Model aircraft
A die cast Boeing 747-400 model

A model aircraft is a small sized unmanned aircraft or, in the case of a scale model, a replica of an existing or imaginary aircraft. Model aircraft are divided into two basic groups: flying and non-flying. Non-flying models are also termed static, display, or shelf models.

Flying models range from simple toy gliders made of card stock or foam polystyrene to powered scale models made from materials such as balsa wood, bamboo, plastic, styrofoam, carbon fiber, or fiberglass and are skinned with tissue paper or mylar covering. Some can be very large, especially when used to research the flight properties of a proposed full scale design.

Static models range from mass-produced toys in white metal or plastic to highly accurate and detailed models produced for museum display and requiring thousands of hours of work. Many models are available in kit form, typically made of injection-moulded polystyrene.

Aircraft manufacturers and researchers also make wind tunnel models not capable of free flight, used for testing and development of new designs. Sometimes only part of the aircraft is modelled.

Model aircraft: Static models for display

Model aircraft
Fokker F28 static desk model.

Static model aircraft (i.e. those not intended to fly) are scale models built using plastic, wood, metal, paper, fiberglass or any other suitable material. Some static models are scaled for use in wind tunnels, where the data acquired is used to aid the design of full scale aircraft.

Models are available that have already been built and painted; models that require construction, painting and gluing; or models that have been painted but need to be clipped together.

Model aircraft: Promotional use

Model aircraft
A collection of model airliners in 1:200 scale.

Most of the world's airlines allow their fleet aircraft to be modelled as a form of publicity. In the early days, airlines would order large models of their aircraft and supply them to travel agencies as a promotional item.

In addition, airlines and airplane makers hand out desktop model airplanes to airport, airline and government officials as a way of promoting their airline, celebrating a new route or an achievement. Puerto Rico governor Alejandro García Padilla, for example, has models of JetBlue, Lufthansa, Avianca, and Seaborne Airlines which were given to him by those airlines after starting or increasing flights to San Juan during his tenure.

Model aircraft
A Lufthansa Focke-Wulf model on display.

Model aircraft: Scale

Model aircraft
Alaska Airlines plane model on the 1:100 scale

Static model aircraft are primarily available commercially in a variety of scales from as large as 1:18 scale to as small as 1:1250 scale. Plastic model kits requiring assembly and painting are primarily available in 1:144, 1:72, 1:50, 1:48, 1:32, and 1:24 scale, often depending on the size of the original subject. Die-cast metal models (pre-assembled and factory painted) are primarily available in 1:400, 1:200, 1:72, 1:600, 1:500, 1:300, 1:250, and 1:48. A variety of odd scales (e.g. 1:239) are also available, but less common.

Scales are not usually random, but are based upon simple divisions of either the Imperial system, or the Metric system. For example, 1:48 scale is 1/4" to 1-foot (or 1" to 4 feet) and 1:72 is 1" to 6 feet, while metric scales are simpler, such as 1:100th, which equals 1 centimeter to 1 meter. 1:72 scale was first introduced in the Skybirds wood and metal model aircraft kits in 1932. Skybirds was followed closely by Frog which produced 1:72 scale aircraft in 1936 under the "Frog Penguin" name. According to Fine Scale Modeler magazine, 1:72 was also popularized by the US War Department during the Second World War when it requested models of single engine aircraft at that scale. The War Department also requested models of multi-engine aircraft at a scale of 1:144. The War Department was hoping to educate Americans in the identification of aircraft. These scales provided the best compromise between size and detail. After WWII, manufacturers continued to favor these scales, however kits are commonly available in 1:48, 1:35, 1:32, and 1:24 scales. The French firm Heller SA is one of the few manufacturer to offer models in the scale of 1:125, while 1:50th and 1:100th are more common in Japan and France which both use Metric. Herpa and others produce promotional models for airlines in scales including 1:200, 1:400, 1:500, 1:600, 1:1000 and more. A few First World War aircraft were offered at 1:28 by Revell, such as the Fokker Dr.I and Sopwith Camel.

A number of manufacturers have made 1:18th scale aircraft to go with cars of the same scale. Aircraft scales have commonly been different from the scales used for military vehicles, figures, cars, and trains. For example, a common scale for early military models was 1:76, whereas companies such as Frog were producing aircraft with a scale of 1:72. Recently military vehicles have adapted to the aircraft standards of 1:72. This has resulted in a substantial amount of duplication of the more famous subjects in a large variety of sizes, which while useful for forced perspective box dioramas has limited the number of possible subjects to those that are more well known.

Less produced scales include 1:64 (better known as S-Gauge or "American Flyer Scale"), 1:96, and 1:128. Many older plastic models do not conform to any established scale as they were sized to fit inside standard commercially available boxes, leading to the term "Box Scale" to describe them. When reissued, these kits retain their unusual scales.

Model aircraft: Materials

The most common form of manufacture for kits is injection molded polystyrene plastic, using carbon steel molds. Today, this takes place mostly in China, Taiwan, the Philippines, South Korea, and Eastern Europe. Injection molding allows a high degree of precision and automation not available in the other manufacturing processes used for models but the molds are expensive and require large production runs to cover the cost of making them. Smaller and cheaper runs can be done with cast copper molds, and some companies do even smaller runs using cast resin or rubber molds, but the durability is of a lower standard than carbon steel and labour costs are higher.

Specialized kits cast in resin are available from companies such as Anigrand, Collect Aire, CMK, CMR, and Unicraft, made in molds similar to those used for limited run plastic kits, but usually not as durable, hence the much smaller numbers of each kit that are made, and their higher price. Vacuum forming is another common alternative to injection molded kits but require more skill to assemble, and usually lack detail parts that must be supplied by the modeller. There is a handful of photo etched metal kits which allow a high level of detail but can be laborious to assemble, and lack the ability to replicate certain shapes.

Scale models can be made from paper (normal or heavy) or card stock. Commercial models are printed by publishers mainly based in Germany or Eastern Europe. Card models are also distributed through the internet, and several are offered this way for free. Card model kits are not limited to just aircraft, with kits being available for all types of vehicles, buildings, computers, firearms and animals.

From World War I through the 1950s, flying model airplanes were built from light weight bamboo or balsa wood and covered with tissue paper. This was a difficult, time consuming process that mirrored the actual construction of airplanes through the beginning of World War II. The Cleveland Model and Supply Corporation made the most complex, challenging kits, while Guillow's made simpler, relatively easy kits. Many model makers became adept at creating models from drawings of the actual aircraft.

Ready-made models (desk-top models) include those produced in fiberglass for travel agents and aircraft manufacturers, as well as collectors models made from die-cast metal, mahogany, resin and plastic.

Model aircraft: Flying models for sport (Aeromodeling)

Model aircraft
A free-flight hand-launched glider

Generally known collectively in all its forms as the sport and pastime of aeromodelling, some flying models resemble scaled down versions of full scale aircraft, while others are built with no intention of looking like real aircraft. There are also models of birds and flying dinosaurs. The reduced size affects the model's Reynolds number which determines how the air reacts when flowing past the model, and compared to a full sized aircraft the size of control surfaces needed, the stability and the effectiveness of specific airfoil sections may differ considerably requiring changes to the design.

Model aircraft: Control

Flying model aircraft are generally controlled through one of three methods

  • Free flight (F/F) model aircraft fly without external control from the ground. The aircraft must be set up before flight so that its control surfaces, and weight allow stable flight. Most free flying models are either unpowered gliders or rubber powered. This type of model pre-dates manned flight.
  • Control line (C/L) model aircraft use cables to tether a plane to a central point, either held by hand or to a pole. The aircraft is then flown around the point in circles. Usually two cables are used, one tethering the aircraft and one controlling the elevator.
  • Radio-controlled aircraft have a transmitter operated by the controller, sending signals to a receiver in the model which in turn actuates servos which manipulate the model's flight controls in a similar manner to a full sized aircraft. In traditional aircraft, the radio has directly controlled the servos. However, modern aircraft often use flight controlling computers to stabilize an aircraft or even to fly the aircraft autonomously. This is particularly the case with quadcopters.

Model aircraft: Construction

The construction of flying models differs from that of most static models as both weight and strength (and the resultant strength-to-weight ratio) are major considerations.

Flying models borrow construction techniques from full-sized aircraft although the use of metal is limited. These might consist of forming a frame using thin planks of a light wood such as balsa to duplicate the formers, longerons, spars, and ribs of a vintage full-size aircraft, or, on larger (usually powered) models where weight is less of a factor, sheets of wood, expanded polystyrene, and wood veneers may be employed. Regardless of the underlying structure, it is then skinned and subsequently doped to provide a smooth sealed surface. For light models, tissue paper is used. After it is applied, the paper is sprayed with a mist of water, which causes the paper to shrink when it dries. For larger models (usually powered and radio controlled) heat-curing or heat shrink covering plastic films or heat-shrinkable synthetic fabrics are applied to the model then heated using a hand held hair dryer, laundry iron or heat gun to tighten the material and adhere to the frame. Microfilm covering is used for the very lightest models and is made by bringing a wire loop up through water to pick up a thin plastic film on the surface made from a few drops of lacquer spread out over several square feet.

Model aircraft
Flying model of S.E.5a W.W.1 aircraft with foam flying surfaces, constructed from an E-flite ARF kit.

For a more mass market approach, "foamies," or aircraft injection-molded from lightweight foam (sometimes reinforced) have made indoor flight more accessible to hobbyists. Many require little more than attachment of the wing and landing gear.

Flying models can be assembled from kits, built from plans or made completely from scratch. A kit contains the necessary raw material, typically die- or laser-cut wood parts, some molded parts, plans, assembly instructions and has usually been tested. Plans are intended for the more experienced modeller, since the builder must make or find all the parts themselves. Scratch builders may draw their own plans, and source all the materials themselves. Any method may be labour-intensive, depending on the model in question.

To increase the hobby's accessibility to the inexperienced, vendors of model aircraft have introduced Almost Ready to Fly (ARF) designs which reduce the time and skills required. A typical ARF aircraft can be built in under 4 hours, versus 10–20 or more for a traditional kit. Ready To Fly (RTF) radio control aircraft are also available, however among traditionalists, RTF models are controversial as many consider model building integral to the hobby.

Model aircraft: Gliders

Gliders do not have an attached powerplant. Larger outdoor model gliders are usually radio-controlled gliders and hand-winched against the wind by a line attached to a hook under the fuselage with a ring, so that the line will drop when the model is overhead. Other methods include catapult-launching, using an elastic bungee cord. The newer "discus" style of wingtip hand-launching has largely supplanted the earlier "javelin" type of launch. Also using ground based power winches, hand-towing, and towing aloft using a second powered aircraft.

Gliders sustain flight through exploitation of the wind in the environment. A hill or slope will often produce updrafts of air which will sustain the flight of a glider. This is called slope soaring, and when piloted skillfully, radio controlled gliders can remain airborne for as long as the updraft remains. Another means of attaining height in a glider is exploitation of thermals, which are columns of warm rising air created by differences of temperature on the ground such as between an asphalt parking lot and a lake. Heated air rises, carrying the glider with it. As with a powered aircraft, lift is obtained by the action of the wings as the aircraft moves through the air, but in a glider, height is only gained by flying through air that is rising faster than the aircraft is sinking relative to the airflow.

Sailplanes are flown using thermal lift. As thermals can only be indirectly observed through the reaction of the aircraft to the invisible rising air currents, skill is required to find and stay in the thermals.

Hang gliders are composed of rigid frame from which the fabric skin is attached, much like a triangular sailboat sail. The payload (and crew) are suspended or hung from the frame, and control is exercised through the movement of the harness in opposition to a control frame,

Paragliders use a special type of steerable parachute for a wing. Control is exercised through lines that deform the trailing edge of the airfoil or the wing's end regions.

Walkalong gliders are lightweight model airplanes flown in the ridge lift produced by the pilot following in close proximity. In other words, the glider is slope soaring in the updraft of the moving pilot (see also Controllable slope soaring).

Model aircraft: Power sources

Powered models contain an onboard powerplant, a mechanism powering propulsion of the aircraft through the air. Electric motors and internal combustion engines are the most common propulsion systems, but other types include rocket, small turbine, pulsejet, compressed gas, and tension-loaded (twisted) rubber band devices.

Model aircraft: Rubber propulsion

An old method of powering free flight models is Alphonse Pénaud's elastic motor, essentially a long rubber band that is wound up prior to flight. It is the most widely used powerplant for model aircraft, found on everything from children's toys to serious competition models. The elastic motor offers extreme simplicity and survivability, but suffers from limited running time, and the fact that the initial high torque of a fully wound motor drops sharply before 'plateauing' to a more steady output, until finally declining as the final turns unwind. Using this torque curve efficiently is one of the challenges of competitive free-flight rubber flying, and variable-pitch propellers, differential wing and tailplane incidence and rudder settings, controlled by an on-board timeswitch, are among the means of managing this varying torque and there is usually a motor weight restriction in contest classes. Even so, a competitive model can achieve flights of nearly 1 hour.

Model aircraft: Gas propulsion

Stored compressed gas, typically carbon dioxide (CO2), can also power simple models in a way similar to filling a balloon and then releasing it.

A more sophisticated use of compressed CO2 is to power a piston expansion engine, which can turn a large, high-pitch propeller. These engines can incorporate speed controls and multiple cylinders, and are capable of powering lightweight scale radio-controlled aircraft. Gasparin and Modela are two recent makers of CO2 engines. CO2, like rubber, is known as "cold" power because it becomes cooler when running, rather than hotter as combustion engines and batteries do.

Steam, which is even older than rubber power, and like rubber, contributed much to aviation history, is now rarely used. In 1848, John Stringfellow flew a steam-powered model, in Chard, Somerset, England. Hiram Stevens Maxim later showed that steam can even lift a man into the air. Samuel Pierpont Langley built steam as well as internal combustion models that made long flights.

Baronet Sir George Cayley built, and perhaps flew, internal and external combustion gunpowder-fueled model aircraft engines in 1807, 1819, and 1850. These had no crank, working ornithopter-like flappers instead of a propeller. He speculated that the fuel might be too dangerous for manned aircraft.

Model aircraft: Internal combustion

Model aircraft
An internal combustion powered model aircraft

All internal combustion engines generate substantial noise (and engine exhaust) and require routine maintenance. In the "scale-R/C" community, glow-engines have long been the mainstay until recently.

For larger and heavier models, the most popular powerplant is the glow engine. Glow engines are fueled by a mixture of slow burning methanol, nitromethane, and lubricant (castor oil or synthetic oil), which is sold pre-mixed as glow-fuel. Glow-engines require an external starting mechanism; the glow plug must be electrically heated until its temperature can trigger fuel-ignition, upon which the engine's combustion-cycle becomes self-sustaining. The reciprocating action of the cylinders applies torque to a rotating crankshaft, which is the engine's primary power-output. (Some power is lost in the form of waste-heat.)

Model aircraft
Model Aircraft Engines

Vendors of model engines rate size in terms of engine displacement. Common sizes range from as small as 0.01 cubic inch (in) to over 1.0 in (0.16 cc–16 cc). Under ideal conditions, the smallest .01 engines can turn a 3.5 inches (8.9 cm) propeller at speeds over 30,000 rpm, while the typical larger (.40-.60 cubic inch) engine will turn at 10–14,000 rpm.

The simplest glow-engines operate on the two-stroke cycle. These engines are inexpensive, yet offer the highest power-to-weight ratio of all glow-engines, but can often generate a great deal of noise, requiring substantially-sized expansion chamber mufflers to reduce their noise output, of both tuned exhaust and non-tuned varieties. Glow engines which operate on the four-stroke cycle, whether using ordinary poppet valves or occasionally rotary valves offer superior fuel-efficiency (power-output per fuel-consumption), but deliver less power than two-stroke engines of the same displacement – yet, often because the power they deliver is more suited to turning somewhat larger diameter propellers for lighter weight, more drag-producing airframe designs such as biplanes and scale aircraft models of pre-World War II full-scale subjects, four-stroke model engines, fueled either with methanol or gasoline fuels are slowly increasing in popularity from their generally lower noise output when compared to similar displacement two-stroke engines, and are available (for larger displacement, multi-cylinder four-stroke engines) in opposed twin and radial engine layouts.

Model aircraft
A very large "giant scale" US Coast Guard C-130J Hercules radio control flying model. The wingspan is 18 feet 6 inches (5.64 m). The crew of five who fly and maintain it are in the background.

Internal combustion (IC) engines are also available in upscale (and up-price) configurations. Variations include engines with multiple-cylinders, spark-ignited gasoline operation, and carbureted diesel operation. The term "diesel" is in fact a misnomer, as such engines actually operate by compression-ignition. The compression-ratio is controlled by an adjustable threaded T screw on the cylinder head, bearing onto a contra piston within the cylinder bore. Diesels are preferred for endurance competition, because of their fuel's higher energy content, a mixture of ether and kerosene (with lubricating oil). They have higher torque, and for a given capacity, they can usually "swing" a larger propeller than a glow engine.

Home manufacture of model aircraft engines is an established hobby in its own right.

Model aircraft: Jet and rocket

Model aircraft
Miniature jet turbine
Model aircraft: Ducted fans

Early "jet" style model aircraft utilized a multi-blade and high pitched propeller (fan) inside ductwork, usually in the fuselage of the aeroplane. The fans were generally powered by 2 stroke piston engines that were designed to operate at high RPM. Early brands of these units were the Kress, Scozzi, and Turbax, among others. They generally used 0.40 to 0.90 cubic inch displacement engines, but Kress made a model for engines as small as 0.049 (1/2cc). This basic fan-in-tube design has been adopted very successfully for modern electric powered "jet" aircraft and are now quite popular. Glow engine powered ducted-fan aircraft are now relatively uncommon.

Model aircraft: Turbine engines

A major development is the use of small jet turbine engines in hobbyist models, both surface and air. Model-scale turbines resemble simplified versions of turbojet engines found on commercial aircraft, but are in fact new designs (not based upon scaled-down commercial jet engines.) The first hobbyist-developed turbine was developed and flown in the 1980s by Gerald Jackman in England, but only recently has commercial production (from companies such as Evojet in Germany) made turbines readily available for purchase. Turbines require specialized design and precision-manufacturing techniques (some designs for model aircraft have been built from recycled turbocharger units from car engines), and consume a mixture of A1 jet fuel and synthetic turbine engine or motorcycle-engine oil. These qualities, and the turbine's high-thrust output, makes owning and operating a turbine-powered aircraft prohibitively expensive for most hobbyists, as well as many nations' national aeromodeling clubs (as with the USA's AMA) requiring their users to be certified to know how to safely and properly operate the engines they intend to use for such a model. Jet-powered models attract large crowds at organized events; their authentic sound and high speed make for excellent crowd pleasers.

Model aircraft: Pulse jet engines

Operating on the same principle as World War II V-1 flying bomb have also been used. The extremely noisy pulsejet offers more thrust in a smaller package than a traditional glow-engine, but is not widely used. A popular model was the "Dynajet". Due to the noise, the use of these is illegal in some countries.

Model aircraft: Rocket engines

Rocket engines are sometimes used to boost gliders and sailplanes, the earliest being the 1950s model rocket motor called the Jetex engine. This uses solid fuel pellets, ignited by a wick fuse; the casing is reuseable. These days, flyers can also mount single-use model rocket engines to provide a short (less than 10 second) burst of power. In some countries, government regulations and restrictions initially rendered rocket-propulsion unpopular, even for gliders; now, though, their use is expanding, particularly in scale model rocketry. Self-regulation of the sport and widespread European availability of single use 'cartridge' motors seemed to ensure a future, but in recent years the cartridges (known as "Rapier" units) have become difficult to obtain, due to a reclassification from "smoke producing devices" to "fireworks". They are still produced in the Czech Republic, but importing/exporting them is problematic at the present time (2014).

Model aircraft: Electric power

In electric-powered models, the powerplant is a battery-powered electric motor. Throttle control is achieved through an electronic speed control (ESC), which regulates the motor's output. The first electric models were equipped with brushed DC motors and rechargeable packs of nickel cadmium cells (NiCad), giving modest flight times of 5–10 minutes. (A fully fueled glow-engine system of similar weight and power would likely provide double the flight-time.) Later electric systems used more-efficient brushless DC motors and higher-capacity nickel metal hydride (NiMh) batteries, yielding considerably improved flight times. The recent development of lithium polymer batteries (LiPoly or LiPo) now permits electric flight-times to approach, and in many cases surpass that of glow-engines – however, the increasing popularity of the much more rugged and durable lithium iron phosphate-celled batteries is increasingly attracting attention away from LiPo packs. There is also solar powered flight, which is becoming practical for R/C hobbyists. In June 2005 a record of 48 hours and 16 minutes was established in California for this class.

Electric-flight was tested on model aircraft in the 1970s, but its high cost prevented widespread adoption until the early 1990s, when falling costs of motors, control systems and, crucially, more practical battery and electric power technologies, with the increasing adoption of brushless motors powered with better battery chemistries and controlled with a electronic speed control in place of a throttle servo came on the market. Electric-power has made substantial inroads into the park-flyer and 3D-flyer markets. Both markets are characterized by small and lightweight models, where electric-power offers several key advantages over IC: greater efficiency, higher reliability, less maintenance, much less messy and quieter flight. The 3D-flyer especially benefits from the near-instantaneous response of an electric-motor.

Starting around the year 2008 the entry of Chinese direct-to-consumer suppliers into the hobby market has dramatically decreased the cost of electric flight. It is now possible to power most models weighing less than 20 lb with electric power for a cost equivalent to or lower than traditional power sources. This is the most rapidly developing segment of the hobby as of end of year 2010, along with the increasing popularity of FPV radio control aeromodeling, most often with electric-powered model aircraft, especially multirotor designs.

Model aircraft: Propulsion types

Model aircraft
A flying model of an F-15E

Most powered model-aircraft, including electric, internal-combustion, and rubber-band powered models, generate thrust by spinning an airscrew. The propeller is the most commonly used device. Propellers generate thrust due to the angle of attack of the blades, which forces air backwards. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, thus the plane moves forwards.

Model aircraft: Propellers

As in full-size planes, the propeller's dimensions and placement (along the fuselage or wings) are factored into the design. In general, a large diameter and low-pitch offers greater thrust at low airspeed, while a small diameter and higher-pitch sacrifices thrust for a higher maximum-airspeed. In model aircraft, the builder can choose from a wide selection of propellers, to tailor the model's airborne characteristics. A mismatched propeller will compromise the aircraft's airworthiness, and if too heavy, inflict undue mechanical wear on the powerplant. Model aircraft propellers are usually specified as diameter × pitch, both given in inches. For example, a 5x3 propeller has a diameter of 5 inches (130 mm), and a pitch of 3 inches (76 mm). The pitch is the distance that the propeller would advance if turned through one revolution in a solid medium. Additional parameters are the number of blades (2 and 3 are the most common).

There are two methods to transfer rotational-energy from the powerplant to the propellor:

  • With the direct-drive method, the propeller is attached directly on the engine's spinning crankshaft (or motor shaft). This arrangement is optimum when the propellor and powerplant share overlapping regions of best efficiency (measured in RPM.) Direct-drive is by far the most common when using a fuel-powered engine (gas or glow). Some electric motors with high torque and (comparatively) low speed can utilize direct-drive as well. These motors are typically outrunners.
  • With the reduction method, the crankshaft drives a simple transmission, which is usually a simple gearbox containing a pinion and spur gear. The propeller speed is inversely proportional to the gear ratio (thereby also increasing output torque by approximately the same ratio). Reduction-drive is common on larger aircraft and aircraft with disproportionately large propellers. On such powerplant arrangements, the transmission serves to match the powerplant's and propeller's optimum operating speed. Geared propellers are rarely used on internal combustion engines, but very commonly on electric motors. This is because most inrunner electric motors spin extremely fast, but have very little torque.

Model aircraft: Ducted fans

Ducted fans are propellors encased in a cylindrical housing or duct, designed to look like and fit in the same sort of space as a model jet engine but at a much lower cost. They are available for both electric and liquid-fuelled engines, although they have only become widely used with the recent improvements in electric-flight technology for model aircraft. It is possible to equip a model jet aircraft with two or four electric ducted fans for much less than the cost of a single jet turbine or large petrol or methanol engine, enabling affordable modeling of multi-engine planes, including military bombers and civilian airliners.

The fan-unit is an assembly of the spinning fan (a propellor with more blades), enclosed inside a shaped-duct. Compared to an open-air propellor, a ducted-fan generates more thrust per crossectional-area. The shaped-duct often limits installation to recessed areas of the fuselage or wings. Ducted fans are popular with scale-models of jet-aircraft, where they mimic the appearance and feel of jet engines, as well as increasing the model's maximum airspeed. Speeds of up to 200 mph have been recorded on electric-powered ducted fan airplanes, largely due to the high amount of RPMs produced by ducted fan propellors. But they are also found on non-scale and sport models, and even lightweight 3D-flyers. Like propellors, fan-units are modular components, and most fan-powered aircraft can accommodate a limited selection of different fan-units.

Model aircraft: Other

With ornithopters the reciprocating-motion of the wing structure imitates the flapping-wings of living birds, producing both thrust and lift.

Model aircraft: Competitions

World competitions are organised by the FAI. There are the following classes:

  • FAI Drone Racing (F3U)
  • F1 Free Flight
  • F2 Control Line
  • F3A Radio Control Aerobatics
  • F3B Radio Control Soaring (Multi-task)
  • F3C Radio Control Helicopters World Cup
  • F3D Pylon Racing
  • F3F Radio Control Soaring (Slope)
  • F3J Radio Control Soaring (Duration)
  • F3K Hand Launch Gliders
  • F3M Large Radio Control Aerobatics
  • F3P Radio Control Indoor Aerobatics
  • F5B Electric Motor Glider - Multi Task World Cup (held in alternate years only)
  • F5D Electric Pylon Racing
  • F5J Electric Motor Glider - Thermal Duration World Cup
  • Space Modelling

Model aircraft: Drone racing (F3U)

The FAI Drone Racing World Cup is in the F3U class (Radio Control Multi-rotor FPV Racing). This is a highly competitive activity, involving mental exertion and big cash prizes.

Model aircraft: Free flight (F1)

Free flight models are flown without any form of mechanical or radio control over the model in flight. This is the earliest form of aeromodelling, a particular milestone being the first model powered by a rubber band built and flown by Alphonse Penaud in 1871.

An international aeromodelling competition called the Wakefield Gold Challenge Cup after the donor, Lord Wakefield. It was first held on July 5, 1911 at The Crystal Palace in England. There were contests in 1912, 1913 and 1914. For many years after the First World War there was no contest. The original trophy had been lost and so in 1927 the Society of Model Aeronautical Engineers (SMAE) approached Lord Wakefield and were offered a new larger silver trophy for international competition. This trophy is the present Wakefield International Cup and was first awarded at a competition in 1928. The SMAE developed the international competition up to 1951 when it was handed to the authority of the FAI and has since become the award for the rubber-power category at the FAI World Free Flight Championships.

Model aircraft: Control Line (F2)

Also referred to as U-Control in the USA, it was pioneered by the late Jim Walker who often, for show, flew three models at a time. Normally the model is flown in a circle and controlled by a pilot in the center holding a handle connected to two thin steel wires. The wires connect through the inboard wing tip of the plane to a mechanism that translates the handle movement to the aircraft elevator, allowing maneuvers to be performed along the aircraft pitch axis. The pilot will turn to follow the model going round, the convention being anti-clockwise for upright level flight

For the conventional control-line system, tension in the lines is required to provide control. Line tension is maintained largely by centrifugal force. To increase line tension, models may be built or adjusted in various ways. Rudder offset and thrust vectoring (tilting the engine toward the outside) yaw the model outward. The position where the lines exit the wing can compensate for the tendency of the aerodynamic drag of the lines to yaw the model inboard. Weight on the outside wing, an inside wing that is longer or has more lift than the outside wing (or even no outside wing at all) and the torque of a left rotating propeller (or flying clockwise) tend to roll the model toward the outside. Wing tip weights, propeller torque, and thrust vectoring are more effective when the model is going slowly, while rudder offset and other aerodynamic effects have more influence on a fast moving model.

Since its introduction, control line flying has developed into a competition sport. There are contest categories for control line models, including Speed, Aerobatics (AKA Stunt), Racing, Navy Carrier, Balloon Bust, Scale, and Combat. There are variations on the basic events, including divisions by engine size and type, skill categories, and age of model design.

The events originated largely in the United States, and were later adapted for use internationally. The rules for US Competition are available from the Academy of Model Aeronautics. The international rules are defined by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). World Championships are held semiannually throughout the world, most recently in 2008 in France, with a limited slate of events – special varieties of Racing (F2C or "Team Race"), combat (F2D), and speed (F2A), all limited to engines displacing 0.15 cu. in (2.5cc), and Stunt (F2b) which is essentially unlimited with regard to design and size.

Model aircraft: Team racing (F2C)

The international class of racing is referred to as F2C (F2 = Control-line, C=racing) or Team Race. A pilot and a mechanic compete as a team to fly small (370 grams; 13 ounces) 65 cm (25.5 in) wingspan semi-scale racing models over a tarmac or concrete surface. Lines are 15.92 meters (52.2 feet) long.

Three pilots, plus mechanic teams, compete simultaneously in the same circle, and the object is to finish the determined course as fast as possible. Tank size is limited to 7 cc, thus 2–3 pitstops for refueling are needed during the race.

The mechanic stands at a pit area outside the marked flight circle. The engine will be started and the model released at the start signal. For refuelling, the pilot will operate a fuel shutoff by a quick down elevator movement after the planned number of laps so that the model can approach the mechanic at optimum speed, around 50 km/h (31 mph). The mechanic will catch the model by the wing, fill the tank from a pressurized can by a hose and finger valve, then restart the engine by hitting the carbon fiber/epoxy resin propeller with his finger. Ground time of a good pitstop is less than three seconds.

The race course is 10 km, corresponding to 100 laps. Flying speeds are around 200 km/h (120 mph), which means that the pilots have to turn one lap in 1.8 seconds. Line pull due to centrifugal force is 85 N (17 lb). A faster model will overtake by the pilot steering it above the slower one while he moves his handle with lines over the opponent pilot's head.

After two rounds of elimination heats, the 6, 9 or 12 fastest teams enter two semifinal rounds, and the three fastest teams in the semifinals go to the final, which is run over the double course.

Maximum engine size is 2.5 cc (.15 cu.in.). Diesel, i.e. compression ignition engines are used. They are single cylinder two-stroke, designed for this purpose. At the world championship level it is not uncommon that the competitors design and build their own engines. Their output power is approaching .8 horsepower at 25,000 rpm.

Model aircraft: Pylon racing (F3D & F5D)

Pylon racing refers to a class of air racing for radio controlled model aircraft that fly through a course of pylons. The sport is similar to the full-scale Red Bull Air Race World Series.

Model aircraft: Models in manufacturing

Aircraft manufacturers and researchers make models for various purposes. Besides static display for marketing purposes these include models for aerodynamic research and engineering manufacture.

Model aircraft: Aerodynamic research

Research models are made for wind-tunnel and free-flight testing. For wind tunnel research especially, it is often only necessary to make part of the proposed aircraft.

Model aircraft: Engineering mock-ups

Full-scale static engineering models are constructed for production development, often made of different materials from the proposed design. Again, often only part of the aircraft is modeled.

Model aircraft: Model aerodynamics

Model aircraft
A contest-winning paper glider

(See also Flight dynamics).

The flight behavior of an aircraft depends on the scale to which it is built, the density of the air and the speed of flight.

At subsonic speeds the relationship between these is expressed by the Reynolds number. Where two models at different scales are flown with the same Reynolds number, the airflow will be similar. Where the Reynolds numbers differ, as for example a small-scale model flying at lower speed than the full-size craft, the airflow characteristics can differ significantly. This can make an exact scale model unflyable, and the model has to be modified in some way. For example, drag is generally greater in proportion at low Reynolds number so a flying scale model usually requires a larger-than-scale propeller.

At higher speeds approaching or exceeding the speed of sound, the Mach number becomes important (the speed of sound is Mach 1). At these speeds the air becomes compressible and its characteristics change dramatically, with shock waves forming. Fast jets are often inefficient at low airspeeds, so a model designed to fly at the speed of sound will also be inefficient at lower speeds. In particular, the swept wings and pointed noses common on fast jets tend to increase drag or impair handling at lower speeds.

Maneuverability also depends on scale, with stability also being more important. Control torque is proportional to lever arm length while angular inertia is proportional to the square of the lever arm, so the smaller the scale the more quickly an aircraft or other vehicle will turn in response to control or other forces.

One consequence of this is that models in general require additional longitudinal and directional stability, resisting sudden changes in pitch and yaw. While it may be possible for a pilot to respond quickly enough to control an unstable aircraft (such as a Wright Flyer), a radio control scale model of the same aircraft would only be flyable with design adjustments such as increased tail surfaces and wing dihedral for stability, or with avionics providing artificial stability. Free flight models need to have both static and dynamic stability. Static stability is the resistance to sudden changes in pitch and yaw already described, and is typically provided by the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces respectively, and by a forward center of gravity. Dynamic stability is the ability to return to straight and level flight without any control input. The three dynamic instability modes are pitch (phugoid) oscillation, spiral and Dutch roll. An aircraft with too large a horizontal tail on a fuselage that is too short may have a phugoid instability with increasing climbs and dives. With free flight models, this usually results in a stall or loop at the end of the initial climb. Insufficient dihedral and sweep back will generally lead to increasing spiral turn. Too much dihedral or sweepback generally causes Dutch roll. These all depend on the scale, as well as details of the shape and weight distribution. For example, the paper glider shown here is a contest winner when made of a small sheet of paper but will go from side to side in Dutch roll when scaled up even slightly.

Model aircraft: See also

  • Control line also called U-Control
    • Round-the-pole flying
  • Model engine
    • Cox model engine
    • Thunder Tiger
    • O.S. Engines
  • Die-cast toy
  • Free flight (model aircraft)
  • History of aviation
  • International Miniature Aerobatic Club
  • International Plastic Modellers' Society (IPMS)
  • List of model aircraft manufacturers
  • List of model airplane fields in the USA
  • List of scale model kit manufacturers
  • Micro air vehicle
  • Model Airplane News
  • Model airport
  • Model ship
  • Paper plane
  • Radio-controlled aircraft
  • Radio-controlled model
  • Simple Plastic Airplane Design
  • Walkalong glider

Model aircraft: Footnotes

  1. These include Delta Air Lines, Air France, British Airways, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Avianca, Aeroméxico, FedEx, Polar Air Cargo, Air New Zealand, Qantas, China Airlines, Singapore Airlines, South African Airways, Finnair, American Airlines, United Airlines, Lufthansa, Japan Airlines, Royal Jordanian, Korean Airlines, and Asiana Airlines.
  2. Scott Mayerowitz, AP Airlines Writer (18 March 2015). "Airline world's tiny secret: infatuation with model planes". USA TODAY.
  3. Revell's Wright Flyer was reissued in the original and unusual scale of 1:39.
  4. Koster Aero Enterprises, Welsh Models, DynaVector, and AirModel manufacture vacuum formed models.
  5. "Photoetching At Home" by Andy Slater, The Model Makers Resource," accessed 30 March 2007
  6. Card model kit companies, smaller even than vacuum formed manufacturers, include Schreiber-Bogen (one of the largest), ModelArt, Halinski, Modelik, JSC, Williamshaven and FlyModel.
  7. http://www.jitterbuzz.com/navion.html
  8. Die-Cast model plane manufacturers include Dyna-Flytes, Schabak, Gemini Jets, and Herpa Wings
  9. "Model Flying Machines". geocities.com. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009.
  10. Testing Commercial Rubber – R.J. North, Model Aircraft magazine, Feb, 1961
  11. http://www.indoornews.com/indoorrecords/record_list.php
  12. AMA. "AMA Documents – Turbines". AMA. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  13. "FAI Official site". Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  14. "National Miniature Pylon Racing". nmpra.net. NMPRA. Retrieved 6 July 2015.

Model aircraft: References

  • RCadvisor′s Model Airplane Design Made Easy, by Carlos Reyes, RCadvisor.com, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2009. ISBN 9780982261323 OCLC 361461928
  • The Great International Paper Airplane Book, by Jerry Mander, George Dippel and Howard Gossage, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1967. ISBN 0671289918 OCLC 437094
  • Model Aircraft Aerodynamics, by Martin Simons, Swanley: Nexus Special Interests, 1999. 4th ed. ISBN 1854861905 OCLC 43634314
  • How to Design and Build Flying Model Airplanes, by Keith Laumer, Harper, New York, 1960. 2nd ed., 1970. OCLC 95315
  • The Middle Ages of the Internal-Combustion Engine, by Horst O. Hardenberg, SAE, 1999. ISBN 0768003911 OCLC 40632327
  • Model Airplane Design and Theory of Flight, by Charles Hampson Grant, Jay Publishing Corporation, New York, 1941. OCLC 1336984
  • Model Aviation at DMOZ
  • Database of diecast model aircraft
  • Model Jets Website

Model aircraft

Беларуская Авіямадэлізм ▪ Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎ Авіямадэлізм ▪ Български Авиомоделизъм ▪ Català Aeromodelisme ▪ Čeština Letecké modelářství ▪ Dansk Modelfly ▪ Español Aeromodelismo ▪ Esperanto Aviadmodelismo ▪ فارسی هواپیمای مدل ▪ Français Modélisme aérien ▪ Galego Aeromodelismo ▪ 한국어 모형항공기 ▪ Հայերեն Ավիամոդելիզմ ▪ Bahasa Indonesia Aeromodelling ▪ Interlingua Aeromodellismo ▪ Italiano Aeromodellismo ▪ עברית טיסנאות ▪ Basa Jawa Aeromodelling ▪ ქართული ავიამოდელიზმი ▪ Қазақша Авиамоделизм ▪ Монгол Нисэх загвар ▪ Nederlands Modelvliegtuig ▪ 日本語 模型航空機 ▪ Norsk bokmål Modellfly ▪ Norsk nynorsk Modellfly ▪ Polski Modelarstwo lotnicze ▪ Português Aeromodelismo ▪ Română Aeromodelism ▪ Русский Авиамоделизм ▪ Simple English Model airplane ▪ Slovenčina Letecké modelárstvo ▪ Suomi Mallilennokki ▪ Svenska Modellflyg ▪ Тоҷикӣ Авиамоделизм ▪ Türkçe Model uçak ▪ Türkmençe Awiamodelizm ▪ Українська Авіамоделізм ▪ 中文 飞机模型

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And today the products by request "Model aircraft" in North Carolina can be sent to Charlotte, Raleigh, Greensboro, Durham, Winston-Salem, Fayetteville, Cary, Wilmington, High Point, Greenville, Asheville, Concord, Gastonia, Jacksonville, Chapel Hill, Rocky Mount, Huntersville, Burlington, Wilson, Kannapolis, Apex, Hickory, Wake Forest, Indian Trail, Mooresville, Goldsboro, Monroe, Salisbury, Holly Springs, Matthews, New Bern, Sanford, Cornelius, Garner, Thomasville, Statesville, Asheboro, Mint Hill, Fuquay-Varina, Morrisville, Kernersville, Lumberton, Kinston, Carrboro, Havelock, Shelby, Clemmons, Lexington, Clayton, Boone, and other cities.

And today the goods by your query "Model aircraft" in North Dakota can be purchased if you live in Fargo, Bismarck, Grand Forks, Minot, West Fargo, Williston, Dickinson, Mandan, Jamestown, Wahpeton, Devils Lake, Watford City, Valley City, Grafton, Lincoln, Beulah, Rugby, Stanley, Horace, Casselton, New Town, Hazen, Bottineau, Lisbon, Carrington.

As you know, the products by request "Model aircraft" in Ohio can be delivered to Columbus, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Toledo, Akron, Dayton, Parma, Canton, Youngstown, Lorain, Hamilton, Springfield, Kettering, Elyria, Lakewood, Cuyahoga Falls, Euclid, Middletown, Mansfield, Newark, Mentor, Cleveland Heights, Beavercreek, Strongsville, Fairfield, Dublin, Warren, Findlay, Lancaster, Lima, Huber Heights, Marion, Westerville, Reynoldsburg, Grove City, Stow, Delaware, Brunswick, Upper Arlington, Gahanna, Westlake, North Olmsted, Fairborn, Massillon, Mason, North Royalton, Bowling Green, North Ridgeville, Kent, Garfield Heights, and so on.

Normally, the goods related with "Model aircraft" in Oklahoma can be shipped to such cities as Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Norman, Broken Arrow, Lawton, Edmond, Moore, Midwest City, Enid, Stillwater, Muskogee, Bartlesville, Owasso, Shawnee, Yukon, Ardmore, Ponca City, Bixby, Duncan, Del City, Jenks, Sapulpa, Mustang, Sand Springs, Bethany, Altus, Claremore, El Reno, McAlester, Ada, Durant, Tahlequah, Chickasha, Miami, Glenpool, Elk City, Woodward, Okmulgee, Choctaw, Weatherford, Guymon, Guthrie, Warr Acres, and other cities and towns.

Usually, the found goods by query "Model aircraft" in Oregon can be shipped to Portland, Salem, Eugene, Gresham, Hillsboro, Beaverton, Bend, Medford, Springfield, Corvallis, Albany, Tigard, Lake Oswego, Keizer, Grants Pass, Oregon City, McMinnville, Redmond, Tualatin, West Linn, Woodburn, Forest Grove, Newberg, Wilsonville, Roseburg, Klamath Falls, Ashland, Milwaukie, Sherwood, Happy Valley, Central Point, Canby, Hermiston, Pendleton, Troutdale, Lebanon, Coos Bay, The Dalles, Dallas, St. Helens, La Grande, Cornelius, Gladstone, Ontario, Sandy, Newport, Monmouth and smaller towns.

Normally, any things related with "Model aircraft" in Pennsylvania can be delivered to the following cities: Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading, Scranton, Bethlehem, Lancaster, Harrisburg, Altoona, York, Wilkes-Barre, Chester, Williamsport, Easton, Lebanon, Hazleton, New Castle, Johnstown, McKeesport, Hermitage, Greensburg, Pottsville, Sharon, Butler, Washington, Meadville, New Kensington, Coatesville, St. Marys, Lower Burrell, Oil City, Nanticoke, Uniontown, and other cities.

No need to say, the goods by your query "Model aircraft" in Rhode Island can be purchased if you live in Providence, Warwick, Cranston, Pawtucket, East Providence, Woonsocket, Coventry, Cumberland, North Providence, South Kingstown, West Warwick, Johnston, North Kingstown, Newport, Bristol, Westerly, Smithfield, Lincoln, Central Falls, Portsmouth, Barrington, Middletown, Burrillville, Narragansett, Tiverton, East Greenwich, North Smithfield, Warren, Scituate...

And today the goods named "Model aircraft" in South Carolina can be received in Columbia, Charleston, North Charleston, Mount Pleasant, Rock Hill, Greenville, Summerville, Sumter, Hilton Head Island, Spartanburg, Florence, Goose Creek, Aiken, Myrtle Beach, Anderson, Greer, Mauldin, Greenwood, North Augusta, Easley, Simpsonville, Hanahan, Lexington, Conway, West Columbia, North Myrtle Beach, Clemson, Orangeburg, Cayce, Bluffton, Beaufort, Gaffney, Irmo, Fort Mill, Port Royal, Forest Acres, Newberry and smaller towns.

And today the goods related with "Model aircraft" in South Dakota can be bought in Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Brookings, Watertown, Mitchell, Yankton, Pierre, Huron, Spearfish, Vermillion and smaller towns.

Naturally, the products related to the term "Model aircraft" in Tennessee can be received in Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Clarksville, Murfreesboro, Franklin, Jackson, Johnson City, Bartlett, Hendersonville, Kingsport, Collierville, Smyrna, Cleveland, Brentwood, Germantown, Columbia, Spring Hill, La Vergne, Gallatin, Cookeville, Mount Juliet, Lebanon, Morristown, Oak Ridge, Maryville, Bristol, Farragut, Shelbyville, East Ridge, Tullahoma, etc.

Today the goods related with "Model aircraft" in Texas can be received in Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, El Paso, Arlington, Corpus Christi, Plano, Laredo, Lubbock, Garland, Irving, Amarillo, Grand Prairie, Brownsville, McKinney, Frisco, Pasadena, Mesquite, Killeen, McAllen, Carrollton, Midland, Waco, Denton, Abilene, Odessa, Beaumont, Round Rock, The Woodlands, Richardson, Pearland, College Station, Wichita Falls, Lewisville, Tyler, San Angelo, League City, Allen, Sugar Land, Edinburg, Mission, Longview, Bryan, Pharr, Baytown, Missouri City, Temple, Flower Mound, New Braunfels, North Richland Hills, Conroe, Victoria, Cedar Park, Harlingen, Atascocita, Mansfield, Georgetown, San Marcos, Rowlett, Pflugerville, Port Arthur, Spring, Euless, DeSoto, Grapevine, Galveston, and other cities.

No need to say, the products by request "Model aircraft" in Utah can be delivered to the following cities: Salt Lake City, West Valley City, Provo, West Jordan, Orem, Sandy, Ogden, St. George, Layton, Taylorsville, South Jordan, Logan, Lehi, Murray, Bountiful, Draper, Riverton, Roy, Spanish Fork, Pleasant Grove, Cottonwood Heights, Tooele, Springville, Cedar City, Midvale. And, of course, Kaysville, Holladay, American Fork, Clearfield, Syracuse, South Salt Lake, Herriman, Eagle Mountain, Clinton, Washington, Payson, Farmington, Brigham City, Saratoga Springs, North Ogden, South Ogden, North Salt Lake, Highland, Centerville, Hurricane, Heber City, West Haven, Lindon...

No doubt, the found goods by query "Model aircraft" in Vermont can be received in such cities as Burlington, South Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier, Winooski, St. Albans, Newport, Vergennes, etc.

Naturally, any products related with "Model aircraft" in Virginia can be shipped to such cities as Virginia Beach, Norfolk, Chesapeake, Richmond, Newport News, Alexandria, Hampton, Roanoke, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Lynchburg, Harrisonburg, Charlottesville, Danville, Manassas, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, Winchester, Salem, Staunton, Fairfax, Hopewell, Waynesboro, Colonial Heights, Radford, Bristol, Manassas Park, Williamsburg, Falls Church, Martinsville, Poquoson...

Undoubtedly, the goods related with "Model aircraft" in Washington can be received in such cities as Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, Vancouver, Bellevue, Kent, Everett, Renton, Federal Way, Yakima, Spokane Valley, Kirkland, Bellingham, Kennewick, Auburn, Pasco, Marysville, Lakewood, Redmond, Shoreline, Richland, Sammamish, Burien, Olympia, Lacey. The shipping is also available in Edmonds, Puyallup, Bremerton, Lynnwood, Bothell, Longview, Issaquah, Wenatchee, Mount Vernon, University Place, Walla Walla, Pullman, Des Moines, Lake Stevens, SeaTac, Maple Valley, Mercer Island, Bainbridge Island, Oak Harbor, Kenmore, Moses Lake, Camas, Mukilteo, Mountlake Terrace, Tukwila...

No need to say, the goods related with "Model aircraft" in West Virginia can be purchased if you live in Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Parkersburg, Wheeling, Weirton, Fairmont, Martinsburg, Beckley, Clarksburg, South Charleston, St. Albans, Vienna, Bluefield...

Normally, the goods by your query "Model aircraft" in Wisconsin can be delivered to the following cities: Milwaukee, Madison, Green Bay, Kenosha, Racine, Appleton, Waukesha, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, Janesville, West Allis, La Crosse, Sheboygan, Wauwatosa, Fond du Lac, New Berlin, Wausau. And also in Brookfield, Beloit, Greenfield, Franklin, Oak Creek, Manitowoc, West Bend, Sun Prairie, Superior, Stevens Point, Neenah, Fitchburg, Muskego, Watertown, De Pere, Mequon, South Milwaukee, Marshfield, and other cities.

As you know, the goods named "Model aircraft" in Wyoming can be delivered to the following cities: Cheyenne, Casper, Laramie, Gillette, Rock Springs, Sheridan, Green River, Evanston, Riverton, Jackson, Cody, Rawlins, Lander, Torrington, Powell, Douglas, Worland, etc.

Canada Delivery, Shipping to Canada

As you know, any things related with "Model aircraft" in Canada can be purchased if you live in Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa, Edmonton, Mississauga, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Brampton, Hamilton, Quebec City, Surrey, Laval, Halifax, London, Markham, Vaughan, Gatineau, Longueuil, Burnaby, Saskatoon, Kitchener, Windsor, Regina, Richmond, Richmond Hill.

You can also buy these goods in Oakville, Burlington, Greater Sudbury, Sherbrooke, Oshawa, Saguenay, Lévis, Barrie, Abbotsford, St. Catharines, Trois-Rivières, Cambridge, Coquitlam, Kingston, Whitby, Guelph, Kelowna, Saanich, Ajax, Thunder Bay, Terrebonne, St. John's, Langley, Chatham-Kent, Delta.

It is also available for the people living in Waterloo, Cape Breton, Brantford, Strathcona County, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Red Deer, Pickering, Kamloops, Clarington, North Vancouver, Milton, Nanaimo, Lethbridge, Niagara Falls, Repentigny, Victoria, Newmarket, Brossard, Peterborough, Chilliwack, Maple Ridge, Sault Ste. Marie, Kawartha Lakes, Sarnia, Prince George.

And other cities and towns, such as Drummondville, Saint John, Moncton, Saint-Jérôme, New Westminster, Wood Buffalo, Granby, Norfolk County, St. Albert, Medicine Hat, Caledon, Halton Hills, Port Coquitlam, Fredericton, Grande Prairie, North Bay, Blainville, Saint-Hyacinthe, Aurora, Welland, Shawinigan, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Belleville, North Vancouver and smaller towns.

In fact, the goods by your query "Model aircraft" can be shipped to any place in Canada, including Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island.

UK Delivery, Shipping to the United Kingdom

Normally, the products related to the term "Model aircraft" in the United Kingdom can be sent to London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Bradford, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Wakefield, Cardiff, Coventry, Nottingham, Leicester, Sunderland, Belfast, Newcastle upon Tyne, Brighton, Hull, Plymouth, Stoke-on-Trent.

And other cities and towns, such as Wolverhampton, Derby, Swansea, Southampton, Salford, Aberdeen, Westminster, Portsmouth, York, Peterborough, Dundee, Lancaster, Oxford, Newport, Preston, St Albans, Norwich, Chester, Cambridge, Salisbury, Exeter, Gloucester. The shipping is also available in Lisburn, Chichester, Winchester, Londonderry, Carlisle, Worcester, Bath, Durham, Lincoln, Hereford, Armagh, Inverness, Stirling, Canterbury, Lichfield, Newry, Ripon, Bangor, Truro, Ely, Wells, St. Davids, and other cities.

In other words, any things related with "Model aircraft" can be shipped to any place in the UK, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

Ireland Delivery, Shipping to Ireland

And the goods related with "Model aircraft" in Ireland can be purchased if you live in Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford, Drogheda, Dundalk, Swords, Bray, Navan, Ennis, Kilkenny, Tralee, Carlow, Newbridge, Naas, Athlone, Portlaoise, Mullingar, Wexford, Balbriggan, Letterkenny, Celbridge, Sligo. As well as in Clonmel, Greystones, Malahide, Leixlip, Carrigaline, Tullamore, Killarney, Arklow, Maynooth, Cobh, Castlebar, Midleton, Mallow, Ashbourne, Ballina, Laytown-Bettystown-Mornington, Enniscorthy, Wicklow, Tramore, Cavan, and other cities.

Basically, the goods named "Model aircraft" can be shipped to any place in Ireland, including Leinster, Ulster, Munster, and Connacht.

Australia Delivery, Shipping to Australia

And of course, the products by request "Model aircraft" in Australia can be sent to Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Tweed Heads, Newcastle, Maitland, Canberra, Queanbeyan, Sunshine Coast, Wollongong, Hobart, Geelong, Townsville, Cairns, Darwin, Toowoomba, Ballarat, Bendigo, Albury, Wodonga, Launceston, Mackay.

The delivery is also available in Rockhampton, Bunbury, Bundaberg, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga, Hervey Bay, Mildura, Wentworth, Shepparton, Mooroopna, Gladstone, Tannum Sands, Port Macquarie, Tamworth, Traralgon, Morwell, Orange, Geraldton, Bowral, Mittagong, Dubbo, Busselton, Bathurst, Nowra, Bomaderry, Warrnambool, Albany, Warragul, Drouin, Kalgoorlie, Boulder, Devonport, and so on.

Actually, any things related with "Model aircraft" can be shipped to any place in Australia, including New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, and Northern Territory.

New Zealand Delivery, Shipping to New Zealand

Usually, the products by request "Model aircraft" in New Zealand can be shipped to Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier-Hastings, Dunedin, Lower Hutt, Palmerston North, Nelson, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Whangarei, Invercargill, Whanganui, Gisborne, Porirua, Invercargill, Nelson, Upper Hutt, Gisborne, Blenheim, Pukekohe, Timaru, Taupo and smaller towns.

In fact, the goods by request "Model aircraft" can be shipped to any place in New Zealand, including North Island, South Island, Waiheke Island, and smaller islands. Normally,any things related withcan be shipped toAnd other cities and towns, such as, and other cities.

Actually,

Delivery

Abkhazia: Gagra, Gudauta, Lake Ritsa, New Athos, Ochamchire, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, Tsandryphsh, etc.

Afghanistan: Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Taloqan, etc.

Albania: Berat, Butrint, Dhërmi, Durrës, Gjirokastër, Himarë, Korçë, Pogradec, Qeparo, Sarandë, Shkodër, Tirana, Velipojë, Vlorë, etc.

Algeria: Algiers, Oran, etc.

American Virgin Islands: Charlotte Amalie, etc.

Andorra: Andorra la Vella, Arinsal, El Pas de la Casa, Encamp, Grandvalira, Ordino, Pal, Soldeu, Vallnord, etc.

Angola: Benguela, Luanda, etc.

Anguilla: The Valley, West End, etc.

Antigua and Barbuda: Saint John’s, etc.

Argentina: Buenos Aires, Colón, Córdoba, El Calafate, La Plata, Los Glaciares, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Pinamar, Puerto Iguazú, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, Salta, San Carlos de Bariloche, San Martín de los Andes, San Miguel de Tucumán, San Rafael, Tandil, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Gesell, Villa La Angostura, Villa de Merlo, etc.

Armenia: Dilijan, Etchmiadzin, Goris, Gyumri, Jermuk, Sevan, Stepanavan, Tsaghkadzor, Vagharshapat, Vanadzor, Yeghegnadzor, Yerevan, etc.

Aruba: Oranjestad, etc.

Australia: Adelaide, Brisbane, Byron Bay, Cairns, Canberra, Darwin, Gold Coast, Great Barrier Reef, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney, Tasmania, etc.

Austria: Abtenau, Alpbach, Austrian Alps, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Dürnstein, Flachau, Fugen, Graz, Innsbruck, Ischgl, Kaprun, Kitzbühel, Klagenfurt, Kufstein, Lech, Leogang, Lienz, Linz, Maria Alm, Mayrhofen, Neustift im Stubaital, Obergurgl, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Salzburg, Schladming, Seefeld, Serfaus, St. Anton, St. Johann im Pongau, Sölden, Tux, Tyrol, Vienna, Villach, Wachau, Wagrain, Zell am See, etc.

Azerbaijan: Baku, Ganja, Lankaran, Quba, Qusar, Shahdag, Sheki, Stepanakert, etc.

Bahamas: Andros, Eleuthera, Exuma, Freeport, Grand Bahama, Nassau, New Providence, Paradise Island, etc.

Bahrain: Manama, etc.

Bangladesh: Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka, Khulna, Narayanganj, Rajshahi, Sylhet, etc.

Barbados: Bridgetown, etc.

Belarus: Babruysk, Białowieża Forest, Brest Belarus, Gomel, Grodno, Lahoysk, Maladzyechna, Minsk, Mogilev, Nesvizh, Pinsk, Silichi, Vitebsk, etc.

Belgium: Antwerp, Ardennes, Blankenberge, Bouillon, Bruges, Brussels, Charleroi, De Haan, De Panne, Durbuy, Flanders, Ghent, Hasselt, Kortrijk, Leuven, Liège, Namur, Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Spa, Ypres, Zeebrugge, etc.

Belize: Ambergris Caye, Belize City, Caye Caulker, Placencia, San Pedro, etc.

Benin: Cotonou, etc.

Bermuda: Hamilton, etc.

Bhutan: Paro, Thimphu, etc.

Bolivia: Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, Quillacollo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sucre, Uyuni, etc.

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Bihać, Jahorina, Medjugorje, Mostar, Neum, Sarajevo, Travnik, Trebinje, etc.

Botswana: Gaborone, Maun, etc.

Brazil: Amazon River, Amazonia, Angra dos Reis, Arraial do Cabo, Atlantic Forest, Balneário Camboriú, Belo Horizonte, Belém, Bombinhas, Brasília, Búzios, Cabo Frio, Camaçari, Campinas, Campos do Jordão, Caraguatatuba, Copacabana, Costa do Sauípe, Curitiba, Duque de Caxias, Fernando de Noronha, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Gramado, Guarujá, Guarulhos, Iguazu Falls, Ilha Grande, Ilhabela, Ilhéus, Ipanema, Itacaré, Maceió, Manaus, Morro de São Paulo, Natal, Niterói, Osasco, Ouro Preto, Paraty, Petrópolis, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Praia do Forte, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Santos, São Gonçalo, São José dos Campos, São Luís, São Paulo, São Sebastião, Trancoso, Ubatuba, Vila do Abraão, etc.

British Virgin Islands: Tortola, etc.

Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan, etc.

Bulgaria: Albena, Balchik, Bansko, Blagoevgrad, Borovets, Burgas, Chernomorets, Dobrinishte, Golden Sands, Kiten, Koprivshtitsa, Lozenets, Nesebar, Obzor, Pamporovo, Pirin, Pleven, Plovdiv, Pomorie, Primorsko, Ravda, Razlog, Rila, Ruse, Samokov, Sandanski, Shumen, Sofia, Sozopol, Stara Zagora, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Tsarevo, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, etc.

Burkina Faso: Bobo-Dioulasso, Ouagadougou, etc.

Burundi: Bujumbura, etc.

Cambodia: Angkor, Battambang, Kampot, Kep, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, etc.

Cameroon: Bafoussam, Bamenda, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Limbe, Maroua, Yaoundé, etc.

Canada: Alberta, Banff, Brampton, British Columbia, Burnaby, Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Gatineau, Halifax, Hamilton, Jasper, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kingston, Kitchener, Laval, London, Longueuil, Manitoba, Markham, Mississauga, Moncton, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal, Nanaimo, New Brunswick, Niagara Falls, Niagara on the Lake, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ottawa, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Regina, Richmond, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver, Vaughan, Victoria, Whistler, Whitehorse, Windsor, Winnipeg, Yukon, etc.

Cape Verde: Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc.

Caribbean Netherlands:, etc.

Cayman Islands: George Town, Grand Cayman, West Bay, etc.

Chad: N'Djamena, etc.

Chile: Antofagasta, Arica, Atacama, Coquimbo, Easter Island, Hanga Roa, Iquique, La Serena, Patagonia, Pucón, Puerto Montt, Puerto Natales, Puerto Varas, Punta Arenas, San Pedro de Atacama, Santiago, Torres del Paine, Valdivia, Valparaíso, Villarrica, Viña del Mar, etc.

China: Anshun, Baishan, Baoding, Baoshan, Baotou, Beijing, Binzhou, Changchun, Changsha, Changzhi, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dali, Dalian, Datong, Dengfeng, Diqing, Dongguan, Emeishan, Foshan, Great Wall of China, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Hainan, Hangzhou, Harbin, Honghe, Huashan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Jiangxi, Jiaxing, Jilin, Jinan, Jincheng, Jingdezhen, Jinzhong, Jiujiang, Jiuzhaigou, Kunming, Langfang, Lanzhou, Laoshan, Leshan, Lhasa, Lianyungang, Lijiang, Linfen, Linyi, Luoyang, Lushan, Lüliang, Mianyang, Nanchang, Nanchong, Nanjing, Nantong, Ngawa, Ningbo, Qiandongnan, Qingdao, Qingyuan, Qinhuangdao, Qufu, Qujing, Rizhao, Sanya, Shanghai, Shangri-La, Shantou, Shanxi, Shaoguan, Shaolin, Shaoxing, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Shigatse, Shijiazhuang, Sichuan, Suzhou, Tai'an, Taiyuan, Taizhou Jiangsu, Tangshan, Tianjin, Tibet, Weifang, Weihai, Wuhan, Wulingyuan, Wutai, Wuxi, Xi'an, Xiamen, Xinzhou, Xishuangbanna, Ya'an, Yanbian, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yantai, Yellow River, Yibin, Yinchuan, Yiwu, Yuncheng, Yunnan, Zhangjiajie, Zhanjiang, Zhejiang, Zhengzhou, Zhongshan, Zhongwei, Zhoushan, Zhuhai, Zunyi, etc.

Colombia: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín, Pereira, San Andrés, Santa Marta, Villa de Leyva, Villavicencio, etc.

Comoros: Moroni, etc.

Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jacó, La Fortuna, Manuel Antonio, Monteverde, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Puntarenas, Quepos, San José, Santa Teresa, Tamarindo, Tortuguero, etc.

Croatia: Baška Voda, Baška, Bibinje, Biograd na Moru, Bol, Brač, Brela, Cavtat, Cres, Dalmatia, Fažana, Hvar, Istria, Ičići, Korčula, Krk, Lopud, Lovran, Lošinj, Makarska, Mali Lošinj, Malinska, Medulin, Mlini, Nin, Novi Vinodolski, Novigrad, Omiš, Opatija, Orebić, Pag, Podstrana, Poreč, Pula, Rab, Rabac, Rijeka, Rovinj, Split, Stari Grad, Sukošan, Supetar, Trogir, Tučepi, Umag, Vrsar, Zadar, Zagreb, Čiovo, Šibenik, etc.

Cuba: Baracoa, Camagüey, Cayo Coco, Cayo Largo, Cayo Santa María, Cienfuegos, Guantánamo, Havana, Holguín, Pinar del Río, Remedios Cuba, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara Cuba, Santiago de Cuba, Trinidad, Varadero, Viñales, etc.

Curaçao: Sint Michiel, Westpunt, Willemstad, etc.

Cyprus: Ayia Napa, Coral Bay Cyprus, Famagusta, Kouklia, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Paralimni, Peyia, Pissouri, Polis, Protaras, etc.

Czech Republic: Bohemia, Brno, Děčín, Frymburk, Frýdek-Místek, Harrachov, Hradec Králové, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Krkonoše, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Marienbad, Mikulov, Mladá Boleslav, Mělník, Olomouc, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzeň, Poděbrady, Prague, Teplice, Třeboň, Zlín, Znojmo, Ústí nad Labem, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Špindlerův Mlýn, etc.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: Kinshasa, etc.

Denmark: Aalborg, Aarhus, Billund, Copenhagen, Ebeltoft, Esbjerg, Frederikshavn, Greenland, Helsingør, Herning, Hirtshals, Hjørring, Holstebro, Jutland, Odense, Silkeborg, Skagen, Skive, Sønderborg, Vejle, Viborg, etc.

Djibouti: Djibouti City, etc.

Dominican Republic: Boca Chica, Bávaro, Cabarete, La Romana, Las Terrenas, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, Sosúa, etc.

East Timor: Dili, etc.

Ecuador: Baños, Cuenca, Galápagos Islands, Guayaquil, Manta, Otavalo, Puerto Ayora, Puerto López, Quito, Salinas, etc.

Egypt: Abu Simbel, Al Qusair, Alexandria, Aswan, Cairo, Dahab, El Alamein, El Gouna, El Hadaba, Faiyum, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh, Naama Bay, Nabq Bay, Nile, Nuweiba, Port Said, Red Sea, Safaga, Sahl Hasheesh, Scharm asch-Schaich, Sharks Bay, Sinai, Suez, Taba, Valley of the Kings, etc.

El Salvador: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.

Equatorial Guinea: Malabo, etc.

Eritrea: Asmara, etc.

Estonia: Haapsalu, Kuressaare, Narva, Pärnu, Saaremaa, Tallinn, Tartu, etc.

Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Gondar, etc.

Falkland Islands: Stanley, etc.

Faroe Islands: Sørvágur, Tórshavn, etc.

Fiji: Nadi, Suva, Viti Levu Island, etc.

Finland: Espoo, Helsinki, Imatra, Joensuu, Jyväskylä, Jämsä, Kotka, Kuopio, Kuusamo, Lahti, Lapland, Lappeenranta, Levi, Mariehamn, Mikkeli, Moomin World, Naantali, Nilsiä, Oulu, Pori, Porvoo, Pyhätunturi, Rovaniemi, Rukatunturi, Saariselkä, Saimaa, Tampere, Turku, Vaasa, Vantaa, Vuokatti, Åland Islands, etc.

France: Aix-en-Provence, Ajaccio, Alsace, Annecy, Antibes, Aquitaine, Arles, Avignon, Avoriaz, Bayonne, Beaune, Besançon, Biarritz, Bonifacio, Bordeaux, Briançon, Brittany, Burgundy, Cabourg, Cagnes-sur-Mer, Calais, Calvi, Canet-en-Roussillon, Cannes, Carcassonne, Cassis, Chambéry, Chamonix, Colmar, Corsica, Courchevel, Deauville, Dijon, Dunkirk, French Alps, French Riviera, Fréjus, Grenoble, Honfleur, La Ciotat, La Plagne, La Rochelle, Le Grau-du-Roi, Le Havre, Les Arcs, Les Gets, Les Menuires, Lille, Limoges, Lourdes, Lyon, Mandelieu-la-Napoule, Marseille, Megève, Menton, Montpellier, Morzine, Méribel, Nantes, Narbonne, Nice, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Normandy, Nîmes, Paradiski, Paris, Pas-de-Calais, Perpignan, Portes du Soleil, Porto-Vecchio, Provence, Périgueux, Reims, Rhône-Alpes, Rouen, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, Saint-Malo, Saint-Martin-de-Belleville, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Saint-Tropez, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Strasbourg, The Three Valleys, Tignes, Toulouse, Trouville-sur-Mer, Val Thorens, Val-d'Isère, Versailles, Étretat, Île-de-France, etc.

French Guiana: Cayenne, Kourou, etc.

French Polynesia: Bora Bora, Mo'orea, Papeete, Tahiti, etc.

Gabon: Libreville, etc.

Gambia: Banjul, Serekunda, etc.

Georgia: Bakuriani, Batumi, Borjomi, Gori, Gudauri, Kobuleti, Kutaisi, Mestia, Mtskheta, Poti, Sighnaghi, Stepantsminda, Tbilisi, Telavi, Zugdidi, etc.

Germany: Aachen, Augsburg, Bad Birnbach, Bad Driburg, Bad Ems, Bad Füssing, Bad Godesberg, Bad Harzburg, Bad Homburg, Bad Kissingen, Bad Kreuznach, Bad Mergentheim, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Bad Reichenhall, Bad Salzuflen, Bad Schandau, Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Bamberg, Bavaria, Berchtesgaden, Bergen auf Rügen, Berlin, Bernkastel-Kues, Bielefeld, Binz, Bochum, Bonn, Bottrop, Brandenburg, Braunlage, Braunschweig, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Brilon, Chemnitz, Cochem, Cologne, Cuxhaven, Dortmund, Dresden, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Eisenach, Erfurt, Erlangen, Essen, Europa-Park, Flensburg, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Friedrichshafen, Fürth, Füssen, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen, Glowe, Goslar, Görlitz, Göttingen, Hamburg, Hanover, Heidelberg, Heiligendamm, Heligoland, Hesse, Ingolstadt, Inzell, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Koblenz, Krefeld, Lake Constance, Leipzig, Lindau, Lower Saxony, Lübeck, Magdeburg, Mainz, Mannheim, Marburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Medebach, Monschau, Munich, Mönchengladbach, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Münster, Neuschwanstein Castle, Neuss, Norddeich, Norden, Norderney, North Rhine-Westphalia, Nuremberg, Oberhausen, Oberstdorf, Oldenburg, Olsberg, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Potsdam, Putbus, Quedlinburg, Rathen, Regensburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Rostock, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Ruhpolding, Rust, Rügen, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Sassnitz, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Schmallenberg, Schwerin, Schönau am Königsee, Sindelfingen, Solingen, Speyer, Stralsund, Stuttgart, Sylt, Thuringia, Travemünde, Trier, Ulm, Warnemünde, Weimar, Wernigerode, Westerland, Wiesbaden, Winterberg, Wolfsburg, Wuppertal, Würzburg, Xanten, Zingst, etc.

Ghana: Accra, Kumasi, etc.

Gibraltar:, etc.

Greece: Acharavi, Aegina, Afantou, Afytos, Agios Gordios, Andros, Arkadia, Athens, Cephalonia, Chania, Chaniotis, Chios, Corfu, Corinth, Crete, Cyclades, Dassia, Delphi, Dodecanese, Faliraki, Halkidiki, Heraklion, Hersonissos, Hydra, Ialysos, Ionian Islands, Kalamata, Kalavryta, Kalymnos, Kardamaina, Karpathos, Kassandra, Kastoria, Katerini, Kavos, Kefalos, Kokkari, Kos, Kriopigi, Laganas, Lefkada, Lemnos, Lesbos, Lindos, Loutraki, Marathokampos, Meteora, Mithymna, Monemvasia, Mount Athos, Mykonos, Mytilene, Nafplio, Naxos, Neos Marmaras, Paleokastritsa, Parga, Patmos, Patras, Pefkochori, Pefkos, Peloponnese, Polychrono, Poros, Pythagoreio, Rethymno, Rhodes, Samos, Samothrace, Santorini, Sidari, Sithonia, Sparta, Spetses, Sporades, Syros, Thasos, Thessaloniki, Tingaki, Zakynthos, etc.

Guadeloupe: Saint-François, etc.

Guam: Tamuning, Tumon, etc.

Guatemala: Antigua Guatemala, etc.

Guinea: Conakry, etc.

Guinea-Bissau: Bissau, etc.

Guyana: Georgetown, etc.

Haiti: Cap-Haitien, Port-au-Prince, etc.

Honduras: Roatán, Tegucigalpa, etc.

Hong Kong: Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, Mong Kok, New Territories, Repulse Bay, Tsim Sha Tsui, Wan Chai, etc.

Hungary: Budapest, Eger, Gyula, Hajdúszoboszló, Hévíz, Lake Balaton, Pécs, Siófok, Szeged, Zalakaros, etc.

Iceland: Akureyri, Blue Lagoon, Borgarnes, Egilsstaðir, Garðabær, Hafnarfjörður, Hveragerði, Höfn, Keflavík, Kópavogur, Reykjavik, Selfoss, Vík í Mýrdal, Ísafjörður, etc.

India: Agra, Ahmedabad, Ajmer, Allahabad, Amritsar, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bikaner, Chandigarh, Chennai, Chhattisgarh, Darjeeling, Dehradun, Delhi, Dharamshala, Fatehpur Sikri, Gangtok, Goa, Gujarat, Gurgaon, Guwahati, Gwalior, Haridwar, Himachal Pradesh, Hyderabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jalandhar, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Karnataka, Kerala, Khajuraho, Kochi, Kolhapur, Kolkata, Ladakh, Leh, Lucknow, Ludhiana, Madhya Pradesh, Madikeri, Madurai, Maharashtra, Manali, Mangalore, Mathura, Mount Abu, Mumbai, Munnar, Mussoorie, Mysore, Nagpur, Nainital, Nashik, Navi Mumbai, New Delhi, Noida, Ooty, Pachmarhi, Palakkad, Pune, Punjab, Pushkar, Raipur, Rajasthan, Ramnagar, Rishikesh, Sawai Madhopur, Shimla, Sikkim, Srinagar, Tamil Nadu, Thane, Thiruvananthapuram, Tirupati, Udaipur, Ujjain, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Varanasi, Varkala, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, etc.

Indonesia: Bali, Balikpapan, Bandung, Batu, Bintan, Bogor, Borobudur, Denpasar, Jakarta, Java, Jimbaran, Kalimantan, Kuta, Lombok, Makassar, Malang, Mataram, Medan, Nusa Dua, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sanur, Semarang, Seminyak, Sumatra, Surabaya, Surakarta, Ubud, Yogyakarta, etc.

Iran: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc.

Iraq: Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Erbil, Karbala, Sulaymaniyah, etc.

Ireland: Achill Island, Bray, Bundoran, Carlow, Clifden, Connemara, Cork, Dingle, Donegal, Doolin, Drogheda, Dublin, Dundalk, Ennis, Galway, Glendalough, Kenmare, Kilkenny, Killarney, Letterkenny, Limerick, Navan, Shannon, Swords, Tralee, Waterford, Westport, etc.

Isle of Man: Douglas, etc.

Israel: Acre, Amirim, Arad, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Bat Yam, Beersheba, Caesarea, Dead Sea, Eilat, Ein Bokek, Galilee, Golan Heights, Gush Dan, Haifa, Hermon, Herzliya, Jaffa, Jerusalem, Katzrin, Metula, Mitzpe Ramon, Nahariya, Nazareth, Netanya, Petah Tikva, Ramat Gan, Ramot, Rishon LeZion, Rosh Pinna, Safed, Sea of Galilee, Tel Aviv, Tiberias, Zikhron Ya'akov, etc.

Italy: Abano Terme, Abruzzo, Agrigento, Alassio, Alberobello, Alghero, Amalfi Coast, Aosta Valley, Apulia, Arezzo, Arona, Arzachena, Asciano, Ascoli Piceno, Assisi, Asti, Bardolino, Bari, Basilicata, Baveno, Bellagio, Bellaria-Igea Marina, Benevento, Bergamo, Bologna, Bolzano, Bordighera, Bormio, Bracciano, Brescia, Breuil-Cervinia, Brindisi, Cagliari, Calabria, Campania, Canazei, Caorle, Capri, Carrara, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Castiglion Fiorentino, Castiglione d'Orcia, Castiglione del Lago, Castiglione della Pescaia, Catania, Cefalù, Cervia, Cesenatico, Chianciano Terme, Chieti, Chioggia, Cinque Terre, Città della Pieve, Civitavecchia, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Cortona, Costa Smeralda, Courmayeur, Desenzano del Garda, Dolomites, Elba, Emilia-Romagna, Ercolano, Fasano, Fassa Valley, Ferrara, Finale Ligure, Fiumicino, Florence, Forte dei Marmi, Gaeta, Gallipoli, Genoa, Golfo Aranci, Greve in Chianti, Grosseto, Gubbio, Herculaneum, Imperia, Ischia, Italian Alps, Jesolo, L'Aquila, La Spezia, Lake Como, Lake Garda, Lake Maggiore, Lampedusa, Lazio, Lazise, Lecco, Lerici, Lido di Jesolo, Lignano Sabbiadoro, Liguria, Livigno, Livorno, Lombardy, Lucca, Madonna di Campiglio, Malcesine, Manarola, Mantua, Maratea, Massa, Matera, Menaggio, Merano, Messina, Mestre, Milan, Milazzo, Monopoli, Montalcino, Montecatini Terme, Montepulciano, Monterosso al Mare, Monza, Naples, Nardò, Novara, Olbia, Ortisei, Ostuni, Otranto, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Peschici, Peschiera del Garda, Piacenza, Piedmont, Pienza, Pisa, Pistoia, Pitigliano, Polignano a Mare, Pompeii, Porto Cervo, Porto Cesareo, Portoferraio, Portofino, Positano, Prato, Ragusa, Rapallo, Rapolano Terme, Ravenna, Riccione, Rimini, Riomaggiore, Riva del Garda, Rome, Salerno, San Casciano dei Bagni, San Gimignano, Sanremo, Sardinia, Savona, Sestriere, Sicily, Siena, Sinalunga, Siracusa, Sirmione, Sorrento, Sottomarina, Sperlonga, Stresa, Sëlva, Taormina, Taranto, Terracina, Tivoli, Torrita di Siena, Trani, Trapani, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Treviso, Trieste, Tropea, Turin, Tuscany, Umbria, Urbino, Val Gardena, Veneto, Venice, Ventimiglia, Verbania, Vernazza, Verona, Vesuvius, Viareggio, Vicenza, Vieste, Viterbo, etc.

Ivory Coast: Abidjan, Assinie-Mafia, Bouaké, San-Pédro, Yamoussoukro, etc.

Jamaica: Kingston, Montego Bay, Negril, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Runaway Bay, etc.

Japan: Atami, Fujisawa, Fukuoka, Furano, Hakodate, Hakone, Hakuba, Hamamatsu, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Ishigaki, Itō, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kanazawa, Karuizawa, Kawasaki, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Kutchan, Kyoto, Lake Suwa, Matsumoto, Miyakojima, Nagasaki, Nagoya, Naha, Nanjō, Nikkō, Okinawa, Onna, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Shizuoka, Takayama, Tokyo, Yokohama, etc.

Jordan: Amman, Aqaba, Irbid, Jerash, Madaba, Petra, Sweimeh, Wadi Musa, Wadi Rum, Zarqa, etc.

Kazakhstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Astana, Atyrau, Burabay, Karagandy, Kokshetau, Kostanay, Lake Balkhash, Oskemen, Pavlodar, Semey, Shymbulak, Shymkent, Taraz, etc.

Kenya: Kisumu, Lake Victoria, Masai Mara, Mombasa, Nairobi, Ukunda, etc.

Kiribati: South Tarawa, etc.

Kongo: Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, etc.

Kosovo: Pristina, Prizren, etc.

Kuwait: Hawally, Kuwait City, Salmiya, etc.

Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Bosteri, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk Kul, Karakol, Osh, etc.

Laos: Luang Prabang, Vang Vieng, Vientiane, etc.

Latvia: Cēsis, Daugavpils, Jelgava, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Riga, Rēzekne, Sigulda, Ventspils, etc.

Lebanon: Baalbeck, Beirut, Byblos, Faraya, Jounieh, Mzaar Kfardebian, Tripoli, etc.

Lesotho: Maseru, etc.

Liberia: Monrovia, etc.

Libya: Benghazi, Tripoli, etc.

Liechtenstein: Schaan, Vaduz, etc.

Lithuania: Druskininkai, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Nida, Palanga, Panevėžys, Trakai, Vilnius, Šiauliai, Šventoji, etc.

Luxembourg: Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg City, Vianden, etc.

Macau:, etc.

Macedonia: Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc.

Madagascar: Antananarivo, etc.

Malawi: Blantyre, Lilongwe, etc.

Malaysia: Borneo, George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Johor, Kedah, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan, Kuching, Langkawi, Malacca, Penang, Putrajaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shah Alam, etc.

Maldives: Kaafu Atoll, Malé, etc.

Mali: Bamako, etc.

Malta: Birżebbuġa, Buġibba, Gozo, Gżira, Mellieħa, Paceville, Pembroke, Qawra, Sliema, St. Julian's, St. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc.

Martinique: Fort-de-France, Les Trois-Îlets, Sainte-Luce, etc.

Mauritania: Mérida, Nouakchott, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Peñasco, etc.

Mauritius: Port Louis, etc.

Mexico: Acapulco, Akumal, Cabo San Lucas, Cancún, Chetumal, Chichen Itza, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Cozumel, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Isla Mujeres, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Monterrey, Oaxaca, Playa del Carmen, Puebla, Puerto Aventuras, Puerto Morelos, Puerto Vallarta, Querétaro, Riviera Maya, San Cristóbal de las Casas, San Miguel de Allende, San Miguel de Cozumel, Tijuana, Tulum, etc.

Micronesia:, etc.

Moldova: Bălți, Chișinău, Tiraspol, etc.

Monaco: Monte Carlo, etc.

Mongolia: Darkhan, Erdenet, Ulaanbaatar, etc.

Montenegro: Bar, Bečići, Bijela, Budva, Cetinje, Dobra Voda, Dobrota, Herceg Novi, Igalo, Kolašin, Kotor, Miločer, Nikšić, Perast, Petrovac, Podgorica, Prčanj, Sutomore, Sveti Stefan, Tivat, Ulcinj, Žabljak, etc.

Montserrat: Plymouth, etc.

Morocco: Agadir, Asilah, Casablanca, Chefchaouen, El Jadida, Essaouira, Fez, Marrakesh, Meknes, Merzouga, Mohammedia, Nador, Ouarzazate, Rabat, Tangier, Taroudant, Tinghir, Tétouan, etc.

Mozambique: Maputo, etc.

Myanmar: Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Nyaung Shwe, Yangon, etc.

Namibia: Rundu, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Windhoek, etc.

Nepal: Chitwan, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Lukla, Lumbini, Mount Everest, Nagarkot, Namche Bazaar, Patan, Pokhara, Tengboche, etc.

Netherlands: 's-Hertogenbosch, Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Arnhem, Breda, Delft, Domburg, Dordrecht, Eindhoven, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Maastricht, Nijmegen, Noordwijk, Rotterdam, Texel, The Hague, Utrecht, Valkenburg aan de Geul, Wijk aan Zee, Zandvoort, etc.

New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Gisborne, Hamilton, Hastings, Invercargill, Kaikoura, Lower Hutt, Napier, Nelson, New Plymouth, North Island, Palmerston North, Porirua, Queenstown, Rotorua, South Island, Taupo, Tauranga, Waiheke Island, Wanaka, Wellington, Whangarei, etc.

Nicaragua: Granada, Managua, etc.

Nigeria: Abuja, Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jos, Kaduna, Lagos, Owerri, Port Harcourt, Uyo, etc.

North Korea: Pyongyang, etc.

Northern Mariana Islands: Saipan, etc.

Norway: Beitostølen, Bergen, Bodø, Gardermoen, Geilo, Geirangerfjord, Hardangerfjord, Hemsedal, Kirkenes, Kristiansand, Larvik, Lillehammer, Lofoten, Narvik, Nordland, Oslo, Sognefjord, Stavanger, Stryn, Svalbard, Tromsø, Trondheim, Ålesund, etc.

Oman: Muscat, Nizwa, Salalah, Seeb, etc.

Pakistan: Bhurban, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, etc.

Palau: Koror, Peleliu, etc.

Palestine: Beit Sahour, Bethlehem, Hebron, Jenin, Jericho, Nablus, Ramallah, etc.

Panama: Bocas del Toro, etc.

Papua New Guinea: Port Moresby, etc.

Paraguay: Asunción, Ciudad Del Este, Encarnación, Panama City, etc.

Peru: Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Chiclayo, Cusco, Huancayo, Huanchaco, Huaraz, Ica, Iquitos, Lima, Machu Picchu, Máncora, Nazca, Ollantaytambo, Paracas, Pisco, Piura, Puerto Maldonado, Puno, Tacna, Tarapoto, Trujillo, Urubamba, etc.

Philippines: Angeles City, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bacoor, Baguio, Batangas, Bohol, Boracay, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Caloocan, Cebu, Coron, Dasmariñas, Davao, Dumaguete, El Nido, General Santos, Iloilo City, Kalibo, Lapu-Lapu City, Las Piñas, Luzon, Mactan, Makati, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Mindanao, Muntinlupa, Olongapo, Palawan, Panglao, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Galera, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Valenzuela, Visayas, Zamboanga, etc.

Poland: Białka Tatrzańska, Białowieża Forest, Białystok, Bielsko-Biała, Bukowina Tatrzańska, Bydgoszcz, Elbląg, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Giżycko, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Katowice, Kielce, Kołobrzeg, Kraków, Krynica Morska, Krynica-Zdrój, Lublin, Malbork, Mikołajki, Mrągowo, Olsztyn, Opole, Oświęcim, Poznań, Rzeszów, Sopot, Szczecin, Słubice, Tarnów, Toruń, Tricity, Warsaw, Wrocław, Zakopane, Zielona Góra, Łódź, Świnoujście, etc.

Portugal: Albufeira, Algarve, Aljezur, Almancil, Armação de Pêra, Azores, Braga, Cabanas de Tavira, Carvoeiro, Cascais, Castro Marim, Coimbra, Estoril, Faro, Funchal, Fátima, Guimarães, Lagoa, Lagos, Lisbon, Loulé, Madeira, Monte Gordo, Nazaré, Olhão, Ponta Delgada, Portimão, Porto, Praia da Luz, Quarteira, Sesimbra, Silves, Sintra, Tavira, Vila Real de Santo António, Vila do Bispo, Vilamoura, Évora, etc.

Puerto Rico: Bayamón, Caguas, Carolina, Ponce, San Juan, Vieques, etc.

Qatar: Doha, etc.

Romania: Bran, Brașov, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Poiana Brașov, Sibiu, Sighișoara, Timișoara, Transylvania, etc.

Russia: Abakan, Abrau-Dyurso, Abzakovo, Adler, Altai Republic, Alupka, Alushta, Anadyr, Anapa, Angarsk, Arkhangelsk, Arkhipo Osipovka, Arkhyz, Armavir, Astrakhan, Bakhchysarai, Balaklava, Balakovo, Balashikha, Baltic Sea, Barnaul, Belgorod, Belokurikha, Biysk, Black Sea, Blagoveshchensk, Bolshoy Utrish, Bratsk, Bryansk, Caucasian Mineral Waters, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Cherepovets, Cherkessk, Chita, Chornomorske, Crimea, Curonian Spit, Dagomys, Divnomorskoye, Dombay, Domodedovo, Dzerzhinsk, Dzhankhot, Dzhemete, Dzhubga, Elektrostal, Elista, Engels, Estosadok, Feodosia, Foros, Gaspra, Gatchina, Gelendzhik, Golden Ring, Golubitskaya, Gorky Gorod, Gornaya Karusel, Gorno-Altaysk, Goryachy Klyuch, Grozny, Gurzuf, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kabardinka, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka, Kamensk-Uralsky, Karelia, Kazan, Kemerovo, Kerch, Khabarovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Khibiny, Khimki, Khosta, Kirov, Kirovsk, Kislovodsk, Kizhi, Koktebel, Kolomna, Komsomolsk on Amur, Konakovo, Koreiz, Korolev, Kostroma, Krasnaya Polyana, Krasnodar Krai, Krasnodar, Krasnogorsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kudepsta, Kurgan, Kursk, Kyzyl, Lake Baikal, Lake Seliger, Lazarevskoye, Lipetsk, Listvyanka, Loo, Lyubertsy, Magadan, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Massandra, Matsesta, Maykop, Miass, Mineralnye Vody, Moscow, Mount Elbrus, Murmansk, Murom, Mytishchi, Naberezhnye Chelny, Nakhodka, Nalchik, Naryan-Mar, Nebug, Nizhnekamsk, Nizhnevartovsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Tagil, Norilsk, Novokuznetsk, Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, Novyi Svit, Novyy Urengoy, Obninsk, Odintsovo, Olginka, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Oryol, Partenit, Penza, Pereslavl Zalessky, Perm, Pervouralsk, Petergof, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Petrozavodsk, Plyos, Podolsk, Popovka, Primorsko-Akhtarsk, Pskov, Pulkovo, Pushkin, Pushkino, Pyatigorsk, Repino, Rosa Khutor, Rostov-on-Don, Ryazan, Rybachye, Rybinsk, Saint Petersburg, Sakhalin, Saky, Salekhard, Samara, Saransk, Saratov, Sea of Azov, Sergiyev Posad, Serpukhov, Sestroretsk, Sevastopol, Shakhty, Sheregesh, Sheremetyevo, Siberia, Simeiz, Simferopol, Smolensk, Sochi, Solovetsky Islands, Sortavala, Stary Oskol, Stavropol, Sterlitamak, Sudak, Sukko, Surgut, Suzdal, Svetlogorsk, Syktyvkar, Syzran, Taganrog, Taman, Tambov, Tarusa, Temryuk, Terskol, Tobolsk, Tolyatti, Tomsk, Torzhok, Tuapse, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ufa, Uglich, Ukhta, Ulan-Ude, Ulyanovsk, Usinsk, Ussuriysk, Utes, Valaam, Valday, Vardane, Velikiye Luki, Veliky Novgorod, Veliky Ustyug, Vityazevo, Vladikavkaz, Vladimir, Vladivostok, Vnukovo International Airport, Volga, Volgograd, Vologda, Volzhskiy, Vorkuta, Voronezh, Vyborg, Yakhroma, Yakornaya Shchel, Yakutsk, Yalta, Yaroslavl, Yekaterinburg, Yelets, Yenisei, Yessentuki, Yevpatoria, Yeysk, Yoshkar-Ola, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Zavidovo, Zelenogradsk, Zheleznovodsk, Zhukovsky, Zvenigorod, etc.

Rwanda: Butare, Gisenyi, Kibuye, Kigali, etc.

Réunion: Saint-Denis, etc.

Saint Barthélemy: Gustavia, etc.

Saint Kitts and Nevis: Basseterre, etc.

Saint Lucia: Anse La Raye, Castries, Gros Islet, Soufrière, etc.

Saint Martin:, etc.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Kingstown, etc.

Samoa: Apia, etc.

San Marino: City of San Marino, etc.

Saudi Arabia: Abha, Al Khobar, Buraydah, Dammam, Jeddah, Jizan, Jubail, Mecca, Medina, Riyadh, Ta'if, Tabuk, Yanbu, etc.

Senegal: Dakar, etc.

Serbia: Belgrade, Kopaonik, Niš, Novi Sad, Palić, Stara Planina, Subotica, Zlatibor, etc.

Seychelles: La Digue, Mahé, Praslin, etc.

Sierra Leone: Freetown, etc.

Singapore: Changi, Sentosa, etc.

Sint Maarten:, etc.

Slovakia: Bratislava, Jasná, Liptov, Tatranská Lomnica, Vysoké Tatry, Štrbské Pleso, etc.

Slovenia: Bled, Bohinj, Bovec, Kranjska Gora, Ljubljana, Maribor, Piran, Portorož, Rogaška Slatina, etc.

Solomon Islands: Honiara, etc.

Somalia: Mogadishu, etc.

Somaliland: Hargeisa, etc.

South Africa: Ballito, Benoni, Bloemfontein, Boksburg, Cape Town, Drakensberg, Durban, East London, George, Johannesburg, Kempton Park, Kimberley, Knysna, Kruger National Park, Marloth Park, Mossel Bay, Nelspruit, Pietermaritzburg, Plettenberg Bay, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth, Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Rustenburg, Sandton, Stellenbosch, Umhlanga, etc.

South Korea: Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gangneung, Gapyeong, Gwangju, Gwangyang, Gyeongju, Incheon, Jejudo, Jeonju, Pyeongchang, Seogwipo, Seoul, Sokcho, Suwon, Ulsan, Yangyang, Yeosu, etc.

Spain: A Coruña, Alcúdia, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Altea, Andalusia, Antequera, Aragon, Asturias, Ayamonte, Baiona, Balearic Islands, Barbate, Barcelona, Basque Country, Benalmádena, Benidorm, Benissa, Besalú, Bilbao, Blanes, Buñol, Cadaqués, Cala d'Or, Calella, Calonge, Calp, Calvià, Cambados, Cambrils, Canary Islands, Cangas de Onís, Cantabria, Cartagena, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Chiclana de la Frontera, Costa Blanca, Costa Brava, Costa Dorada, Costa del Maresme, Costa del Sol, Cádiz, Córdoba, Dénia, El Puerto de Santa María, Empuriabrava, Estepona, Figueres, Formentera, Fuerteventura, Galicia, Gijón, Girona, Gran Canaria, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera, L'Escala, L'Estartit, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Pineda, Lanzarote, Llançà, Lleida, Lloret de Mar, Madrid, Magaluf, Malgrat de Mar, Mallorca, Marbella, Maspalomas, Menorca, Mijas, Mojácar, Moraira, Murcia, Málaga, Navarre, Nerja, O Grove, Ourense, Oviedo, Palma Nova, Palma, Pals, Poio, Pollença, Pontevedra, PortAventura, Portonovo, Ronda, Roquetas de Mar, Roses, Salamanca, Salou, San Sebastian, Sant Antoni de Portmany, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Santillana del Mar, Sanxenxo, Seville, Sidges, Sierra Nevada, Tarifa, Tarragona, Tenerife, Toledo, Torremolinos, Torrevieja, Torroella de Montgrí, Tossa de Mar, Valencia, Vigo, Vélez-Málaga, Xàbia, Zaragoza, etc.

Sri Lanka: Anuradhapura, Bentota, Beruwala, Colombo, Dambulla, Galle, Hikkaduwa, Jaffna, Kandy, Mirissa, Negombo, Nuwara Eliya, Sigiriya, Tangalle, Trincomalee, Unawatuna, Weligama, etc.

Sudan: Khartoum, Port Sudan, etc.

Suriname: Lelydorp, Nieuw Nickerie, Paramaribo, etc.

Swaziland: Lobamba, Mbabane, etc.

Sweden: Bohuslän, Borgholm, Borlänge, Dalarna, Falkenberg, Falun, Gothenburg, Gotland, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Jönköping, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Karlskrona, Karlstad, Kiruna, Kristianstad, Linköping, Lund, Malmö, Norrköping, Solna, Stockholm, Umeå, Uppsala, Vimmerby, Visby, Västerås, Växjö, Ystad, Ängelholm, Åre, Öland, Örebro, Östersund, etc.

Switzerland: Adelboden, Andermatt, Anzère, Arosa, Ascona, Basel, Bellinzona, Bern, Crans-Montana, Davos, Engelberg, Fribourg, Geneva, Grindelwald, Grächen, Gstaad, Haute-Nendaz, Interlaken, Jungfrau, Klosters, Lake Maggiore, Lausanne, Lauterbrunnen, Leukerbad, Locarno, Lucerne, Lugano, Matterhorn, Montreux, Nendaz, Neuchâtel, Pontresina, Portes du Soleil, Saanen, Saas-Fee, Sierre, Silvaplana, Sion, St. Gallen, St. Moritz, Swiss Alps, Ticino, Valais, Verbier, Vevey, Veysonnaz, Wengen, Zermatt, Zug, Zürich, etc.

Syria: Aleppo, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, Latakia, Palmyra, Tartus, etc.

Taiwan: Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc.

Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Isfara, Khujand, etc.

Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Zanzibar, etc.

Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chonburi, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Karon, Khao Sok, Ko Chang, Ko Lanta, Ko Phangan, Ko Samui, Krabi, Pai, Patong, Pattaya, Phi Phi Islands, Phuket, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, River Kwai, Udon Thani, etc.

Togo: Lomé, etc.

Tonga: Nukuʻalofa, Tunis, etc.

Trinidad and Tobago: Port of Spain, etc.

Tunisia: Djerba, Hammamet, Midoun, Monastir, Port El Kantaoui, Sousse, etc.

Turkey: Adana, Alacati, Alanya, Ankara, Antakya, Antalya, Ayvalık, Beldibi, Belek, Bodrum, Bozcaada, Bursa, Büyükada, Cappadocia, Dalyan, Datça, Denizli, Didim, Edirne, Ephesus, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Fethiye, Gaziantep, Göreme, Göynük, Istanbul, Kalkan, Kayseri, Kaş, Kemer, Konakli, Konya, Kuşadası, Lara, Mahmutlar, Manavgat, Marmaris, Mersin, Olympos, Palandöken, Pamukkale, Prince Islands, Samsun, Sapanca, Sarıkamış, Selçuk, Side, Tarsus, Tekirova, Trabzon, Troy, Turkish Riviera, Uludağ, Van, Çamyuva, Çanakkale, Çeşme, Çıralı, Ölüdeniz, Ürgüp, İskenderun, İzmir, İçmeler, Şanlıurfa, etc.

Turkmenistan: Ashgabat, Avaza, etc.

Turks and Caicos Islands: Cockburn Town, North Caicos, Pine Cay, Providenciales, etc.

Uganda: Kampala, etc.

Ukraine: Berdiansk, Bila Tserkva, Boryspil, Bukovel, Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Kharkiv, Kherson, Kiev, Koblevo, Kremenchuk, Kryvyi Rih, Luhansk, Lviv, Mariupol, Melitopol, Mykolaiv, Odessa, Poltava, Rivne, Slavske, Sumy, Truskavets, Uzhgorod, Vinnytsia, Yaremche, Yasinya, Zaporizhia, Zatoka, Zhytomyr, etc.

United Arab Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Persian Gulf, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, etc.

United Kingdom: Aberdeen, Bath, Belfast, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Cambridge, Canterbury, Cardiff, Channel Tunnel, Cheltenham, Chester, Cornwall, Coventry, Cumbria, Derry, Devon, Dorset, Dover, Eastbourne, Edinburgh, England, English Channel, Exeter, Folkestone, Fort William, Glasgow, Hampshire, Harrogate, Inverness, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, Llandudno, London, Manchester, Mansfield, Milton Keynes, Newcastle, Newquay, Northern Ireland, Norwich, Nottingham, Oban, Oxford, Paignton, Plymouth, Portmeirion, Portsmouth, Reading, Sandown, Scarborough, Scotland, Shanklin, Sheffield, Somerset, Southampton, St Albans, Stonehenge, Sussex, Swansea, Torquay, Wales, Whitby, Windsor, York, etc.

United States: Akron, Alabama, Alaska, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Anaheim, Anchorage, Ann Arbor, Arizona, Arkansas, Arlington, Aspen, Atlanta, Aurora, Austin, Bakersfield, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, Beaver Creek, Berkeley, Big Bear Lake, Billings, Biloxi, Birmingham, Boca Raton, Boise, Boston, Breckenridge, Brooklyn, Buffalo, California, Carlsbad, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Chandler, Charlotte, Chesapeake, Cheyenne, Chicago, Chula Vista, Cincinnati, Clearwater, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Columbus Georgia, Columbus, Connecticut, Corpus Christi, Costa Mesa, Cupertino, Dallas, Dana Point, Daytona Beach, Death Valley, Delaware, Delray Beach, Denver, Des Moines, Destin, Detroit, Durham, El Paso, Estes Park, Fargo, Fayetteville, Florida, Fontana, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Fort Walton Beach, Fort Wayne, Fort Worth, Fremont, Fresno, Galveston, Garland, Georgia, Gilbert, Glendale, Grand Canyon, Grand Rapids, Grand Teton, Great Smoky Mountains, Greensboro, Gulfport, Hawaii, Henderson, Hialeah, Hollywood, Honolulu, Hot Springs, Houston, Huntington Beach, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indianapolis, Iowa, Irving, Jackson Mississippi, Jackson Wyoming, Jacksonville, Jersey City, Juneau, Kansas City, Kansas, Kentucky, Key Largo, Key West, La Jolla, Laguna Beach, Lahaina, Lake Tahoe, Laredo, Las Vegas, Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Louisville, Lubbock, Madison, Maine, Malibu, Mammoth Lakes, Manhattan, Marathon, Maryland, Massachusetts, Memphis, Mesa, Mexico City, Miami Beach, Miami, Michigan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Moab, Modesto, Montana, Monterey, Montgomery, Moreno Valley, Mountain View, Myrtle Beach, Napa, Naples, Nashville, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New Orleans, New York City, New York, Newark, Newport Beach, Newport, Norfolk, North Carolina, North Dakota, North Las Vegas, Oakland, Ocean City, Oceanside, Ohio, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Omaha, Oregon, Orlando, Oxnard, Palm Coast, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Palo Alto, Panama City Beach, Park City, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Plano, Pompano Beach, Portland, Portland, Providence, Raleigh, Reno, Rhode Island, Richmond, Riverside, Rochester, Rocky Mountains, Sacramento, Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Sanibel, Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Monica, Sarasota, Savannah, Scottsdale, Seattle, Shreveport, Silicon Valley, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Lake Tahoe, Spokane, Springfield, Squaw Valley, St. Augustine, St. Louis, St. Petersburg, Steamboat Springs, Stockton, Sunny Isles Beach, Sunnyvale, Tacoma, Tallahassee, Tampa, Telluride, Tennessee, Texas, Thousand Oaks, Toledo, Tucson, Tulsa, Utah, Vail, Vermont, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Waikiki, Washington D.C., Washington, West Palm Beach, West Virginia, Wichita, Winston-Salem, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yellowstone, Yonkers, Yosemite, Zion, etc.

Uruguay: Montevideo, Punta del Este, etc.

Uzbekistan: Bukhara, Fergana, Khiva, Kokand, Navoiy, Samarkand, Tashkent, Urgench, etc.

Vanuatu: Port Vila, etc.

Vatican:, etc.

Venezuela: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc.

Vietnam: Cần Thơ, Da Lat, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Huế, Hạ Long, Hội An, Long Hải, Mỹ Tho, Nha Trang, Ninh Bình, Phan Thiết, Phú Quốc, Qui Nhơn, Rạch Giá, Sa Pa, Vũng Tàu, Đồng Hới, etc.

Yemen: Aden, Sana'a, etc.

Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, etc.

Zimbabwe: Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc.

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