 107.4 142.6 174.0 229.4 243.0 288.3 257.3 198.0 151.9 87.0 77.5 2,037
Source: MeteoAM (sun and humidity 1961–1990)
Average sea temperature:
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
9.9 °C (49.8 °F) 8.7 °C (47.7 °F) 9.9 °C (49.8 °F) 13.5 °C (56.3 °F) 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) 23.4 °C (74.1 °F) 25.4 °C (77.7 °F) 25.4 °C (77.7 °F) 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) 19.3 °C (66.7 °F) 16.0 °C (60.8 °F) 13.2 °C (55.8 °F) 17.2 °C (63.0 °F)

Venice: Government

See also: Mayor of Venice

Venice: In games

The city is the setting for such video games as Assassin's Creed II and Tomb Raider II. It has also served as inspiration for the fictional city of Altissia, in Final Fantasy XV.

Venice: In literature and adapted works

The city is a particularly popular setting for essays, novels, and other works of fictional or non-fictional literature. Examples of these include:

  • Casanova's autobiographical History of My Life,
  • Ben Jonson's Volpone (1605–6),
  • Donna Leon's Commissario Guido Brunetti crime fiction series and cookbook, and the German television seriws based on the novels
  • Anne Rice's Cry to Heaven (1982),
  • Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice (ca. 1596–1598) and Othello,
  • Philippe Sollers' Watteau in Venice, and
  • Voltaire's Candide.

Additionally, Thomas Mann's novella, Death in Venice (1912), was the basis for Benjamin Britten'seponymous opera.

Venice: In music

The city has been the setting for music videos of such songs as Madonna's "Like a Virgin" and Siouxsie and the Banshees' "Dear Prudence" .

Venice: Architecture

See also: Venetian Gothic architecture, 8th International Architecture Exhibition, 9th International Architecture Exhibition, 10th International Architecture Exhibition, and 11th International Architecture Exhibition
The Baroque Ca' Rezzonico.
Hotel Danieli.
La Fenice operahouse in the city.

Venice has a rich and diverse architectural style, the most prominent of which is the Gothic style. Venetian Gothic architecture is a term given to a Venetian building style combining use of the Gothic lancet arch with Byzantine and Ottoman influences. The style originated in 14th-century Venice, where the confluence of Byzantine style from Constantinople met Arab influence from Islamic Spain. Chief examples of the style are the Doge's Palace and the Ca' d'Oro in the city. The city also has several Renaissance and Baroque buildings, including the Ca' Pesaro and the Ca' Rezzonico.

Venice: Music

Main article: Music of Venice
See also: Venetian polychoral style, Music of Veneto, and Venetian School (music)

The city of Venice in Italy has played an important role in the development of the music of Italy. The Venetian state – i.e., the medieval Maritime Republic of Venice – was often popularly called the "Republic of Music", and an anonymous Frenchman of the 17th century is said to have remarked that "In every home, someone is playing a musical instrument or singing. There is music everywhere."

During the 16th century, Venice became one of the most important musical centers of Europe, marked by a characteristic style of composition (the Venetian school) and the development of the Venetian polychoral style under composers such as Adrian Willaert, who worked at St Mark's Basilica. Venice was the early center of music printing; Ottaviano Petrucci began publishing music almost as soon as this technology was available, and his publishing enterprise helped to attract composers from all over Europe, especially from France and Flanders. By the end of the century, Venice was known for the splendor of its music, as exemplified in the "colossal style" of Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli, which used multiple choruses and instrumental groups. Venice was also the home of many noted composers during the baroque period, such as Antonio Vivaldi, Ippolito Ciera, Giovanni Picchi, and Girolamo Dalla Casa, to name but a few.

Venice: Photography

Its splendid architecture, artworks, landscapes, gondolas, the alternance of high and low tides, the reflections of light and colors, and the unusual daily scenes in a city living on water, make of Venice and its islands a paradise for photographers both professionals and amateurs. Fulvio Roiter has probably been the pioneer in artistic photography in Venice, followed by a number of authors whose works are often reproduced on postcards, thus reaching a widest international popular exposure.

Venice: Interior design

It can be argued that Venice produced the best and most refined rococo designs. At the time, Venice was in trouble. It had lost most of its maritime power, was lagging behind its rivals in political importance, and society had become decadent, with nobles wasting their money in gambling and partying. But Venice remained Italy's fashion capital, and was a serious contender to Paris in terms of wealth, architecture, luxury, taste, sophistication, trade, decoration, style, and design. Venetian rococo was well known as rich and luxurious, with usually very extravagant designs. Unique Venetian furniture pieces included the divani da portego, and long rococo couches and pozzetti, objects meant to be placed against the wall. Bedrooms of rich Venetians were usually sumptuous and grand, with rich damask, velvet, and silk drapery and curtains, and beautifully carved rococo beds with statues of putti, flowers and angels. Venice was especially known for its beautiful girandole mirrors, which remained among, if not the, finest in Europe. Chandeliers were usually very colourful, using Murano glass to make them look more vibrant and stand out from others, and precious stones and materials from abroad were used, since Venice still held a vast trade empire. Lacquer was very common, and many items of furniture were covered with it, the most noted being lacca povera (poor lacquer), in which allegories and images of social life were painted. Lacquerwork and Chinoiserie were particularly common in bureau cabinets.

Venice: Fashion and shopping

Luxury shops and boutiques along the Rialto Bridge.

In the 14th century, many young Venetian men began wearing tight-fitting multicoloured hose, the designs on which indicated the Compagnie della Calza ("Trouser Club") to which they belonged. The Venetian Senate passed sumptuary laws, but these merely resulted in changes in fashion in order to circumvent the law. Dull garments were worn over colourful ones, which then were cut to show the hidden colours resulting in the wide spread of men's "slashed" fashions in the 15th century.

Today, Venice is a major fashion and shopping centre, not as important as Milan, Florence, and Rome, but on a par with Verona, Turin, Vicenza, Naples, and Genoa. Roberta di Camerino is the only major Italian fashion brand to be based in Venice. Founded in 1945, it is renowned for its innovative handbags featuring hardware by Venetian artisans and often covered in locally woven velvet, and has been credited with creating the concept of the easily recognisable status bag. Many of the fashion boutiques and jewelry shops in the city are located on or near the Rialto Bridge and in the Piazza San Marco. There are Louis Vuitton and Ermenegildo Zegna flagship stores in the city. If shopping for venetian and Italian food specialties and wine you can head to Mascari or Casa del Parmigiano near Rialto and I Tre Mercanti flagship store near Piazza San Marco.

Venice: Cuisine

Main articles: Venetian cuisine and Venetian wine
Hot chocolate was a fashionable drink in Venice during the 1770s and 1780s.

Venetian cuisine is characterized by seafood, but also includes garden products from the islands of the lagoon, rice from the mainland, game, and polenta. Venice is not known for a peculiar cuisine of its own: it combines local traditions with influences stemming from age-old contacts with distant countries. These include sarde in saór (sardines marinated to preserve them for long voyages); bacalà mantecato (a recipe based on Norwegian stockfish and extra-virgin olive oil); bisàto (marinated eel); risi e bisi, rice, peas and (not smoked) bacon; fegato alla veneziana, Venetian-style veal liver; risòto col néro de sépe (risotto with cuttlefish, blackened by their ink); cichéti, refined and delicious tidbits (akin to tapas); antipasti (appetizers); and prosecco, an effervescent, mildly sweet wine.

In addition, Venice is known for the golden, oval-shaped cookies called baicoli, and for other types of sweets, such as: pan del pescatore (bread of the fisherman); cookies with almonds and pistachio nuts; cookies with fried Venetian cream, or the bussolài (butter biscuits and shortbread made in the shape of a ring or of an "S") from the island of Burano; the galàni or cróstoli (angel wings); the frìtole (fried spherical doughnuts); the fregolòtta (a crumbly cake with almonds); a milk pudding called rosada; and cookies called zaléti, whose ingredients include yellow maize flour.

The dessert tiramisu is thought to have been invented in Treviso in the late 1960s, and is popular in the Veneto area.

Venice: Literature

Main article: Venetian literature
Portrait of Giacomo Casanova.

Venice has long been a source of inspiration for authors, playwrights, and poets, and at the forefront of the technological development of printing and publishing.

Two of the most noted Venetian writers were Marco Polo in the Middle Ages and later Giacomo Casanova. Polo (1254–1324) was a merchant who voyaged to the Orient. His series of books, co-written by Rustichello da Pisa and titled Il Milione provided important knowledge of the lands east of Europe, from the Middle East to China, Japan, and Russia. Giacomo Casanova (1725–1798) was a prolific writer and adventurer best remembered for his autobiography, Histoire De Ma Vie (Story of My Life), which links his colourful lifestyle to the city of Venice.

Venetian playwrights followed the old Italian theatre tradition of Commedia dell'arte. Ruzante (1502–1542), Carlo Goldoni (1707–1793), and Carlo Gozzi (1720–1806) used the Venetian dialect extensively in their comedies.

book printed by Aldus Manutius.

Venice has also inspired writers from abroad. Shakespeare set Othello and The Merchant of Venice in the city, as did Thomas Mann with his novel, Death in Venice (1912). The French writer Philippe Sollers spent most of his life in Venice and published A Dictionary For Lovers Of Venice in 2004.

The city features prominently in Henry James' The Aspern Papers and The Wings of the Dove. It is also visited in Evelyn Waugh's Brideshead Revisited and Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time. Perhaps the most known children's book set in Venice is The Thief Lord, written by the German author Cornelia Funke.

The poet Ugo Foscolo (1778–1827), born in Zante, an island that at the time belonged to the Republic of Venice, was also a revolutionary who wanted to see a free republic established in Venice following its fall to Napoleon.

Venice also inspired the poetry of Ezra Pound, who wrote his first literary work in the city. Pound died in 1972, and his remains are buried in Venice's cemetery island of San Michele.

Venice is also linked to the technological aspects of writing. The city was the location of one of Italy's earliest printing presses, established by Aldus Manutius (1449–1515). From this beginning Venice developed as an important typographic center and even as late as the 18th century was responsible for printing half of Italy's published books.

Venice: Art and printing

Main article: List of painters and architects of Venice
See also: Venetian School (art)
From the Gondola by John Singer Sargent.
An 18th-century view of Venice by Venetian artist Canaletto.

Venice, especially during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and Baroque periods, was a major centre of art and developed a unique style known as the Venetian School. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Venice, along with Florence and Rome, became one of the most important centres of art in Europe, and numerous wealthy Venetians became patrons of the arts. Venice at the time was a rich and prosperous Maritime Republic, which controlled a vast sea and trade empire.

By the end of the 15th century, Venice had become the European capital of printing, being one of the first cities in Italy (after Subiaco and Rome) to have a printing press after those established in Germany, having 417 printers by 1500. The most important printing office was the Aldine Press of Aldus Manutius, which in 1499 printed the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, considered the most beautiful book of the Renaissance, and established modern punctuation, the page format and italic type, and the first printed work of Aristotle.

In the 16th century, Venetian painting was developed through influences from the Paduan School and Antonello da Messina, who introduced the oil painting technique of the Van Eyck brothers. It is signified by a warm colour scale and a picturesque use of colour. Early masters were the Bellini and Vivarini families, followed by Giorgione and Titian, then Tintoretto and Veronese. In the early 16th century, there was rivalry in Venetian painting between the disegno and colorito techniques.

Canvases (the common painting surface) originated in Venice during the early Renaissance. These early canvases were generally rough.

In the 18th century, Venetian painting had a revival with Tiepolo's decorative painting and Canaletto's and Guardi's panoramic views.

Venice: Glass

Main articles: Venetian glass and Murano glass
A Venetian glass goblet.

Venice is known for its ornate glass-work, known as Venetian glass. It is world-renowned for being colourful, elaborate, and skilfully made.

Many of the important characteristics of these objects had been developed by the 13th century. Toward the end of that century, the center of the Venetian glass industry moved to Murano, an offshore island in Venice. The glass made there is known as Murano glass.

Byzantine craftsmen played an important role in the development of Venetian glass, an art form for which the city is well known. When Constantinople was sacked in the Fourth Crusade in 1204, some fleeing artisans came to Venice. This happened again when the Ottomans took Constantinople in 1453, supplying Venice with still more glassworkers. By the 16th century, Venetian artisans had gained even greater control over the color and transparency of their glass, and had mastered a variety of decorative techniques.

Murano glass chandelier Ca' Rezzonico

Despite efforts to keep Venetian glassmaking techniques within Venice, they became known elsewhere, and Venetian-style glassware was produced in other Italian cities and other countries of Europe.

Some of the most important brands of glass in the world today are still produced in the historical glass factories on Murano. They are: Venini, Barovier & Toso, Pauly, Millevetri, Seguso. Barovier & Toso is considered one of the 100 oldest companies in the world, formed in 1295.

Venice: Festivals

See also: Carnival of Venice and Venice Film Festival
Masks at Carnival of Venice.

The Carnival of Venice is held annually in the city, It lasts for around two weeks and ends on Shrove Tuesday. Venetian masks are worn.

The Venice Biennale is one of the most important events in the arts calendar. In 1895 an Esposizione biennale artistica nazionale (biennial exhibition of Italian art) was inaugurated. The activities of the Biennale were interrupted by the war in September 1942, but resumed in 1948.

The Festa del Redentore is held in mid July. It began as a feast to give thanks for the end of the plague of 1576. A bridge of barges is built connecting Giudecca to the rest of Venice, and fireworks play an important role.

The Venice Film Festival (Italian Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica di Venezia) is the oldest film festival in the world. Founded by Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata in 1932 as the Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica, the festival has since taken place every year in late August or early September on the island of the Lido. Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi. It is one of the world's most prestigious film festivals and is part of the Venice Biennale.

Venice: Foreign words of Venetian origin

Some words with a Venetian etymology include arsenal, ciao, ghetto, gondola, imbroglio, lagoon, lazaret, lido, Montenegro, and regatta. The name "Venezuela" is a Spanish diminutive of Venice. Many additional places around the world are named after Venice, e.g., Venice, Los Angeles, home of Venice Beach.

Venice: Notable people

For people from Venice, see Category:People from Venice. Others closely associated with the city include:

  • Pietro Cesare Alberti (1608–1655), considered the first Italian-American, arriving in New Amsterdam in 1635.
  • Tomaso Albinoni (8 June 1671 – 17 January 1751), a baroque composer.
  • Claudio Ambrosini (9 April 1948), composer and conductor.
  • Pietro Bembo (20 May 1470 – 18 January 1547), cardinal and scholar.
  • Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516), Renaissance painter, probably the best known of the Bellini family of painters.
  • Francesco Borgato (5 September 1990, Venice), Italian recording artist and dancer.
  • Marco Antonio Bragadin (d.1571), general, flayed alive by the Turks after a fierce resistance during the siege of Famagusta.
  • Sebastian Cabot (c. 1484–1557, or soon after), explorer.
  • Rosalba Carriera (7 October 1675 – 15 April 1757), known for her pastel works.
  • Canaletto (28 October 1697 – 19 April 1768), known for his landscapes or vedute of Venice, but not only.
  • Giacomo Casanova (1725–1798 in Dux, Bohemia, (now Duchcov, Czech Republic)), a Venetian adventurer, writer and womanizer.
  • Francesco Cavalli (14 February 1602 – 14 January 1676), a baroque composer.
  • Lorenzo Da Ponte (1749–1838), opera librettist and poet, wrote the librettos for 28 operas by 11 composers, including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
  • Enrico Dandolo (c. 1107, 1205), Doge of Venice from 1192 to his death, played a direct role in the Sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade.
  • Vincenzo Dandolo (1758–1819), chemist, agronomist and politician of the Enlightenment Era.
  • Ludovico de Luigi (November 1933), Venetian Surrealistic artist.
  • Pellegrino Ernetti, Catholic priest and exorcist.
  • Dominic DeNucci, (1932–) Professional wrestler
  • Veronica Franco (1546–1591), poet and courtesan during the Renaissance.
  • Andrea Gabrieli (c. 1510–1586), Italian composer and organist at St Mark's Basilica.
  • Giovanni Gabrieli (1554/1557–1612), composer and organist at St Mark's Basilica.
  • Carlo Goldoni (25 February 1707 – 6 February 1793). Along with Pirandello, Goldoni is probably the most notable name in Italian theatre, in his country and abroad.
  • Carlo Gozzi (13 December 1720 – 4 April 1806), excellent dramatist of the 18th century.
  • Pietro Guarneri (14 April 1695 – 7 April 1762), left Cremona in 1718, settled in Venice. "Peter of Venice" from the family of great luthiers.
  • Baldassare Longhena (1598–18 February 1682), one of the greatest exponents of Baroque architecture.
  • Lorenzo Lotto (c. 1480–Loreto, 1556), painter, draughtsman, and illustrator, traditionally placed in the Venetian school.
  • Bruno Maderna (21 April 1920 – 13 November 1973), an Italian-German orchestra director and 20th-century music composer.
  • Diogo Mainardi (22 September 1962, São Paulo), Brazilian writer, journalist and TV commentator.
  • Aldus Manutius (1449–1515), one of the most important printers in history.
  • Leon Modena (1571–1648) preacher, author, poet, active in the Venetian ghetto and beyond.
  • Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), composer, opera pioneer, and director of music at San Marco.
  • Luigi Nono (29 January 1924 – 8 May 1990), a leading composer of instrumental and electronic music.
  • Joseph Pardo (c. 1561–1619), rabbi and merchant.
  • Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (5 June 1646 – 26 July 1684), the first woman in the world to receive a doctorate degree.
  • Marco Polo (c. 1254–8 January 1324), trader and explorer, one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China. While a prisoner in Genoa, he dictated in the tale of his travels known as Il Milione (The Travels of Marco Polo).
  • Virgilio Ranzato (7 May 1883 – 20 April 1937), composer.
  • Frederick Rolfe (22 July 1860 – 25 October 1913), English author of the Venetian novel The Desire and Pursuit of the Whole.
  • Carlo Scarpa (2 June 1906 – 1978, Sendai, Japan), an architect with a profound understanding of materials.
  • Romano Scarpa (27 September 1927, Venice–23 April 2005, Málaga), was one of the most noted Italian creators of Disney comics.
  • Giuseppe Sinopoli (2 November 1946 – 20 April 2001), conductor and composer.
  • Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (5 March 1696 – 27 March 1770), the last "Grand Manner" fresco painter from the Venetian Republic.
  • Tintoretto (1518–31 May 1594), probably the last great painter of Italian Renaissance.
  • Titian (c. 1488–90–27 August 1576), leader of the 16th-century Venetian school of the Italian Renaissance (he was born in Pieve di Cadore).
  • Elisabetta Caminèr Turra (1751–1796), writer.
  • Emilio Vedova (9 August 1919 – 25 October 2006), one of the most important modern painters of Italy.
  • Sebastiano Venier, (c. 1496–3 March 1578), Doge of Venice from 11 June 1577 to 1578.
  • Antonio Vivaldi (4 March 1678–28 July (or 27), 1741, Vienna), composer and violinist of the Baroque Era.

Venice: International relations

The City of Venice and the Central Association of Cities and Communities of Greece (KEDKE) established, in January 2000, in pursuance of the EC Regulations n. 2137/85, the European Economic Interest Grouping (E.E.I.G.) Marco Polo System to promote and realise European projects within transnational cultural and tourist field, particularly referred to the artistic and architectural heritage preservation and safeguard.

Venice: Twin towns and sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy

Venice is twinned with:

  • China Suzhou, China, since 1980
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 1994
  • Armenia Yerevan, Armenia, since 2011
  • Estonia Tallinn, Estonia
  • United States Fort Lauderdale, United States, since 2007

In 2013, Venice ended the sister city relationship with St. Petersburg in opposition to laws Russia had passed against homosexuals and those who support gay rights.

Venice: Cooperation agreements

Venice has cooperation agreements with the Greek city of Thessaloniki, the German city of Nuremberg, signed on 25 September 1999, and the Turkish city of Istanbul, signed on 4 March 1993, within the framework of the 1991 Istanbul Declaration. It is also a Science and Technology Partnership City with Qingdao, China.

Venice: See also

  • History of the Jews in Venice
  • List of buildings and structures in Venice
  • List of painters and architects of Venice
  • List of places called Venice of the East
  • Outline of Italy
  • Republic of Venice
  • Su e zo per i ponti
  • Veneti and Venetic language (the ancient spoken language of the region)
  • Venetian Blinds
  • Venetian Ghetto
  • Venetian language (the modern spoken vernacular of the region)
  • Venezia F.C.
  • Venezia Mestre Rugby FC – rugby team
  • Venice of the North

Venice: References

Venice: Notes

  2. "Venice and its Lagoon". UNESCO. Retrieved April 17, 2012.
  3. "Patreve, l'attuale governance non funziona" (PDF). Corriere Della Sera. March 6, 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  4. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  5. Richard Stephen Charnock (1859). Local etymology: a derivative dictionary of geographical names. Houlston and Wright. p. 288.
  6. Coispeau, Olivier (2016-08-10). Finance Masters: A Brief History of International Financial Centers in the Last Millennium. World Scientific. ISBN 9789813108844.
  7. "Venetian Music of the Renaissance". 11 October 1998. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  8. Chambers, David (1992). Venice: A Documentary History. England: Oxford. p. 78. ISBN 0-8020-8424-9.
  10. "Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia".
  11. "Imperciocchè nascendi i principati", begins Apostolo Zeno, Compendio della storia Veneta di Apostolo Zeno continuata fino alla caduta della repubblica 1847:9.
  12. Bosio, Le origini di Venezia
  13. Zeno, Compendio 1847:10.
  14. Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (1 January 1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 745. ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  15. Traditional date as given in William J. Langer, ed. An Encyclopedia of World History.
  16. John Julius Norwich, A History of Venice (Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 1982) p. 13.
  17. Alethea Wiel, A History of Venice, (London) 1898, reprinted Barnes & Noble Books (New York) 1995, pp. 26–27.
  18. Langer
  19. Thomas F. Madden, Venice: A New History, Penguin, 2013, Buy book ISBN 978-0-670-02542-8.
  20. "Piracy as an Islamic-Christian Interface in the Thirteenth Century".
  21. Richard Cowen, The importance of salt
  22. Herrin, Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire, Penguin, Harmondsworth, Buy book ISBN 978-0-14-103102-6
  23. "History of Venice". Retrieved 28 March 2009.
  24. Thomas F. Madden, Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of Venice, Johns Hopkins University Press, Buy book ISBN 978-0-8018-8539-6
  25. James Burke, Connections (Little, Brown and Co., 1978/1995, Buy book ISBN 978-0-316-11672-5, p.105
  26. William J. Bernstein (2009). "A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World". Grove Press. p.143. Buy book ISBN 0-8021-4416-0
  27. State of Texas, Texas Department of State Health Services. "History of Plague". Retrieved 28 March 2009.
  28. "Medicine and society in early modern Europe". Mary Lindemann (1999). Cambridge University Press. p.41. Buy book ISBN 0-521-42354-6
  29. "Group Captain George Westlake". The Daily Telegraph. London. 26 January 2006. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  30. Patrick G. Skelly, Pocasset MA (6 May 2005). "US Army Air Force Operations Mediterranean Theater". Retrieved 27 July 2010.
  31. Patrick G. Skelly, Pocasset MA (21 July 1945). "New Zealand troops relieve Venice". Retrieved 28 March 2009.
  32. Standish, Dominic (2003). "Barriers to barriers: why environmental precaution has delayed mobile floodgates to protect Venice". In Okonski, Kendra. Adapt or die: the science, politics and economics of climate change. London: Profile Books. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-86197-795-3. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  33. Kendall, Paul (25 August 2010). "Mythology and Folklore of the Alder". Trees for life. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
  34. "Alder – Alnus glutinosa". Conservation Volunteers Northern Ireland. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
  36. "City of Venice – Subsidence and eustatism". Archived from the original on 11 September 2015.
  37. "'Moses project' to secure future of Venice". The Daily Telegraph. London. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  38. Ferraro, Joanne (2012). Venice: History Of The Floating City. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  39. "Venezia/Tessera" (PDF). Italian Air Force National Meteorological Service. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  40. "Tabella CLINO". MeteoAM. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  41. Venice Sea Temperature –
  42. "The economy of Venice, Italy". Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  43. Pilgerreisen von Venedig nach Jerusalem im späten Mittelalter- Die Verträge mit dem Schiffspatron, Seite 2, Fabian H. Flöper, GRIN Verlag, 2011. Buy book ISBN 978-3-656-04783-4
  44. Venice, page 71, Beryl D. De Sélincourt, May (Sturge) Gretton, Chatto & Windus, London 1907., reprinted BiblioBazaar 2010, Buy book ISBN 978-1-177-40448-8
  45. "Venice (Italy) :: Economy – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  46. Venice. Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. 2016. p. 1.
  47. "Venice (Italy) :: Economy – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  48. Owen, Richard (5 April 2007). "Venice in peril as the tourists flood in and locals get out". The Times. London. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  49. "Top 150 City Destinations London Leads the Way". 11 October 2007. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  50. "Tourism overwhelms vanishing Venice". Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  51. "Italy to ban large cruise ships in Venice". The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  52. "CLIA says cruise lines will continue to respect Venice cruise ship ban despite new ruling". Cruise Arabia & Africa. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  53. "Turistby indfører forbud mod larmende kufferthjul". Archived from the original on 25 November 2015.
  55. "Venice Study Abroad". Retrieved 6 October 2010.
  56. Thomas Cook European Timetables
  57. "ATVO". Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  58. "Linee Urbane". Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  60. Home Page Archived 15 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.", Wizz Air
  62. DEPARTMENTS: Asian and North African Studies; Economics; Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics; Humanities; Linguistics and Comparative Cultural Studies; Management; Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems; Philosophy and Cultural Heritage. INTERDEPARTMENTAL SCHOOLS: School of Asian Studies and Business Management; School of Cultural Production and Conservation of the Cultural Heritage; School of International Relations; School of Social Work and Public Policies. OTHER SCHOOLS: School of Economics; CFCS – Ca’ Foscari Challenge School; CFSIE – Ca’ Foscari School for International Education; Ca' Foscari Graduate School.
  63. DEPARTMENTS: DACC – Architecture, Construction and Conservation; DCP – Architecture and Arts; DPPAC – Design and Planning in Complex Environments.
  64. Courses. ITALY: History of Venice; Italian Contemporary History in Films; Art and Architecture in Renaissance Venice; Italian Fashion and Design. CULTURES OF THE WORLD: Intercultural Communication; Gender Studies; Comparing East and West. GLOBAL CHALLENGES: Identity, Heritage and Globalization; Globalization, Ethics, Welfare and Human Rights; Global governance for peace and security, cooperation and development.
  65. European Master's Degree in Human Rights and Democratisation.
  66. DEPARTMENTS: Visual arts (Painting; Sculpture; Graphic Art; Decoration); Scenography and Applied Arts (Scenography; New Technologies for the Arts).
  67. DEPARTMENTS: Theory and Analysis, Composition and Conducting: Pre-polyphonic Music, Choral Music and Choir Conducting, Composition, Experimental Composition, Conducting. New Technologies and Musical Languages: Jazz, Electronic Music. Wind instruments: Recorder, Flute, Trumpet, French Horn, Clarinet, Saxophone, Oboe, Bassoon. Singing and Musical Theatre: Singing. Teaching: Teaching. Keyboards and Percussion Instruments: Organ, Harpsichord, Piano, Percussion instruments. Stringed Instruments: Harp, Lute, Guitar, Viola da Gamba, Baroque violin, Violin, Viola, Cello, Double Bass.
  68. "Urban World History".
  69. A Companion to Venetian History, 1400–1797 Google Books.
  70. "Pre-Industrial Cities and Technology".
  71. Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250–1350 By Janet L. Abu-Lughod.
  72. The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change By Hendrik Spruyt.
  73. "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Retrieved 28 March 2009.
  74. Cathy Newman, "Vanishing Venice", National Geographic, August 2009
  75. "Venice #Venexodus protesters oppose tourist numbers". BBC News. 12 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  76. Catholic Hierarchy. Archdiocese of Venezia
  77. "Venetian Ghetto – Eruv in Venice". Retrieved 2 August 2010.
  78. "Death in Venice and a cocktail". The Venice Lido. August 2011.
  80. Touring Club p. 79
  81. Stefano Biolchini (19 April 2016). "Addio a Fulvio Roiter. Era sua la più bella Venezia in bianco nero". Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  82. Miller (2005) p.82
  83. Miller (2005) p.83
  84. Patner, Josh (26 February 2006). "From Bags to Riches". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  85. Ranieri da Mosto, Il Veneto in cucina, Firenze, Aldo Martello-Giunti, 1974, p. 57; Mariù Salvatori de Zuliani, A tola co i nostri veci. La cucina veneziana, Milano, Franco Angeli, 2008, p. 63
  86. In other areas of Italy similar sweets are known by many other names, e.g. cénci (rags) (Florence), frappe (flounces) (Rome), bugìe (lies) (Turin, Genoa, etc.), chiàcchiere (chatter) (Milan and many other places in northern, central and southern Italy). Vid.: Pellegrino Artusi, La Scienza in cucina e l'Arte di mangiar bene, 93ª ristampa, Firenze, Giunti, 1960, p. 387, #595; Ranieri da Mosto, Il Veneto in cucina, Firenze, Aldo Martello-Giunti, 1974, p. 364; Luigi Veronelli (edited by), Il Carnacina, 10th ed., Milano, Garzanti, 1975, p. 656, #2013; to name but a few.
  87. Mariù Salvatori de Zuliani, A tola co i nostri veci. La cucina veneziana, Milano, Franco Angeli, 2008, pp. 449–450
  88. "The Renaissance in Venice – Art History Basics on the Venetian School – ca 1450–1600". 29 October 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  89. "Venetian art around 1500". Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  90. Carl I. Gable, Murano Magic: Complete Guide to Venetian Glass, its History and Artists (Schiffer, 2004). Buy book ISBN 978-0-7643-1946-4.
  91. "The Venice Biennale: History of the Venice Biennale". Retrieved 28 March 2009.
  92. "The Venice Biennale: History From the beginnings until the Second World War (1893–1945)". Retrieved 28 March 2009.
  93. "Yerevan – Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005–2013 Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  94. Morgan, Glennisha (30 January 2013). "Venice To Cut Ties With St. Petersburg Over Anti-Gay Law". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 17 October 2013. Venice_Russia

Venice: Bibliography

  • Bosio, Luciano. Le origini di Venezia. Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini.
  • Brown, Horatio, Venice, chapter 8 of Cambridge Modern History vol. I The Renaissance (1902)
  • Brown, Horatio, Calendar of State Papers (Venetian): 1581–1591, 1895; 1592–1603, 1897; 1603–1607, 1900; 1607–1610, 1904; 1610–1613, 1905
  • Brown, Horatio, Studies in the history of Venice (London, 1907)
  • Chambers, D.S. (1970). The Imperial Age of Venice, 1380–1580. London: Thames & Hudson. The best brief introduction in English, still completely reliable.
  • Contarini, Gasparo (1599). The Commonwealth and Gouernment of Venice. Lewes Lewkenor, trsl. London: "Imprinted by I. Windet for E. Mattes." The most important contemporary account of Venice's governance during the time of its blossoming. Also available in various reprint editions.
  • Da Canal, Martin, "Les estoires de Venise" (13th-century chronicle), translated by Laura Morreale. Padua, Unipress 2009.
  • Drechsler, Wolfgang (2002). "Venice Misappropriated." Trames 6(2), pp. 192–201. A scathing review of Martin & Romano 2000; also a good summary on the most recent economic and political thought on Venice.
  • Garrett, Martin, "Venice: a Cultural History" (2006). Revised edition of "Venice: a Cultural and Literary Companion" (2001).
  • Grubb, James S. (1986). "When Myths Lose Power: Four Decades of Venetian Historiography." Journal of Modern History 58, pp. 43–94. The classic "muckraking" essay on the myths of Venice.
  • Lane, Frederic Chapin. Venice: Maritime Republic (1973) (Buy book ISBN 978-0-8018-1445-7) standard scholarly history; emphasis on economic, political and diplomatic history
  • Laven, Mary, "Virgins of Venice: Enclosed Lives and Broken Vows in the Renaissance Convent (2002). The most important study of the life of Renaissance nuns, with much on aristocratic family networks and the life of women more generally.
  • Madden, Thomas F. Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of Venice Johns Hopkins University Press. Probably the best book in English on medieval Venice.
  • Martin, John Jeffries and Dennis Romano (eds). Venice Reconsidered. The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State, 1297–1797. (2002) Johns Hopkins University Press. The most recent collection on essays, many by prominent scholars, on Venice.
  • Muir, Edward (1981). Civic Ritual in Renaissance Venice. Princeton UP. The classic of Venetian cultural studies, highly sophisticated.
  • Oppenheimer, Gerald J. (2010). Venetian Palazzi and Case: A Guide to the Literature. University of Washington, Seattle. Retrieved from 7 February 2010.
  • Rösch, Gerhard (2000). Venedig. Geschichte einer Seerepublik. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. In German, but the most recent top-level brief history of Venice.
  • Miller, Judith (2005). Furniture: world styles from classical to contemporary. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7566-1340-2.
  • Ackroyd, Peter. Venice: Pure City. London, Chatto & Windus. 2009. Buy book ISBN 978-0-7011-8478-0
  • Brown, Horatio, Life on the Lagoons, 1884; revised ed. 1894; further eds. 1900, 1904, 1909.
  • Cole, Toby. Venice: A Portable Reader, Lawrence Hill, 1979. Buy book ISBN 978-0-88208-097-0 (hardcover); Buy book ISBN 978-0-88208-107-6 (softcover).
  • Madden, Thomas, Venice: A New History. New York: Viking, 2012. Buy book ISBN 978-0-670-02542-8. A fascinating and approachable history by a distinguished historian.
  • Morris, Jan (1993), Venice. 3rd revised edition. Faber & Faber, Buy book ISBN 978-0-571-16897-2. A subjective and passionate written introduction to the city and some of its history. Not illustrated.
  • Ruskin, John (1853). The Stones of Venice. Abridged edition Links, JG (Ed), Penguin Books, 2001. Buy book ISBN 978-0-14-139065-9. Seminal work on architecture and society
  • di Robilant, Andrea (2004). A Venetian Affair. HarperCollins. Buy book ISBN 978-1-84115-542-5 Biography of Venetian nobleman and lover, from correspondence in the 1750s.
  • Sethre, Janet. The Souls of Venice McFarland & Company, Inc., 2003. Buy book ISBN 978-0-7864-1573-1 (softcover). This book focuses on people who have been shaped by Venice and who have shaped the city in their turn. Illustrated (photographs by Manuela Fardin).
  • Official Site of the City of Venice
  • Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia (Italian/English)
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