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How to Book a Hotel in Xi'an

In order to book an accommodation in Xi'an enter the proper dates and do the hotel search. If needed, sort the found Xi'an hotels by price, star rating, property type, guest rating, hotel features, hotel theme or hotel chain. Then take a look at the found hotels on Xi'an map to estimate the distance from the main Xi'an attractions and sights. You can also read the guest reviews of Xi'an hotels and see their ratings.

When a hotel search in Xi'an is done, please select the room type, the included meals and the suitable booking conditions (for example, "Deluxe double room, Breakfast included, Non-Refundable"). Press the "View Deal" ("Book Now") button. Make your booking on a hotel booking website and get the hotel reservation voucher by email. That's it, a perfect hotel in Xi'an is waiting for you!

Hotels of Xi'an

A hotel in Xi'an is an establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a basic bed and storage for clothing, to luxury features like en-suite bathrooms. Larger in Xi'an hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference facilities and social function services. Hotel rooms in Xi'an are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some Xi'an hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. Hotel operations vary in size, function, and cost. Most Xi'an hotels and major hospitality companies that operate hotels in Xi'an have set widely accepted industry standards to classify hotel types. General categories include the following:

Upscale luxury hotels in Xi'an
An upscale full service hotel facility in Xi'an that offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and the highest level of personalized and professional service. Luxury Xi'an hotels are normally classified with at least a Four Diamond or Five Diamond status or a Four or Five Star rating depending on classification standards.

Full service hotels in Xi'an
Full service Xi'an hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a large volume of full service accommodations, on-site full service restaurant(s), and a variety of on-site amenities such as swimming pools, a health club, children's activities, ballrooms, on-site conference facilities, etc.

Historic inns and boutique hotels in Xi'an
Boutique hotels of Xi'an are smaller independent non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities of varying size in unique or intimate settings with full service accommodations. Xi'an boutique hotels are generally 100 rooms or less. Some historic inns and boutique hotels in Xi'an may be classified as luxury hotels.

Focused or select service hotels in Xi'an
Small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer a limited amount of on-site amenities that only cater and market to a specific demographic of Xi'an travelers, such as the single business traveler. Most Xi'an focused or select service hotels may still offer full service accommodations but may lack leisure amenities such as an on-site restaurant or a swimming pool.

Economy and limited service hotels in Xi'an
Small to medium-sized Xi'an hotel establishments that offer a very limited amount of on-site amenities and often only offer basic accommodations with little to no services, these facilities normally only cater and market to a specific demographic of travelers, such as the budget-minded Xi'an traveler seeking a "no frills" accommodation. Limited service Xi'an hotels often lack an on-site restaurant but in return may offer a limited complimentary food and beverage amenity such as on-site continental breakfast service.

Guest houses and B&Bs in Xi'an
A bed and breakfast in Xi'an is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and inclusive breakfast. Usually, Xi'an bed and breakfasts are private homes or family homes offering accommodations. The typical Xi'an B&B has between 4 and 11 rooms, with 6 being the average. Generally, guests are accommodated in private bedrooms with private bathrooms, or in a suite of rooms including an en suite bathroom. Some homes have private bedrooms with a bathroom which is shared with other guests. Breakfast is served in the bedroom, a dining room, or the host's kitchen. Often the owners of guest house themselves prepare the breakfast and clean the rooms.

Hostels in Xi'an
Xi'an hostels provide budget-oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, usually a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom, lounge, and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, although private rooms may also be available. Hostels are often cheaper for both the operator and occupants; many Xi'an hostels have long-term residents whom they employ as desk agents or housekeeping staff in exchange for experience or discounted accommodation.

Apartment hotels, extended stay hotels in Xi'an
Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized Xi'an hotels that offer longer term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Extended stay hotels may offer non-traditional pricing methods such as a weekly rate that cater towards travelers in need of short-term accommodations for an extended period of time. Similar to limited and select service hotels, on-site amenities are normally limited and most extended stay hotels in Xi'an lack an on-site restaurant.

Timeshare and destination clubs in Xi'an
Xi'an timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership also referred to as a vacation ownership involving the purchase and ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage during a specified period of time. Timeshare resorts in Xi'an often offer amenities similar that of a Full service hotel with on-site restaurant(s), swimming pools, recreation grounds, and other leisure-oriented amenities. Destination clubs of Xi'an on the other hand may offer more exclusive private accommodations such as private houses in a neighborhood-style setting.

Motels in Xi'an
A Xi'an motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging establishment similar to that of a limited service hotel, but with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Common during the 1950s and 1960s, motels were often located adjacent to a major road, where they were built on inexpensive land at the edge of towns or along stretches of highways. They are still useful in less populated areas of Xi'an for driving travelers, but the more populated an area becomes the more hotels fill the need. Many of Xi'an motels which remain in operation have joined national franchise chains, rebranding themselves as hotels, inns or lodges.

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Travelling and vacation in Xi'an

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"Xian" redirects here. For other uses, see Xian (disambiguation).
For the Dowager Empress of China, see Ci'an.
Xi'an
西安市
Sub-provincial city
From top: Xian Terracotta Warriors Museum, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Drum Tower of Xi'an, Bell Tower of Xi'an, City wall of Xi'an, Tang Paradise at night
From top: Xian Terracotta Warriors Museum, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Drum Tower of Xi'an, Bell Tower of Xi'an, City wall of Xi'an, Tang Paradise at night
Location of Xi'an City jurisdiction in Shaanxi
Location of Xi'an City jurisdiction in Shaanxi
Xi'an is located in China
Xi'an
Xi'an
Location in Northwest of China
Coordinates:  / 34.267; 108.900  / 34.267; 108.900
Country People's Republic of China
Province Shaanxi
Government
• Party Secretary Wang Yongkang
• Mayor Shangguan Jiqing
Area
• Sub-provincial city 9,983 km (3,854 sq mi)
• Urban 2,420.7 km (934.6 sq mi)
• Metro 3,866.25 km (1,492.77 sq mi)
Elevation 405 m (1,329 ft)
Population (2015)
• Sub-provincial city 8,705,600
• Density 870/km (2,300/sq mi)
• Metro 13,569,700
• Metro density 3,500/km (9,100/sq mi)
Time zone CST (UTC+8)
Postal code 710000 - 710090
Area code(s) +86/29
GDP (2016)
- Total CNY 625.72 billion
(US$ 94.22 billion)
- Per capita CNY 71,853 (US$ 10,823)
License plate prefixes A
City flower Pomegranate flower
City tree Pagoda tree
Website http://www.xa.gov.cn/
Xī'ān
Xi'an (Chinese characters).svg
Chinese name
Chinese 西安
Postal Sian
Literal meaning "Western Peace"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Xī'ān
Bopomofo ㄒㄧ ㄢ
Gwoyeu Romatzyh Shi'an
Wade–Giles Hsi-an
Yale Romanization Syīān
IPA [ɕí.án]
Wu
Romanization Sioe
Yue: Cantonese
Yale Romanization Sāi-ōn
Jyutping Sai-on
Southern Min
Tâi-lô Se-an
Cháng'ān
Simplified Chinese 长安
Traditional Chinese 長安
Literal meaning "Perpetual peace"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Cháng'ān
Bopomofo ㄔㄤˊ ㄢ
Gwoyeu Romatzyh Charng'an
Wade–Giles Chʻang-an
IPA [ʈʂʰǎŋ.án]
Yue: Cantonese
Yale Romanization Chèuhng-ōn
Jyutping Coeng-on
Southern Min
Tâi-lô Tn̂g-an
Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese ɖjang-an
Xi'an dialect (Zhongyuan Mandarin) name
Xi'an dialect (Zhongyuan Mandarin) 西安: [ɕi²¹.ŋã²¹]
長安: [ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴.ŋã²¹]

Xi'an ([ɕí.án]; Chinese: 西安; pinyin: Xī'ān), formerly romanized as Sian, and also known as Chang'an ([ʈʂʰǎŋ.án]; Chinese: 長安; pinyin: Cháng'ān) before the Ming dynasty, is the capital of Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China. It is a sub-provincial city located in the center of the Guanzhong Plain in Northwest China. One of the oldest cities in China, Xi'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including Western Zhou, Qin, Western Han, Sui, and Tang. Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.

Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of inland China especially for the central and northwest regions, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and China's space exploration program. Xi'an currently holds sub-provincial status, administering 9 districts and 4 counties. As of 2015 Xi'an has a population of 8,705,600 and the Xi'an-Xianyang metropolitan area has a population of 13,569,700. It is the most populous city in Northwest China, as well as one of the three most populous cities in Western China. According to a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit, it was recently named as one of the 13 emerging megacities, or megalopolises, in China. The report pinpoints and highlights the demographic and income trends that are shaping these cities' development.

Xi'an: Toponymy

The two Chinese characters "西安" in the name Xi'an mean "Western Peace". During the Zhou dynasty, the area was the site of the national capital, which is a twin-city named Fenghao (豐鎬) on the two banks of the Feng River near the confluence with the Wei River, with the part on the west bank of the Feng River called Fengjing (豐京; "Feng capital") and the portion on the east called Haojing (鎬京; "Hao capital"). It was renamed Chang'an (meaning "perpetual peace") during the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), although it was sometimes referred to as Xijing (西京; "western capital") during the Eastern Han dynasty after the capital was relocated to Luoyang in the east . It changed to Daxing (大興; "great prosperity") in 581 AD during the Sui dynasty, then again became Chang'an from 618 during the Tang dynasty. During the Yuan dynasty (1270–1368), the city was first given the name Fengyuan (奉元), followed by Anxi (安西) then Jingzhao (京兆).

It finally became Xi'an in 1369 at the time of the Ming dynasty. This name remained until 1928, then in 1930 it was renamed Xijing (西京), or "western capital". The city's name once again reverted to its Ming-era designation of Xi'an in 1943.

Xi'an currently does not have a widely accepted one-character abbreviation as many other Chinese cities do, possibly due to fact that it was historically called Jing () or Du (), both meaning "the capital". Several suggested abbreviations include Feng (, the city's first name when it was founded as the new capital of Zhou, meaning abundance, greatness, and bumper harvest), Hao (Chinese: ; pinyin: Hào, derived from the name of Zhou dynasty's capital Haojing), or Tang (Chinese: ; pinyin: Táng, from the name of the Tang dynasty).

Xi'an: History

Main articles: History of Xi'an and Chang'an
Remains of carriages and horses in Fenghao of the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BC)
Terracotta Army inside the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum, 3rd century BC.
Site of front hall of Weiyang Palace in Chang'an city of Western Han dynasty (206 BC–9 AD)
Site of Hanyuan Hall of Daming Palace, Tang dynasty
Statues in the Imperial Tomb of Tang Emperor Gaozong
Xi'an in 1908
Statue of Lady Gongsun, a sword-dance master of the Tang Dynasty

Xi'an has rich and culturally significant history. The Lantian Man was discovered in 1963 in Lantian County, 50 km (31 mi) southeast of Xi'an, and dates back to at least 500,000 years before the present time. A 6,500-year-old Banpo Neolithic village was discovered in 1953 on the eastern outskirts of the city proper, which contains the remains of several well organized Neolithic settlements carbon dated to 5600–6700 years ago. The site is now home to the Xi'an Banpo Museum, built in 1957 to preserve the archaeological collection.

Xi'an: 11th century BC to 19th century AD

Xi'an became a cultural and political centre of China in the 11th century BC with the founding of the Zhou dynasty. The capital of Zhou was established in the twin settlements of Fengjing (丰京) and Haojing, together known as Fenghao, located southwest of contemporary Xi'an. The settlement was also known as Zhōngzhōu to indicate its role as the capital of the vassal states. In 770 BC, the capital was moved to Luoyang due to political unrest. Following the Warring States period, China was unified under the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) for the first time, with the capital located at Xianyang, just northwest of modern Xi'an. The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Terracotta Army and his mausoleum just to the east of Xi'an almost immediately after his ascension to the throne.

In 202 BC, the founding emperor Liu Bang of the Han dynasty established his capital in Chang'an County; his first palace, Changle Palace (長樂宮, perpetual happiness) was built across the river from the ruin of the Qin capital. This is traditionally regarded as the founding date of Chang'an, or Xi'an. Two years later, Liu Bang built Weiyang Palace (未央宮, (perpetual happiness) hasn't reached its midpoint yet) north of modern Xi'an. Weiyang Palace was the largest palace ever built on Earth, covering 4.8 square kilometres (1,200 acres), which is 6.7 times the size of the current Forbidden City, or 11 times the size of the Vatican City. The original Xi'an city wall was started in 194 BC and took 4 years to finish. Upon completion, the wall measured 25.7 km (15.97 mi) in length and 12 to 16 m (39.37–52.49 ft) in thickness at the base, enclosing an area of 36 km (13.90 sq mi). In the year 190, amidst uprisings and rebellions just prior to the Three Kingdoms Period, a powerful warlord named Dong Zhuo moved the court from Luoyang to Chang'an in a bid to avoid a coalition of other powerful warlords against him.

Following several hundred years of unrest, the Sui dynasty united China again in 582. The emperor of Sui ordered a new capital to be built southeast of the Han capital, called Daxing (大興, great prosperity). It consisted of three sections: the Imperial City, the palace section, and the civilian section, with a total area of 84 km (32 sq mi) within the city walls. At the time, it was the largest city in the world. The city was renamed Chang'an (長安, Perpetual Peace or Eternal Peace) by the Tang Dynasty. In the mid-7th century, after returning from his pilgrimage to India, Buddhist monk Xuanzang (popularly known as Tang Sanzang) established a translation centre for Sanskrit scriptures.

Construction of the Great Wild Goose Pagoda began in 652. This pagoda was 64 m (209.97 ft) in height, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras obtained from India by Xuanzang. In 707, construction of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda began. This pagoda measured 45 m (147.64 ft) tall at the time of completion, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras by Yijing. The massive 1556 Shaanxi earthquake eventually damaged the tower and reduced its height to 43.4 m (142.39 ft).

Chang'an was devastated at the end of the Tang dynasty in 904. Residents were forced to move to the new capital city in Luoyang. Only a small area in the city continued to be occupied thereafter. During the Ming dynasty, a new wall was constructed in 1370 and remains intact to this day. The wall measures 11.9 km (7.4 mi) in circumference, 12 m (39.37 ft) in height, and 15 to 18 m (49.21–59.06 ft) in thickness at the base; a moat was also built outside the walls. The new wall and moat would protect a much smaller city of 12 km (4.6 sq mi).

Xi'an: 20th century and after

In October 1911, during the revolution in which the Qing dynasty was overthrown, the Manchus living in the northeastern zone within the city walls were massacred. In 1936, the Xi'an Incident took place inside the city during the Chinese Civil War. The incident brought the Kuomintang (KMT) and Communist Party of China to a truce in order to concentrate on fighting against the Japanese Invasion. On May 20, 1949, the Communist-controlled People's Liberation Army captured the city of Xi'an from the Kuomintang force.

Xi'an: Geography and climate

Xi'an
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
6.9
5
−4
9.6
8
−1
29
14
4
43
21
10
60
26
14
54
31
19
99
32
22
71
31
21
92
25
16
60
20
10
24
12
3
5.8
6
−3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: China Meteorological Administration
Imperial conversion
J F M A M J J A S O N D
0.3
41
25
0.4
47
30
1.1
57
38
1.7
70
49
2.4
79
58
2.1
88
67
3.9
90
71
2.8
87
70
3.6
78
61
2.4
67
50
0.9
54
37
0.2
44
28
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Xi'an lies on the Guanzhong Plain in the south-central part of Shaanxi province, on a flood plain created by the eight surrounding rivers and streams. The city has an average elevation of 400 metres (1,312 ft) above sea level and an annual precipitation of 553 mm (21.8 in). The urban area of Xi'an is located at  / 34.267; 108.933. The Wei River provides potable water to the city.

The city borders the northern foot of the Qin Mountains (Qinling) to the south, and the banks of the Wei River to the north. Hua Shan, one of the five sacred Taoist mountains, is located 100 km (62 mi) away to the east of the city. Not far to the north is the Loess Plateau.

At the beginning of Han dynasty, Prime Minister Zhang Liang advised the emperor Liu Bang to choose Guanzhong as the capital of the Han dynasty: 'Guanzhong Plain, which is located behind Xiao Pass and Hangu Pass, connects Long (Gansu) and Shu (Sichuan). Land of thousands miles and rich in harvest can be found here, as if this place is belongs to the nation of the heaven.' (《关中左崤函,右陇蜀,沃野千里,此所谓金城千里,天府之国也》) Since then, Guanzhong is also known as the 'Nation of the Heaven'.

Xi'an: National Time Service Centre

The Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory was established in 1966. In 1975, according to the Geodetic Origin Report of the People's Republic of China, 'in order to avoid bias in the mensuration as much as possible, the Geodetic Origin would be in central mainland China.' Lintong (临潼), a town near Xi'an was chosen. Since 1986, Chinese Standard Time (CST) was set from NTSC. The NTSC in Lintong is 36 km (22 mi) away from Xi'an.

National Time Service Centre (NTSC), the Chinese Academy of Sciences is an institute which is mainly engaged in the service and research on time and frequency. NTSC takes charge of generating and maintaining the national standard time scale, disseminating the time and frequency signals. The autonomous standard time scales of universal time and atomic time and the dissemination techniques with LF radio and HF radio were established successively during the 1970s and 1980s, which meet all the requirements for different applications on the whole, such as the scientific researches, national economy, etc.

Xi'an: Climate

Xi'an has a temperate climate that is influenced by the East Asian monsoon, classified under the Köppen climate classification as situated on the borderline between a semi-arid climate (BSk) and humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The Wei River valley is characterised by hot, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and dry springs and autumns. Most of the annual precipitation is delivered from July to late October. Snow occasionally falls in winter but rarely settles for long. Dust storms often occur during March and April as the city rapidly warms up. Summer months also experience frequent but short thunderstorms. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from around the freezing mark in January to 27.0 °C (80.6 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 14.08 °C (57.3 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 31 percent in December to 47 percent in August, the city receives 1,536 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −20.6 °C (−5 °F) on 11 January 1955 to 41.8 °C (107 °F) on 21 June 1998. A highest record of 42.9 °C (109 °F) was registered in another station on 17 June 2006.

Xi'an: Demographics

Muslim Quarter in Xi'an

By the end of 2012, Xi'an had a population of 8.55 million. Compared to the census data from 2000, the population has increased by 656,700 persons from 7.41 million. The population is 51.66 percent male and 48.34 percent female. Among its districts, Yanta has the largest population, with 1.08 million inhabitants.

The majority of Xi'an residents are Han Chinese, who make up 99.1 percent of the city's total population. There are around 81,500 people belonging to ethnic minorities living in Xi'an, including 50,000 Hui people.

During World War II, Xi'an became a destination for many refugees from other provinces of China, especially neighboring Henan Province. Because Xi'an was far inland, the invading Japanese army only managed a few aerial assaults on the city. As a result, Xi'an suffered minimal destruction. After 1949, the national government tried to balance the development in different regions of China, and relocated a number of factories and universities from other cities to Xi'an. Modern Xi'an Jiaotong University was relocated from its original campus in Shanghai.

Breakdown of Xi'an population by district and county
Division Permanent residents Hukou residents
Total Percentage Population density (persons/km)
Xi'an City 8,467,837 100 838.66 7,827,260
Xincheng District 589,739 6.96 19,574.51 503,641
Beilin District 614,710 7.26 26,298.54 732,494
Lianhu District 698,513 8.25 18,226.61 640,911
Baqiao District 595,124 7.03 1,833.97 508,535
Weiyang District 806,811 9.53 3,051.39 516,968
Yanta District 1,178,529 13.92 7,782.38 793,103
Yanliang District 278,604 3.29 1,139.26 252,449
Lintong District 655,874 7.75 716.04 697,586
Chang'an District 1,083,285 12.79 681.94 980,803
Gaoling District 333,477 3.94 1,169.98 294,507
Huyi District 556,377 6.57 434.87 597,071
Lantian County 514,026 6.07 256.25 643,605
Zhouzhi County 562,768 6.65 191.08 665,587

Xi'an: Administrative divisions

The sub-provincial city of Xi'an has direct jurisdiction over 10 districts and 3 counties:

Map
Division code English Chinese Pinyin Area in km2 Seat Postal code Subdivisions
Subdistricts Towns Townships Residential communities Villages
610100 Xi'an 西安市 Xī'ān Shì 10,096.81 Weiyang District 710000 106 69 1 721 3025
610102 Xincheng District 新城区 Xīnchéng Qū 30.13 Xiyi Road Subdistrict
(西一路街道)
710000 9 104 1
610103 Beilin District 碑林区 Bēilín Qū 23.37 Zhangjiacun Subdistrict
(张家村街道)
710000 8 103
610104 Lianhu District 莲湖区 Liánhú Qū 38.32 Beiyuanmen Subdistrict
(北院门街道)
710000 9 127 5
610111 Baqiao District 灞桥区 Bàqiáo Qū 324.50 Fangzhicheng Subdistrict
(纺织城街道)
710000 9 37 223
610112 Weiyang District 未央区 Wèiyāng Qū 264.41 Zhangjiabao Subdistrict
(张家堡街道)
710000 10 93 181
610113 Yanta District 雁塔区 Yàntǎ Qū 151.44 Xiaozhai Road Subdistrict
(小寨路街道)
710000 8 117 92
610114 Yanliang District 阎良区 Yánliáng Qū 244.55 Fenghuang Road Subdistrict
(凤凰路街道)
710089 5 2 23 80
610115 Lintong District 临潼区 Líntóng Qū 915.97 Lishan Subdistrict
(骊山街道)
710600 23 38 284
610116 Chang'an District 长安区 Cháng'ān Qū 1,588.53 Weiqu Subdistrict
(韦曲街道)
710100 25 31 668
610117 Gaoling District 高陵区 Gāolíng Qū 285.03 Luyuan Subdistrict
(鹿苑街道)
710200 7 1 4 88
610125 Huyi District 鄠邑区 Hùyì Qū 1,279.42 Ganting Town
(甘亭镇)
710300 16 21 518
610122 Lantian County 蓝田县 Lántián Xiàn 2,005.95 Languan Town
(蓝关镇)
710500 22 9 519
610124 Zhouzhi County 周至县 Zhōuzhì Xiàn 2,945.20 Erqu Town
(二曲镇)
710400 22 14 376

Xi'an: Transportation

Xi'an Metro
Yongningmen Metro Station
Xi'an Railway Station
Xi'an North Railway Station
Bell Tower Underpass
Xi'an Xianyang International Airport

Xi'an has many areas that are easily accessible on foot. In many commercial, residential, educations zones in the city, especially in the shopping and entertainment districts around the Bell Tower, underpasses and overpasses have been built for the safety and convenience of pedestrians.

Electric bikes are popular among students and offer easy transportation in and around the city for many residents. Taxi services are numerous but many citizens of Xi'an still commute to work on one of about 280 bus routes. There are more than 2 million registered automobiles in Xi'an, so cars play a very important role in people's daily life, which also means frequent traffic jams.

Xi'an: Metro

Main article: Xi'an Metro

Currently the metro system is designed with six lines.

Line 2, running through the city from north (North Railway Station) to south (Weiqu Nan), was the first opened to the public on September 16, 2011. Operations began on 28 September 2011. This line is 19.9 kilometres (12.4 miles) long with 17 stations. Line 1 opened on 15 September 2013. As a west-east railway, its 19 stations connects Houweizhai and Fangzhicheng. Construction of Xi'an Metro's Line 3 broke ground in May 2011 and is set to finish in 2015.

The rest are planned to be finished around 2020. When completed, the system will span 251.8 km (156.5 mi); it will mainly service the urban and suburban districts of Xi'an municipality and part of Xianyang City.

The subway line covers some of the most famous attractions, such as Banpo Museum (Banpo Station, Line 1), Bell and Drum Tower (Line 2), City Wall (Line 2) and Shaanxi History Museum, etc.

On 30 December 2008, a fire accident occurred that was extinguished within an hour and all workers evacuated safely. Sixty six hours later, on 2 January, another fire occurred at another station on Line 2.

Xi'an: Taxi

Taxis in Xi'an are predominantly BYD Auto made in Xi'an. Most, if not all, taxis in Xi'an run on compressed natural gas. For the taxis' fare, during the 06:00-23:00,¥9/2 kilometres (1.2 miles) for the fare fall and ¥2.3/Km later, at night ¥10 for the fare fall and ¥2.7/Km later.

Xi'an: Rail

There are 6 passenger transport railway stations in Xi'an. Xi'an Railway Station, located just north of Xi'an walled city, is one of the eight major national railway stations, and the main railway transportation hub of Shaanxi Province. The new Xi'an North Railway Station, situated a few miles to the north, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway. With 34 platforms, it is the largest railway station in Northwest China. Construction of the station began on September 19, 2008. The station was opened on January 11, 2011. As of May 2012, Xi'an North Station is served only by the fast (G-series and D-series) trains running on the Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway; one of them continues south to Hankou. The city's other stations include Xi'an West, Xi'an East, Xi'an South, Sanmincun, and Fangzhicheng railway stations.

Xi'an Railway Station covers 597,000 square metres (6,430,000 square feet), has 5 passenger platforms, and 24 tracks. It provides 112 services to 80 000 people daily. Among the destinations served by direct trains from Xi'an are Beijing, Zhengzhou, Lanzhou, Baoji, and Mount Hua. China Railway High-speed 2 now run an express services from Xi'an to Baoji and Xi'an to Zhengzhou; with a total running time to Baoji of under 90 minutes, and 2 hours to Zhengzhou. The Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway also serves Xi'an. Construction work began on September 25, 2005, the railway opened for service on February 6, 2010. The railway has made air service between Zhengzhou and Xi'an uncompetitive. All passenger flights between the two cities were suspended within 48 days of start of regular high-speed rail service.

Xi'an: Expressways

Xi'an currently has three ring road systems, the Second Ring road and the Third Ring road which encircle the city. These ring roads are similar to freeways, except where there are traffic signals on the Second Ring road.

As a tourist city, Xi'an has built expressways to Lintong, Tongchuan and Baoji, with well-maintained roads to famous scenic spots in suburban counties and to the north slope of the Qin Mountains. Since its construction in September 2007, the Xi'an–Hanzhong Expressway connects Hanzhong and Xi'an through the Qinling.

  • China National Highway 210
  • China National Highway 211
  • China National Highway 312

Xi'an: Air

Xi'an Xianyang International Airport (airport code: XIY) is the major airport serving the city and it is the largest airport in the northwestern part of China. It is 41 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Xi'an city centre, and 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) northeast of the centre of Xianyang. China Eastern Airlines, Hainan Airlines and China Southern Airlines are the main airlines using the airport. Terminal 3 and the second runway were opened on 3 May 2012.

International Routes: There are direct flights from Xi'an to many major cities in Asia, including Bangkok, Busan, Fukuoka, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Osaka, Sapporo, Singapore and Seoul and Taipei. First direct route between Xi'an and Europe was launched by Finnair on 14 June 2013. There are 3 three frequencies per week via Helsinki hub to many major cities in Europe during the summer season. United Airlines begun non-stop service to San Francisco since May, 2016.

Germany's Fraport, the operator of Frankfurt Airport, has paid 490 million yuan to obtain a 24.5 percent stake in the Xianyang International Airport, offering opportunities to upgrade and expand the facility.

Figures along the Airport Express highway leading to Xi'an Xianyang International Airport
  • On 6 June 1994, China Northwest Airlines Flight 2303 broke up in mid-air and crashed near Xi'an, en route to Guangzhou from Xian. A maintenance error was responsible. All 160 people on board died. As of 2016, it remains the deadliest airplane crash ever to occur in mainland China.

Xi'an: Culture

A typical Chinese pavilion located in Xi'an
Traditional Chinese musical performances at Xi'an
Yangrou Paomo, a well-known Xi'an cuisine

The culture of Xi'an descends from one of the world's earliest civilizations. The Guanzhong Ren (simplified Chinese: 关中人; traditional Chinese: 關中人; pinyin: Guānzhōng rén) culture is considered the cultural antecedent of Xi'anese; their features are satirized as the "Ten Strangenesses of Guanzhong Ren" (simplified Chinese: 关中十大怪; traditional Chinese: 關中十大怪; pinyin: Guānzhōng shí dà guài). Xi'an is also known for the "Eight Great Sights of Chang'an" (simplified Chinese: 长安八景; traditional Chinese: 長安八景; pinyin: Cháng'ān bājǐng), a collection of scenic areas in the region.

Much like Beijing 798 and Shanghai 1933, Xi'an has an art district called Textile Town (Chinese: 纺织城; pinyin: Fǎngzhī chéng). The district is not an actual town but derives its name from the many textile factories built there since the 1950s. Today it is no longer a centre for the textile industry but a new art factory with 4 workshops in total. Since March 2007, more than 40 artists have taken a part in these workshops.

Xi'an is home to contemporary Chinese stars such as Xu Wei, Zhang Chu and Zheng Jun. The ancient folk genre Xi'an guyue is named for Xi'an.

Paomo yangrou (flat bread soaked in lamb soup; simplified Chinese: 羊肉泡馍; traditional Chinese: 羊肉泡饃; pinyin: Yángròu pàomó) is well known Xi'anese dish.

Xi'an: Opera

Qinqiang (Voice of Qin) is the oldest and most extensive of the four major types of Chinese opera. Also called "random pluck" (Chinese: 乱弹; pinyin: Luàntán), Qinqiang is the main type of drama in Shaanxi province. As the earliest ancestor of Beijing Opera, Yu Opera, Chuan Opera and Hebei Opera, Qinqiang has developed its own system of unique vocal music, spoken parts, facial makeup, posture, role, category and acting. It can be traced to Xi Qinqiang (Chinese: 西秦腔; pinyin: Xi qínqiāng; literally: "Voice of West Qin") in Qin dynasty, and blossomed until Qing dynasty, with direct influences on many branches of Chinese Opera.

Xi'an: Cinema

Zhang Yimou and Gu Changwei are directors from Xi'an. Zhang Yimou is also the only city in China to win the Golden Bear (Berlin Film Festival) twice. The first film is Red Sorghum and the second one is Tuya's Marriage. They are produced by Xi'an Filmmaking Factory (now called Xi'an Qujiang Filmmaking Group) and Xi'an Filmmaking Company, respectively.

Xi'an: Religion

Xi'an: Chinese traditional religion and Taoism

A pavilion of the City God Temple of Xian.

The most influential religions in Xi'an are the Chinese traditional religion and Taoist schools, represented by many major and minor temples. Among these there are a City God Temple, completely reconstructed in the 2010s, and a Temple of Confucius.

Xi'an: Buddhism

Chinese Buddhist nuns and laywomen at a temple in Xi'an.

Buddhism has a large presence in the city, with temples of the Chinese and Tibetan schools.

Xi'an: Christianity

See also: Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Xi'an

The first recorded Christian missionary in China was Alopen, a Syriac-speaker, who arrived in Xi'an (then known as Chang'an) in 635 along the Silk Road. The Nestorian Stele, now located in Xi'an's Beilin Museum, is a Tang Chinese stele erected in 781 that documents the 150 years of early Christianity in China following Alopen. It is a 279-centimetre-tall (110-inch) limestone block with text in both Chinese and Syriac describing the existence of Christian communities in several cities in northern China. The Daqin Pagoda, a Buddhist pagoda in Zhouzhi County of Xi'an, has been suggested to have originally been a Nestorian Christian church from the Tang Dynasty.

In Xi'an there was formerly a Baptist mission from England. The Baptist missionaries ran a hospital. In 1892, Arthur Gostick Shorrock and Moir Duncan founded the Sianfu Mission, in present-day Xi'an.

Xi'an: Islam

Xi'an was the first city in China to be introduced to Islam. Emperor Gaozong of the Tang dynasty officially allowed the practice of Islam in 651 AD. Xi'an has a large Muslim community, the significant majority are from the Hui group, there are an estimated 50,000 Hui Muslims in Xi’an. There are seven mosques in Xi'an, the best known being the Great Mosque.

Xi'an: Economy

Erhuan Road of Xi'an

As part of the China Western Development policy, Xi’an became a major target for accelerated attention. From 1997 to 2006, the industrial output value of Xi’an’s service industry increased at an annual average rate of 13.74 percent, compared to traditional service industries of 0.74 percent, representing a growth from US$8.113 billion to US$25.85 billion. Xi'an is the largest economy of the Shaanxi province, with a GDP of 324.1 billion Yuan in 2010. On average this value increases by 14.5 percent annually, and accounts for approximately 41.8 percent of Shaanxi's total GDP. At least fifty-eight countries have established over 2,560 enterprises in Xian, including nineteen of the Fortune 500 enterprises. These include ABB Group, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Toshiba, Fujitsu, Coca-Cola, and Boeing.

Important industries include equipment manufacturing, tourism, and service outsourcing. The manufacturing industry had an annual output of RMB 36.5 billion, accounting for 44.5 percent of the city's total. Furthermore, as one of China's four ancient capitals, Xi'an's many cultural sites, including the Terracotta Army, the City Wall of Xi'an, and the Famen Temple, make tourism an important industry as well. In 2010, 52 million domestic tourists visited Xi'an, earning a total income of RMB 40.52 billion. On average, revenue increases by 36.4 percent per year, and foreign-exchange earnings (530 million in 2009) increase by around 35.8 percent.

Xi'an is also one of the first service outsourcing cities in China, with over 800 corporations in the industry. The city's output value from this sector exceeded RMB 23 billion in 2008. Employment in the sector doubled from 1997–2006, from a base of 60,000, and computer consulting also doubled from 16,000 to 32,000. As a result of the importance of the software-outsourcing industry, the city planned construction of a Software New Town, which is scheduled to be completed in 2015 with 30 billion RMB investment. Other major export goods include lighting equipment and automobile parts, while its major import goods are mechanical and electrical products. Internationally, Xi'an's largest trade partner is the United States.

Xi'an is part of the West Triangle Economic Zone, along with Chengdu and Chongqing.

Xi'an: Industrial zones

Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone

Major industrial zones in Xi'an include:

  • Xi'an Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone

a daily average of 3.7 technology enterprises established in Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone in the year of 2005,from XINHUANET.com 7/28/2005 Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone has more than 16,000 enterprises which ranked second place in all the 88 hi-tech ZONES in China, achieved a total revenue of 522.223 billion yuan. It is worth mentioning that 13 enterprise's annual income is over a hundred billion yuan, 19 enterprise's annual income more than 50 billion, more than 265 enterprise earns over billion yuan each year, Listed companies at home and abroad have accumulated 50, of which the domestic A-share market issued 21 of them, accounting for more than 60% of the province; 4 GEM listed companies, ranking first in the Midwest high-tech zones.

Xi'an: Software and outsourcing industries

The growing economy of Xi'an supports the development of a software industry, and the city is a pioneer in software industry in China.

A Silicon.com article describes Xi'an: "But Xi'an is selling on its own merits-with a large pool of cheap human resources from the 100 universities in the area, it hoovers up around 3,000 computer graduates every year, each earning approximately $120 a month-half the wages for the equivalent job in Beijing."

Xi'an: Aerospace industry

In November 2006, Xi'an and the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation jointly set up Xi'an Aerospace Science and Technology Industrial Base. From its establishment, the base has focused on the development of the civil space industry, including equipment manufacturing, software and service outsourcing, new materials and solar photovoltaics.

Apart from the core area, the base will cover Xi'an and the Guanzhong area and the expansion zone will reach other parts of Northwest China and Southwest China. It is expected that by 2012 the total industry output can reach 2.8 billion us dollars with about 10 to 20 brand products with intellectual property rights and 5 to 8 products with global competitiveness.

In 2008, after the launch of the initial aerospace centre in Shanghai, the PRC is constructing another civil aerospace centre in the Shaanxi province. The State Development and Reform Commission approved the planning of Xi'an National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base on December 26, 2007. The National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base of Xi'an, set to cover 23 km (8.9 sq mi), will focus on developing satellites, new materials, energies, IT and other technologies for civil applications.

Xi'an: Notable businessmen

Zhang Chaoyang (张朝阳), the CEO of SOHU (Nasdaq), born and raised in Xi'an, is a prominent leader in the Chinese Internet industry. Liu Chuanzhi, the founder and president of Lenovo Group Limited, completed his tertiary degree from Xidian University in the 1960s.

Xi'an: Education

Further information: List of universities in China

Xi'an: Public

Xi'an Jiaotong University
  • Xi'an Jiaotong University (西安交通大学)
  • Northwestern Polytechnical University (西北工业大学)
  • Xidian University (西安电子科技大学)
  • Chang'an University (长安大学)
  • Northwest University(西北大学)
  • Northwest University of Political Science and Law (西北政法大学)
  • Shaanxi Pre-school Normal University (陕西学前师范学院)
  • Shaanxi Normal University (陕西师范大学)
  • Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts (西安美术学院)
  • Xi'an Conservatory of Music (西安音乐学院)
  • Xi'an Institute of Post & Telecommunications (西安邮电大学)
  • Xi'an International Studies University(西安外国语大学)
  • Xi'an Physical Education Institute (西安体育学院)
  • Xi'an Polytechnic University(西安理工大学)
  • Xi'an Petroleum University(西安石油大学)
  • Xi'an Technological University (西安工业大学)
  • Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology(西安建筑科技大学)
  • Xi'an University of Arts and Science(Xi‘an University) (西安文理学院)
  • Xi'an University of Finance and Economics (西安财经学院)
  • Xi'an University of Science and Technology(西安科技大学)
  • Xi'an University of Technology (西安理工大学)

Xi'an: Military

  • Air Force Engineering University (空军工程大学)
  • The Fourth Military Medical University(第四军医大学)
  • PLA Rocket Force University of Engineering (解放军火箭军工程大学)
  • (PLA) Xi'an Telecommunication College (西安通信学院)

Xi'an: Private

  • Xi'an Innovation College of Yan'an University (延安大学西安创新学院)
  • Shaanxi Institute of International Commerce (陕西国际学院)
  • Xi'an Eurasia University (西安欧亚学院)
  • Xi'an Fanyi University (西安翻译学院)
  • Xi'an International University (西安外事学院)
  • Xi'an Peihua University (西安培华学院)
  • Xi'an Siyuan University (西安思源学院)

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

See also: List of universities in China

Xi'an: International events

Xi'an: World Horticultural Expo 2011

Xi’an was chosen to host the 2011 World Horticultural Exposition by the Association of International Producers of Horticulture (AIPH) at its 59th congress, held in Brighton, United Kingdom on September 4, 2007. The 2011 World Horti-Expo was held from April 28 to October 28, 2011. The exhibition was located in a new district of the city, Chanba district, and was expected to bring some 10 million visitors to Xi’an.

Xi'an: Tourism

Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
Bell Tower
Drum Tower
Ming dynasty city wall
The Great Mosque of Xi'an
Reconstructed Danfeng Gate in Daming Palace National Heritage Park
Shaanxi History Museum
Pit in underground museum of Han Yang Ling, Mausoleum of Han Emperor Jingdi
Mount Taibai National Forest Park

The number of travelers is often greater during Summer (May–August), although the most pleasant season for visiting Xi'an is Autumn.

Xi'an: Sites

Because of the city's many historical monuments and a plethora of ancient ruins and tombs in the vicinity, tourism has been an important component of the local economy, and the Xi'an region is one of the most popular tourist destinations in China.

The city has many important historical sites, and some are ongoing archaeological projects, such as the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and his Terracotta Army. There are several burial mounds, tombs of the Zhou dynasty kings located in the city. Xi'an also contains some 800 royal mausoleums and tombs from the Han dynasty, with some of them yielding hundreds of sculpted clay soldiers, and remains of sacrificial temples from the Han era. The city has numerous Tang dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum and its stele forest, which is housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from various dynasties.

Some of the most well-known sites in Xi'an are:

  • The city is surrounded by a well-preserved city wall which was re-constructed in the 14th century during the early Ming dynasty and was based on the inner imperial palace of Tang dynasty.
  • The Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and his Terracotta Army are located 40 km (25 mi) to the east of the city centre, in the city's suburbs.
  • The Bell Tower and Drum Tower, both are located at the city's central axis.
  • The city's Muslim quarter, which is home to the Great Mosque of Xi'an.
  • The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda and Small Wild Goose Pagoda are both spectacular towers and both are well over 1,000 years old and have survived great earthquakes. The former is next to a large square with the largest fountain in Asia which projects water high into the air, rising and falling in time to music during one of the daily performances (usually at noon and soon after sunset). They protected Buddhist writings in the past.
  • The Stele Forest is famous for its numerous historic inscriptions and stoneworks
  • The Famen Temple and its towering pagoda located 120 kilometres (75 miles) west of Xi'an
  • Xi Ming Temple
  • Wolong Temple at Kaitong lane
  • Xingjiao Temple at Shaolin Yuan (where Xuanzang's Tomb lies)
  • Jianfu Temple
  • Blue Dragon Temple
  • Wangji Temple
  • The Banpo Neolithic village is located on the outskirt of the city proper
  • The Shaanxi History Museum has a large collection of artifacts both modern and ancient.
  • Mount Zhongnan (终南山)
  • Mount Li
  • Huaqing Hot Springs, at the foot of Mt. Li, have a history of 6,000 years, the adjacent Huaqing Palace has a history of 3,000 years. Ranked among the Hundred Famous Gardens in China, it also has the status as a National Cultural Relic Protection Unit and a National Key Scenic Area.
  • Daming Palace National Heritage Park, site of the former royal residence of the Tang dynasty emperors

Xi'an: Museums

  • Terracotta Army Museum
  • Shaanxi History Museum
  • Stele Forest
  • Xi'an Museum (located next to the Small Wild Goose Pagoda). On October 20, 2006, international council of monuments sites (ICOMOS) international protection centre (IICC) was formally established here.

Xi'an: National parks

  • Mount Cuihua National Geological Park (翠华山国家地质公园)
  • Chanba National Wetland Park (浐灞国家湿地公园)
  • Daming Palace National Heritage Park
  • Mount Li National Forest Park
  • Mount Wangshun National Forest Park (王顺山国家森林公园)
  • Mount Zhongnan National Forest Park
  • Hei He National Forest Park (黑河国家森林公园)
  • Louguantai National Forest Park (楼观台国家森林公园)
  • Taiping National Forest Park (太平国家森林公园)
  • Zhuque National Forest Park (朱雀国家森林公园)

Xi'an: Sports

Cuju is a very old football game:

It was improved during the Tang dynasty (618–907). First of all, the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball with a two-layered hull. Also, two different types of goalposts emerged: One was made by setting up posts with a net between them and the other consisted of just one goal post in the middle of the field. Chang'an was filled with cuju football fields, in the backyards of large mansions, and some were even established in the grounds of the palaces. The level of female cuju teams also improved. Records indicate that once a 17-year-old girl beat a team of army soldiers. Cuju football became popular among the scholars and intellectuals, and if a courtier lacked skill in the game, he could pardon himself by acting as a scorekeeper.

Professional sports teams in Xi'an include:

  • Chinese Pingpong Association Super League
    • Shaanxi Galaxy (陕西银河)

Former Professional sports teams in Xi'an:

  • Chinese Jia-A League
    • Shaanxi Guoli F.C. (陕西国力)
      • Team dissolved in 2005
  • Chinese Football Association Super League
    • Shaanxi Renhe Commercial Chanba F.C. (陕西人和商业浐灞)
      • Team moved to Guizhou for the 2012 Chinese Super League season.
  • Chinese Basketball Association
    • Shaanxi Dongsheng (陕西东盛)
      • Team moved to Foshan and renamed themselves Foshan Dralions in 2010.

Xi'an is also the Chinese Boxing training base for the national team.

Xi'an: Media

Xi'an: Television and radio

  • China Central Television's channel 1 through 12 is broadcast nationwide.
  • Shaanxi Television (SXTV) provincial station, broadcasts on eight channels as well as a satellite channel for other provinces.
  • Xi'an Television (XATV) municipal station, has six channels for specialized programming.
  • Shaanxi Radio broadcasts music, news.
  • Xi'an Music Radio: FM 93.1, broadcasts music, news and talkshows.
  • Shaanxi Music Radio: Fm 98.8, broadcasts music, news and talkshows.

Xi'an: Printed media

  • Chinese Business View (华商报) is a popular daily newspaper.
  • Xi'an Evening News (Xi'an Wanbao) (西安晚报), with a history of more than 50 years, is one of the oldest newspapers.
  • Sanqin Daily (三秦都市报) covers the news of Shaanxi Province.
  • Shaanxi Daily (陕西日报) covers the news of Shaanxi Province and Xi'an.

Xi'an: Online media

  • Xianease is a popular online and print magazine in Xi'an.

Xi'an: International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China

Xi'an's twin towns and sister cities are:

  • Japan Nara, Kansai, Japan (1974)
  • Japan Kyoto, Kansai, Japan (1974)
  • Scotland Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom(1985)
  • France Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Aquitaine, France (1986)
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  • Germany Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (1991)
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  • Greece Athens, Greece
  • Greece Kalamata, Greece (2009)
  • United Kingdom Birmingham, England, United KIngdom
  • Peru Cusco, Peru
  • Australia Hobart, Tasmania, Australia (2015)
  • Armenia Gyumri, Armenia (2013)
  • New Zealand Taupo, New Zealand
  • Netherlands Groningen, The Netherlands (2011)
  • United Kingdom Bury St Edmunds, England, United Kingdom
  • Malaysia George Town, Penang, Malaysia (2014)

Xi'an: See also

  • Historical capitals of China
  • Chang'an

Xi'an: Notes and references

  1. "Xi'an". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
  2. It is also called "Sianfu" by many Western authors of the early 20th century. For example, the Catholic Archdiocese of Xian used to be called the Vicariate Apostolic of Sianfu. Adolf S. Waley, The Re-making of China, New York: E.P. Dutton and Company, 1914.
  3. "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
  4. "Xi'an". Encarta. 1993-2008. September 3, 2008. Archived from the original on February 28, 2008.
  5. "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号". 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
  6. "西安市2015年国民经济和社会发展统计公报". http://www.xatj.gov.cn/. Retrieved 2016-05-12. External link in |website= (help)
  7. "4-5各市、县(市、区)常住人口(2013-2014年)-tjsql.com". www.tjsql.com. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
  8. "最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查)". www.elivecity.cn. 2012. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
  9. Supersized cities: China’s 13 megalopolises
  10. Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian 中国古今地名大词典, 2005. (Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe), 1540.
  11. Yang, Xiaoping (2010). "Changing Climates, Earth Systems and Society": 177. ISBN 978-90-481-8715-7. |chapter= ignored (help)
  12. Stark, Miriam T (2008-04-15). "East Asian plant domestication". Archaeology of Asia. pp. 77–95. ISBN 9781405153034.
  13. Fuller, Dorian Q; Qin, Ling; Harvey, Emma (2008). "A Critical Assessment of Early Agriculture in East Asia, with emphasis on Lower Yangzte Rice Domestication" (PDF). Pragdhara: 17–52.
  14. Meng, Y; Zhang, HQ; Pan, F; He, ZD; Shao, JL; Ding, Y (2011). "Prevalence of dental caries and tooth wear in a Neolithic population (6700-5600 years BP) from northern China". Archives of oral biology. 56 (11): 1424–35. doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.04.003. PMID 21592462.
  15. "Banpo Museum in Xi'an". chinamuseums.com. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  16. Third scroll of the Chang'an Annals (长安志) interpreted by Huangfu Mi in his Age of Kings (book) (帝王世紀)
  17. "China's six major historical capitals - Xi'an's cultural history". Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  18. Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian 中国古今地名大词典, 2005. (Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe), 2134.
  19. O. Louis Mazzatenta. "Emperor Qin's Terracotta Army". National Geographic.
  20. The precise coordinates are  / 34.38500; 109.27306 (Qin Shi Huang mausoleum))
  21. "Weiyang Palace: the Largest Palace Ever Built on Earth".
  22. "History of Xi'an" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  23. Kiang, 12.
  24. Ernest Frank Borst-Smith, Caught in the Chinese Revolution: a record of risks and rescue. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1912.
  25. Guo Rugui,中国抗日战争正面战场作战记 ,第二部分:从“九一八”事变到西安事变 绥远抗战的巨大影响和军事上的经验
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  27. 《史记·留侯世家》
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  29. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  30. "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  31. 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. June 2011. Archived from the original on July 16, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
  32. "西安人口 (Xi'an population)". City of Xi'an, in Chinese. Archived from the original on March 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
  33. "西安市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报" (in Chinese). Xi'an Evening News (西安晚报). 25 May 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  34. People's Republic of China County-level Division Population Statistics (《中华人民共和国全国分县市人口统计资料2010》).
  35. 国家统计局统计用区划代码 Archived index at the Wayback Machine.
  36. 《贵阳统计年鉴2011》
  37. 《中国民政统计年鉴2011》
  38. 小雪, 翟 (2014-07-04). "西安机动车数量突破200万辆". 西安晚报.
  39. 西安地铁二号线开通 西安迈入"地铁时代" [Xi'an Metro line brings Xi'an into the "metro era"]. China National Radio (in Chinese). Beijing. September 16, 2006.
  40. "Xi'an Subway Line 2 to begin trial runs on September 28". Global Times. June 29, 2011. Archived from the original on October 16, 2012.
  41. "市政府召开西安地铁开通试运营新闻发布会". 2011-09-16. Archived from the original on November 14, 2011. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
  42. "Xi'an Subway Line 3 Breaks New Ground". eChinacities.com. May 19, 2011.
  43. "Xian: the Building of Subway to Start This Year". Travel China Guide. September 14, 2006. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014.
  44. "Xi'an Transportation" ChinaTour.Net Accessed 2014-12-4
  45. "Subway Collapse Kills Two in Xi'an". CRIENGLISH.com. China Radio International. August 3, 2009.
  46. "Growth to continue". Railway Gazette International. DVV Media UK. March 3, 2011.
  47. Tang Ru (September 20, 2008). 郑西客运专线西安北站将建成大型综合交通枢纽中心 [Zhengzhou to Xi'an: Xi'an North Passenger Station will be a large-scale transport hub]. China Railway Network (in Chinese). www.railcn.net Corporation.
  48. 西安北列车时刻表 Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. - Xi'an North train schedule
  49. Zhengzhou-Xi'an high-speed train starts operation. China Daily. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved February 6, 2010].
  50. High-speed rail linking central, western China starts operation. iStockAnalyst. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved February 6, 2010].
  51. High-speed train debuts in W. China. CCTV. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved February 6, 2010].
  52. China express train forces airlines to stop flights. 03-26-2010 [Retrieved 03-28-2010]. Reuters.
  53. "陕西年鉴1992" [Shaanxi Yearbook 1992]. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014.
  54. Xian Airport opens new terminal building with strong focus on retail growth
  55. News report from the New York Times.
  56. News report from the Kingston Gleaner. NewspaperArchive.com
  57. Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
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  59. Xu Wei to rock fans in grand concert. Shenzhen Daily. 2005-07-05 [Retrieved 2014-05-28]. China Daily.
  60. "陕西小吃-羊肉泡馍". News.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
  61. "China promove programas diversificados durante o Festival da Primavera". China Radio International. February 8, 2008. Retrieved November 17, 2010. (English)
  62. "Chinese opera The First Emperor transmitted live into theaters worldwide". People's Daily. January 14, 2007. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
  63. Yuet Chau, Adam (2006). Miraculous response: doing popular religion in contemporary China. Stanford University Press. p. 53. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
  64. Hill, Henry, ed (1988). Light from the East: A Symposium on the Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian Churches. Toronto, Canada. pp. 108–109
  65. Martin Palmer, The Jesus Sutras: Rediscovering the Lost Religion of Taoist Christianity, Buy book ISBN 0-7499-2250-8, 2001
  66. Fleming, Peter (1936) News from Tartary. London: Jonathan Cape; pp. 46–48
  67. Shorrock, Arthur Gostick (1926). Shensi in Sunshine and Shade. Shanghai: Presbyterian Mission Press.
  68. "Duncan Papers (Mundus Gateway to missionary collections in the United Kingdom)". Angus Library, Regents Park College.
  69. Burt, Ernest Whitby (1925). Fifty Years in China: The Story of the Baptist Mission in Shantung, Shansi, and Shensi, 1875-1925. London: The Carey Press.
  70. Glover, Richard (1914). Herbert Stanley Jenkins, medical missionary, Shensi, China: with some notices of the work of the Baptist Missionary Society in that country (1914). London: Carey Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-524-07100-4.
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  72. 中国七大中心城市人口资源大调查 "Population survey of the seven central cities of China", Zhang Zhizhong, National Family Planning Commission
  73. Mosques in Xian from www.muslim2china.com
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  81. Bureau of Commerce of Xi'an Municipal Government Archived October 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  82. "Xi'an to Host World Horticultural Expo" China.org.cn
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  88. "SISTER CITY PARTNERSHIP OFFICIALLY FORMALIZED BETWEEN PENANG, MALAYSIA AND XI'AN, SHAANXI PROVINCE, CHINA". SEIA. 2014-10-27. Retrieved 2017-03-06.
  • Heng Chye Kiang. (1999). Cities of Aristocrats and Bureaucrats: The Development of Medieval Chinese Cityscapes. Singapore: Singapore University Press. Buy book ISBN 9971-69-223-6.
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  • Xi'an Government official website
  • Xi'an National Hi-tech Development Zone
  • Xian in history
Preceded by
Yin
Capital of China (as Hao)
1046 BC-771 BC
Succeeded by
Luoyang
Preceded by
Xianyang
Capital of China (as Chang'an)
206 BC-25
Succeeded by
Luoyang
Preceded by
Luoyang
Capital of China (as Chang'an)
190-196
Succeeded by
Xuchang
Preceded by
Jiankang
Capital of China (as Daxing)
581-618
Succeeded by
itself, as Chang'an
Preceded by
itself, as Daxing
Capital of China (as Chang'an)
618-907
Succeeded by
Kaifeng
Source of information: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. We're not responsible for the content of this article and your use of this information. Disclaimer
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