Saudi Arabia (, ), officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the fifth-largest state in Asia and second-largest state in the Arab world after Algeria. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast, and Yemen to the south. It is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid inhospitable desert or barren landforms. The country has attracted criticism for its lack of democratic freedom the status of women in Saudi society as well as its usage of capital punishment.
The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz, Najd, and parts of Eastern Arabia (Al-Ahsa) and Southern Arabia ('Asir). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Ibn Saud. He united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud. Saudi Arabia has since been an absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamic lines. The ultra-conservative Wahhabism religious movement within Sunni Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture", with its global spreading largely financed by the oil and gas trade. Saudi Arabia is sometimes called "the Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca), and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (in Medina), the two holiest places in Islam. The Kingdom has a total population of 28.7 million, of which 20 million are Saudi nationals and 8 million are foreigners.
Petroleum was discovered in 1938 and followed up by several other finds in the Shia-majority Eastern Province. Saudi Arabia has since become the world's largest oil producer and exporter, controlling the world's second largest oil reserves, and the sixth largest gas reserves. The kingdom is categorized as a World Bank high-income economy with a high Human Development Index, and is the only Arab country to be part of the G-20 major economies. However, the economy of Saudi Arabia is the least diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, lacking any significant service or production sector (apart from the extraction of resources). A monarchical autocracy, Saudi Arabia has the fourth highest military expenditure in the world, and in 2010–14, SIPRI found that Saudi Arabia was the world's second largest arms importer. Saudi Arabia is considered a regional and middle power. In addition to the GCC, it is an active member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and OPEC.
Following the unification of the Hejaz and Nejd kingdoms, the new state was named al-Mamlakah al-ʻArabīyah as-Suʻūdīyah (a transliteration of المملكة العربية السعودية in Arabic) by royal decree on 23 September 1932 by its founder, Abdulaziz Al Saud (Ibn Saud). Although this is normally translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English it literally means "the Saudi Arab kingdom", or "the Arab Saudi Kingdom".
The word "Saudi" is derived from the element as-Suʻūdīyah in the Arabic name of the country, which is a type of adjective known as a nisba, formed from the dynastic name of the Saudi royal family, the Al Saud (آل سعود). Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the personal possession of the royal family. Al Saud is an Arabic name formed by adding the word Al, meaning "family of" or "House of", to the personal name of an ancestor. In the case of the Al Saud, this is the father of the dynasty's 18th century founder, Muhammad bin Saud.
Those who do not recognize Saudi rule (particularly the Islamic State) call the nation the "land of Haramayn (the two holy places)" in reference to Mecca and Medina.
Before the foundation of Saudi Arabia
In pre-Islamic times, apart from a small number of urban trading settlements (such as Mecca and Medina), most of what was to become Saudi Arabia was populated by nomadic tribal societies in the inhospitable desert. The Islamic prophet, Muhammad, was born in Mecca in about 571 A.D. In the early 7th century, Muhammad united the various tribes of the peninsula and created a single Islamic religious polity.
Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day Pakistan in east) in a matter of decades. In so doing, Arabia soon became a politically peripheral region of the Muslim world as the focus shifted to the more developed conquered lands. From the 10th century to the early 20th century Mecca and Medina were under the control of a local Arab ruler known as the Sharif of Mecca, but at most times the Sharif owed allegiance to the ruler of one of the major Islamic empires based in Baghdad, Cairo or Istanbul. Most of the remainder of what became Saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule.
For much of the 10th century the Isma'ili-Shi'ite Qarmatians were the most powerful force in the Persian Gulf. In 930, the Qarmatians pillaged Mecca, outraging the Muslim world, particularly with their theft of the Black Stone.
In the 16th century, the Ottomans added the Red Sea and Persian Gulf coast (the Hejaz, Asir and Al-Ahsa) to the Empire and claimed suzerainty over the interior. One reason was to thwart Portuguese attempts to attack the Red Sea (hence the Hejaz) and the Indian Ocean. Ottoman degree of control over these lands varied over the next four centuries with the fluctuating strength or weakness of the Empire's central authority.
Foundation of the Saud dynasty
The Arabian Peninsula in 1914.
The emergence of what was to become the Saudi royal family, known as the Al Saud, began in Nejd in central Arabia in 1744, when Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the dynasty, joined forces with the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, founder of the Wahhabi movement, a strict puritanical form of Sunni Islam. This alliance formed in the 18th century provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion and remains the basis of Saudi Arabian dynastic rule today.
The first "Saudi state" established in 1744 in the area around Riyadh, rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia, but was destroyed by 1818 by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, Mohammed Ali Pasha. A much smaller second "Saudi state", located mainly in Nejd, was established in 1824. Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the Al Saud contested control of the interior of what was to become Saudi Arabia with another Arabian ruling family, the Al Rashid. By 1891, the Al Rashid were victorious and the Al Saud were driven into exile in Kuwait.
Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud
, the first king of Saudi Arabia.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire continued to control or have a suzerainty over most of the peninsula. Subject to this suzerainty, Arabia was ruled by a patchwork of tribal rulers, with the Sharif of Mecca having pre-eminence and ruling the Hejaz. In 1902, Abdul Rahman's son, Abdul Aziz-later to be known as Ibn Saud-recaptured control of Riyadh bringing the Al Saud back to Nejd. Ibn Saud gained the support of the Ikhwan, a tribal army inspired by Wahhabism and led by Faisal Al-Dawish, and which had grown quickly after its foundation in 1912. With the aid of the Ikhwan, Ibn Saud captured Al-Ahsa from the Ottomans in 1913.
In 1916, with the encouragement and support of Britain (which was fighting the Ottomans in World War I), the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali, led a pan-Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire to create a united Arab state. Although the Arab Revolt of 1916 to 1918 failed in its objective, the Allied victory in World War I resulted in the end of Ottoman suzerainty and control in Arabia.
Ibn Saud avoided involvement in the Arab Revolt, and instead continued his struggle with the Al Rashid. Following the latter's final defeat, he took the title Sultan of Nejd in 1921. With the help of the Ikhwan, the Hejaz was conquered in 1924–25 and on 10 January 1926, Ibn Saud declared himself King of the Hejaz. A year later, he added the title of King of Nejd. For the next five years, he administered the two parts of his dual kingdom as separate units.
After the conquest of the Hejaz, the Ikhwan leadership's objective switched to expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, and began raiding those territories. This met with Ibn Saud's opposition, as he recognized the danger of a direct conflict with the British. At the same time, the Ikhwan became disenchanted with Ibn Saud's domestic policies which appeared to favor modernization and the increase in the number of non-Muslim foreigners in the country. As a result, they turned against Ibn Saud and, after a two-year struggle, were defeated in 1929 at the Battle of Sabilla, where their leaders were massacred. In 1932 the two kingdoms of the Hejaz and Nejd were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia political map
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in 1932.
The new kingdom was one of the poorest countries in the world, reliant on limited agriculture and pilgrimage revenues. In 1938, vast reserves of oil were discovered in the Al-Ahsa region along the coast of the Persian Gulf, and full-scale development of the oil fields began in 1941 under the US-controlled Aramco (Arabian American Oil Company). Oil provided Saudi Arabia with economic prosperity and substantial political leverage internationally.
Cultural life rapidly developed, primarily in the Hejaz, which was the center for newspapers and radio. However, the large influx of foreign workers in Saudi Arabia in the oil industry increased the pre-existing propensity for xenophobia. At the same time, the government became increasingly wasteful and extravagant. By the 1950s this had led to large governmental deficits and excessive foreign borrowing.
In 1953, Saud of Saudi Arabia succeeded as the king of Saudi Arabia, on his father's death, until 1964 when he was deposed in favor of his half brother Faisal of Saudi Arabia, after an intense rivalry, fueled by doubts in the royal family over Saud's competence. In 1972, Saudi Arabia gained a 20% control in Aramco, thereby decreasing US control over Saudi oil.
In 1973, Saudi Arabia led an oil boycott against the Western countries that supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War against Egypt and Syria. Oil prices quadrupled. In 1975, Faisal was assassinated by his nephew, Prince Faisal bin Musaid and was succeeded by his half-brother King Khalid.
Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways map.
By 1976, Saudi Arabia had become the largest oil producer in the world. Khalid's reign saw economic and social development progress at an extremely rapid rate, transforming the infrastructure and educational system of the country; in foreign policy, close ties with the US were developed. In 1979, two events occurred which greatly concerned the government, and had a long-term influence on Saudi foreign and domestic policy. The first was the Iranian Islamic Revolution. It was feared that the country's Shi'ite minority in the Eastern Province (which is also the location of the oil fields) might rebel under the influence of their Iranian co-religionists. There were several anti-government uprisings in the region such as the 1979 Qatif Uprising.
The second event was the Grand Mosque Seizure in Mecca by Islamist extremists. The militants involved were in part angered by what they considered to be the corruption and un-Islamic nature of the Saudi government. The government regained control of the mosque after 10 days and those captured were executed. Part of the response of the royal family was to enforce a much stricter observance of traditional religious and social norms in the country (for example, the closure of cinemas) and to give the Ulema a greater role in government. Neither entirely succeeded as Islamism continued to grow in strength.
Dammam No. 7, the first commercial oil well in Saudi Arabia, struck oil on 4 March 1938
In 1980, Saudi Arabia bought out the American interests in Aramco.
King Khalid died of a heart attack in June 1982. He was succeeded by his brother, King Fahd, who added the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" to his name in 1986 in response to considerable fundamentalist pressure to avoid use of "majesty" in association with anything except God. Fahd continued to develop close relations with the United States and increased the purchase of American and British military equipment.
The vast wealth generated by oil revenues was beginning to have an even greater impact on Saudi society. It led to rapid technological (but not cultural) modernisation, urbanization, mass public education and the creation of new media. This and the presence of increasingly large numbers of foreign workers greatly affected traditional Saudi norms and values. Although there was dramatic change in the social and economic life of the country, political power continued to be monopolized by the royal family leading to discontent among many Saudis who began to look for wider participation in government.
In the 1980s, Saudi Arabia spent $25 billion in support of Saddam Hussein in the Iran–Iraq War. However, Saudi Arabia condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and asked the US to intervene. King Fahd allowed American and coalition troops to be stationed in Saudi Arabia. He invited the Kuwaiti government and many of its citizens to stay in Saudi Arabia, but expelled citizens of Yemen and Jordan because of their governments' support of Iraq. In 1991, Saudi Arabian forces were involved both in bombing raids on Iraq and in the land invasion that helped to liberate Kuwait.
Saudi Arabia's relations with the West began to cause growing concern among some of the ulema and students of sharia law and was one of the issues that led to an increase in Islamist terrorism in Saudi Arabia, as well as Islamist terrorist attacks in Western countries by Saudi nationals. Osama bin Laden was a Saudi national (until stripped of his nationality in 1994). 15 of the 19 hijackers involved in 9/11 attacks on New York, Washington and Virginia were Saudi nationals. Many Saudis who did not support the Islamist terrorists were nevertheless deeply unhappy with the government's policies.
pipelines in the Middle-East
Islamism was not the only source of hostility to the government. Although now extremely wealthy, Saudi Arabia's economy was near stagnant. High taxes and a growth in unemployment have contributed to discontent, and has been reflected in a rise in civil unrest, and discontent with the royal family. In response, a number of limited "reforms" were initiated by King Fahd. In March 1992, he introduced the "Basic Law", which emphasised the duties and responsibilities of a ruler. In December 1993, the Consultative Council was inaugurated. It is composed of a chairman and 60 members-all chosen by the King. The King's intent was to respond to dissent while making as few actual changes in the status quo as possible. Fahd made it clear that he did not have democracy in mind: "A system based on elections is not consistent with our Islamic creed, which [approves of] government by consultation [shūrā]."
In 1995, Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke, and the Crown Prince, Abdullah, assumed the role of de facto regent, taking on the day-to-day running of the country. However, his authority was hindered by conflict with Fahd's full brothers (known, with Fahd, as the "Sudairi Seven"). From the 1990s, signs of discontent continued and included, in 2003 and 2004, a series of bombings and armed violence in Riyadh, Jeddah, Yanbu and Khobar. In February–April 2005, the first-ever nationwide municipal elections were held in Saudi Arabia. Women were not allowed to take part in the poll.
In 2005, King Fahd died and was succeeded by Abdullah, who continued the policy of minimum reform and clamping down on protests. The king introduced a number of economic reforms aimed at reducing the country's reliance on oil revenue: limited deregulation, encouragement of foreign investment, and privatization. In February 2009, Abdullah announced a series of governmental changes to the judiciary, armed forces, and various ministries to modernize these institutions including the replacement of senior appointees in the judiciary and the Mutaween (religious police) with more moderate individuals and the appointment of the country's first female deputy minister.
On 29 January 2011, hundreds of protesters gathered in the city of Jeddah in a rare display of criticism against the city's poor infrastructure after deadly floods swept through the city, killing eleven people. Police stopped the demonstration after about 15 minutes and arrested 30 to 50 people.
Since 2011, Saudi Arabia has been affected by its own Arab Spring protests. In response, King Abdullah announced on 22 February 2011 a series of benefits for citizens amounting to $36 billion, of which $10.7 billion was earmarked for housing. No political reforms were announced as part of the package, though some prisoners indicted for financial crimes were pardoned. On 18 March the same year, King Abdullah announced a package of $93 billion, which included 500,000 new homes to a cost of $67 billion, in addition to creating 60,000 new security jobs.
Although male-only municipal elections were held on 29 September 2011, Abdullah allowed women to vote and be elected in the 2015 municipal elections, and also to be nominated to the Shura Council.
Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy. However, according to the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia adopted by royal decree in 1992, the king must comply with Sharia (Islamic law) and the Quran, while the Quran and the Sunnah (the traditions of Muhammad) are declared to be the country's constitution. No political parties or national elections are permitted. Critics regard it as a totalitarian dictatorship.The Economist rates the Saudi government as the fifth most authoritarian government out of 167 rated in its 2012 Democracy Index, and Freedom House gives it its lowest "Not Free" rating, 7.0 ("1=best, 7=worst") for 2013.
In the absence of national elections and political parties, politics in Saudi Arabia takes place in two distinct arenas: within the royal family, the Al Saud, and between the royal family and the rest of Saudi society. Outside of the Al-Saud, participation in the political process is limited to a relatively small segment of the population and takes the form of the royal family consulting with the ulema, tribal sheikhs and members of important commercial families on major decisions. This process is not reported by the Saudi media.
By custom, all males of full age have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis. In many ways the approach to government differs little from the traditional system of tribal rule. Tribal identity remains strong and, outside of the royal family, political influence is frequently determined by tribal affiliation, with tribal sheikhs maintaining a considerable degree of influence over local and national events. As mentioned earlier, in recent years there have been limited steps to widen political participation such as the establishment of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s and the National Dialogue Forum in 2003.
The rule of the Al Saud faces political opposition from four sources: Sunni Islamist activism; liberal critics; the Shi'ite minority-particularly in the Eastern Province; and long-standing tribal and regionalist particularistic opponents (for example in the Hejaz). Of these, the Islamic activists have been the most prominent threat to the government and have in recent years perpetrated a number of violent or terrorist acts in the country. However, open protest against the government, even if peaceful, is not tolerated.
Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that effectively bans women from driving; although there is no written law to that effect, in practice women are hindered from obtaining the locally issued licenses required to drive. On 25 September 2011, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah has announced that women will have the right to stand and vote in future local elections and join the advisory Shura council as full members.
Monarchy and royal family
The king combines legislative, executive, and judicial functions and royal decrees form the basis of the country's legislation. The king is also the prime minister, and presides over the Council of Ministers (Majlis al-Wuzarāʾ), which comprises the first and second deputy prime ministers and other ministers.
The royal family dominates the political system. The family's vast numbers allow it to control most of the kingdom's important posts and to have an involvement and presence at all levels of government. The number of princes is estimated to be at least 7,000, with most power and influence being wielded by the 200 or so male descendants of Ibn Saud. The key ministries are generally reserved for the royal family, as are the thirteen regional governorships.
Long term political and government appointments have resulted in the creation of "power fiefdoms" for senior princes, such as those of King Abdullah, who had been Commander of the National Guard since 1963 (until 2010, when he appointed his son to replace him), former Crown Prince Sultan, Minister of Defence and Aviation from 1962 to his death in 2011, former crown prince Prince Nayef who was the Minister of Interior from 1975 to his death in 2012, Prince Saud who had been Minister of Foreign Affairs since 1975 and current King Salman, who was Minister of Defense and Aviation before he was crown prince and Governor of the Riyadh Province from 1962 to 2011. The current Minister of Defense is Prince Mohammad bin Salman, the son of King Salman and Deputy Crown Prince.
The royal family is politically divided by factions based on clan loyalties, personal ambitions and ideological differences. The most powerful clan faction is known as the 'Sudairi Seven', comprising the late King Fahd and his full brothers and their descendants. Ideological divisions include issues over the speed and direction of reform, and whether the role of the ulema should be increased or reduced. There were divisions within the family over who should succeed to the throne after the accession or earlier death of Prince Sultan. When prince Sultan died before ascending to the throne on 21 October 2011, King Abdullah appointed Prince Nayef as crown prince. The following year Prince Nayef also died before ascending to the throne.
The Saudi government and the royal family have often, over many years, been accused of corruption. In a country that is said to "belong" to the royal family and is named for them, the lines between state assets and the personal wealth of senior princes are blurred. The extent of corruption has been described as systemic and endemic, and its existence was acknowledged and defended by Prince Bandar bin Sultan (a senior member of the royal family) in an interview in 2001.
Although corruption allegations have often been limited to broad undocumented accusations, specific allegations were made in 2007, when it was claimed that the British defence contractor BAE Systems had paid Prince Bandar US$2 billion in bribes relating to the Al-Yamamah arms deal. Prince Bandar denied the allegations. Investigations by both US and UK authorities resulted, in 2010, in plea bargain agreements with the company, by which it paid $447 million in fines but did not admit to bribery.
Transparency International in its annual Corruption Perceptions Index for 2010 gave Saudi Arabia a score of 4.7 (on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 is "highly corrupt" and 10 is "highly clean"). Saudi Arabia has undergone a process of political and social reform, such as to increase public transparency and good governance. However, nepotism and patronage are widespread when doing business in the country. The enforcement of the anti-corruption laws is selective and public officials engage in corruption with impunity.
There has been mounting pressure to reform and modernize the royal family's rule, an agenda championed by King Abdullah both before and after his accession in 2005. The creation of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s did not satisfy demands for political participation, and, in 2003, an annual National Dialogue Forum was announced that would allow selected professionals and intellectuals to publicly debate current national issues, within certain prescribed parameters. In 2005, the first municipal elections were held. In 2007, the Allegiance Council was created to regulate the succession. In 2009, the king made significant personnel changes to the government by appointing reformers to key positions and the first woman to a ministerial post. However, the changes have been criticized as being too slow or merely cosmetic.
Al ash-Sheikh and role of the ulema
Saudi Arabia is almost unique in giving the ulema (the body of Islamic religious leaders and jurists) a direct role in government, the only other example being Iran. The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions, for example the imposition of the oil embargo in 1973 and the invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990. In addition, they have had a major role in the judicial and education systems and a monopoly of authority in the sphere of religious and social morals.
By the 1970s, as a result of oil wealth and the modernization of the country initiated by King Faisal, important changes to Saudi society were under way and the power of the ulema was in decline. However, this changed following the seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca in 1979 by Islamist radicals. The government's response to the crisis included strengthening the ulema's powers and increasing their financial support: in particular, they were given greater control over the education system and allowed to enforce stricter observance of Wahhabi rules of moral and social behaviour. After his accession to the throne in 2005, King Abdullah took steps to reduce the powers of the ulema, for instance transferring control over girls' education to the Ministry of Education.
The ulema have historically been led by the Al ash-Sheikh, the country's leading religious family. The Al ash-Sheikh are the descendants of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the 18th century founder of the Wahhabi form of Sunni Islam which is today dominant in Saudi Arabia. The family is second in prestige only to the Al Saud (the royal family) with whom they formed a "mutual support pact" and power-sharing arrangement nearly 300 years ago. The pact, which persists to this day, is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash-Sheikh's authority in religious matters and upholding and propagating Wahhabi doctrine. In return, the Al ash-Sheikh support the Al Saud's political authority thereby using its religious-moral authority to legitimize the royal family's rule. Although the Al ash-Sheikh's domination of the ulema has diminished in recent decades, they still hold the most important religious posts and are closely linked to the Al Saud by a high degree of intermarriage.
Verses from the Quran. The Quran
is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
The primary source of law is the Islamic Sharia derived from the teachings of the Qu'ran and the Sunnah (the traditions of the Prophet). Saudi Arabia is unique among modern Muslim states in that Sharia is not codified and there is no system of judicial precedent, giving judges the power to use independent legal reasoning to make a decision. Saudi judges tend to follow the principles of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence (or fiqh) found in pre-modern texts and noted for its literalist interpretation of the Qu'ran and hadith.
Because the judge is empowered to disregard previous judgments (either his own or of other judges) and may apply his personal interpretation of Sharia to any particular case, divergent judgements arise even in apparently identical cases, making predictability of legal interpretation difficult. The Sharia court system constitutes the basic judiciary of Saudi Arabia and its judges (qadi) and lawyers form part of the ulema, the country's Islamic scholars.
Royal decrees are the other main source of law; but are referred to as regulations rather than laws because they are subordinate to the Sharia. Royal decrees supplement Sharia in areas such as labor, commercial and corporate law. Additionally, traditional tribal law and custom remain significant. Extra-Sharia government tribunals usually handle disputes relating to specific royal decrees. Final appeal from both Sharia courts and government tribunals is to the King and all courts and tribunals follow Sharia rules of evidence and procedure.
The Saudi system of justice has been criticized for its "ultra-puritanical judges", who are often harsh in their sentencing (with beheading for the crime of witchcraft), but also sometimes overly lenient (for cases of rape or wife-beating) and slow, for example leaving thousands of abandoned women unable to secure a divorce. The system has also been criticized for being arcane, lacking in some of the safeguards of justice, and unable to deal with the modern world. In 2007, King Abdullah issued royal decrees reforming the judiciary and creating a new court system, and, in 2009, the King made a number of significant changes to the judiciary's personnel at the most senior level by bringing in a younger generation.
, central Riyadh. Known locally as "Chop-chop square", it is the location of public beheadings.
Capital and physical punishments imposed by Saudi courts, such as beheading, stoning (to death), amputation, crucifixion and lashing, as well as the sheer number of executions have been strongly criticized. The death penalty can be imposed for a wide range of offences including murder, rape, armed robbery, repeated drug use, apostasy, adultery, witchcraft and sorcery and can be carried out by beheading with a sword, stoning or firing squad, followed by crucifixion. The 345 reported executions between 2007 and 2010 were all carried out by public beheading. The last reported execution for sorcery took place in September 2014.
Although repeated theft can be punishable by amputation of the right hand, only one instance of judicial amputation was reported between 2007 and 2010. Homosexual acts are punishable by flogging or death. Atheism or "calling into question the fundamentals of the Islamic religion on which this country is based" is considered a terrorist crime. Lashings are a common form of punishment and are often imposed for offences against religion and public morality such as drinking alcohol and neglect of prayer and fasting obligations.
Retaliatory punishments, or Qisas, are practised: for instance, an eye can be surgically removed at the insistence of a victim who lost his own eye. Families of someone unlawfully killed can choose between demanding the death penalty or granting clemency in return for a payment of diyya (blood money), by the perpetrator.
In 2014, Saudi Arabian writer Raif Badawi
was sentenced to 10 years in prison and 1,000 lashes for "insulting Islam".
Western-based organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch condemn both the Saudi criminal justice system and its severe punishments. There are no jury trials in Saudi Arabia and courts observe few formalities. Human Rights Watch, in a 2008 report, noted that a criminal procedure code had been introduced for the first time in 2002, but it lacked some basic protections and, in any case, had been routinely ignored by judges. Those arrested are often not informed of the crime of which they are accused or given access to a lawyer and are subject to abusive treatment and torture if they do not confess. At trial, there is a presumption of guilt and the accused is often unable to examine witnesses and evidence or present a legal defense. Most trials are held in secret. An example of sentencing is that UK pensioner and cancer victim Karl Andree, aged 74, faced 360 lashes for home brewing alcohol. He was later released due to intervention by British government.
Saudi Arabia is widely accused of having one of the worst human rights records in the world. Human rights issues that have attracted strong criticism include the extremely disadvantaged position of women (see Women below), capital punishment for homosexuality, religious discrimination, the lack of religious freedom and the activities of the religious police (see Religion below). Between 1996 and 2000, Saudi Arabia acceded to four UN human rights conventions and, in 2004, the government approved the establishment of the National Society for Human Rights (NSHR), staffed by government employees, to monitor their implementation. To date, the activities of the NSHR have been limited and doubts remain over its neutrality and independence.
Saudi Arabia remains one of the very few countries in the world not to accept the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In response to the continuing criticism of its human rights record, the Saudi government points to the special Islamic character of the country, and asserts that this justifies a different social and political order. The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom had unsuccessfully urged President Barack Obama to raise human rights concerns with King Abdullah on his March 2014 visit to the Kingdom especially the imprisonments of Sultan Hamid Marzooq al-Enezi, Saud Falih Awad al-Enezi, and Raif Badawi.
Saudi Arabia also conducts dozens of executions each year, mainly for murder and drug smuggling, although there are people who have been executed for deserting Islam and crimes against the Faisal bin Musaid. The method of execution is normally beheading in public. For example, Ali Mohammed Baqir al-Nimr was arrested in 2012 when he was 17 years old for taking part in an anti-government protests in Saudi Arabia during the Arab Spring. In May 2014, Ali al-Nimr was sentenced to be publicly beheaded and crucified.
In 2013, the government deported thousands of non-Saudis, many of them who were working illegally in the country or had overstayed their visas. Many reports abound, of foreigner workers being tortured either by employers or others. This resulted in many basic services suffering from a lack of workers, as many Saudi Arabian citizens are not keen on working in blue collar jobs.
Saudi Arabia has a "Counter-Radicalization Program" the purpose of which is to "combat the spread and appeal of extremist ideologies among the general populous" and to "instill the true values of the Islamic faith, such as tolerance and moderation." This "tolerance and moderation" has been called into question by the Baltimore Sun, based on the reports from Amnesty International regarding Raif Badawi, and in the case of a man from Hafr al-Batin sentenced to death for rejecting Islam. In September 2015, Faisal bin Hassan Trad, Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the UN in Geneva, has been elected Chair of the United Nations Human Rights Council panel that appoints independent experts. In January 2016, Saudi Arabia executed the prominent Shia cleric Sheikh Nimr who had called for pro-democracy demonstrations and for free elections in Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia joined the UN in 1945 and is a founding member of the Arab League, Gulf Cooperation Council, Muslim World League, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation). It plays a prominent role in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and in 2005 joined the World Trade Organization. Saudi Arabia supports the intended formation of the Arab Customs Union in 2015 and an Arab common market by 2020, as announced at the 2009 Arab League summit.
Since 1960, as a founding member of OPEC, its oil pricing policy has been generally to stabilize the world oil market and try to moderate sharp price movements so as to not jeopardise the Western economies.
Between the mid-1970s and 2002 Saudi Arabia expended over $70 billion in "overseas development aid". However, there is evidence that the vast majority was, in fact, spent on propagating and extending the influence of Wahhabism at the expense of other forms of Islam. There has been an intense debate over whether Saudi aid and Wahhabism has fomented extremism in recipient countries. The two main allegations are that, by its nature, Wahhabism encourages intolerance and promotes terrorism. Counting only the non-Muslim-majority countries, Saudi Arabia has paid for the construction of 1359 mosques, 210 Islamic centres, 202 colleges and 2000 schools.
Saudi Arabia and the United States are strategic allies, and since President Barack Obama took office in 2009, the U.S. has sold $110 billion in arms to Saudi Arabia. The relations with the U.S. became strained following 9/11. American politicians and media accused the Saudi government of supporting terrorism and tolerating a jihadist culture. Indeed, Osama bin Laden and fifteen out of the nineteen 9/11 hijackers were from Saudi Arabia; in ISIL-occupied Raqqa, in mid-2014, all 12 judges were Saudi. According to former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, "Saudi Arabia remains a critical financial support base for al-Qaida, the Taliban, LeT and other terrorist groups... Donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide." Former CIA director James Woolsey described it as "the soil in which Al-Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing." The Saudi government denies these claims or that it exports religious or cultural extremism. In April 2016, Saudi Arabia has threatened to sell off $750 billion in Treasury securities and other U.S. assets if Congress passes a bill that would allow the Saudi government to be sued over 9/11.
is named after a Saudi King. The Kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan
claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs"."
In the Arab and Muslim worlds, Saudi Arabia is considered to be pro-Western and pro-American, and it is certainly a long-term ally of the United States. However, this and Saudi Arabia's role in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, particularly the stationing of U.S. troops on Saudi soil from 1991, prompted the development of a hostile Islamist response internally. As a result, Saudi Arabia has, to some extent, distanced itself from the U.S. and, for example, refused to support or to participate in the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003.
The consequences of the 2003 invasion and the Arab Spring led to increasing alarm within the Saudi monarchy over the rise of Iran's influence in the region. These fears were reflected in comments of King Abdullah, who privately urged the United States to attack Iran and "cut off the head of the snake". The tentative rapprochement between the US and Iran that began in secret in 2011 was said to be feared by the Saudis, and, during the run up to the widely welcomed deal on Iran's nuclear programme that capped the first stage of US–Iranian détente, Robert Jordan, who was U.S. ambassador to Riyadh from 2001 to 2003, said "[t]he Saudis' worst nightmare would be the [Obama] administration striking a grand bargain with Iran." A trip to Saudi by US President Barack Obama in 2014 included discussions of US–Iran relations, though these failed to resolve Riyadh's concerns.
In order to protect the house of Khalifa, the monarchs of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia invaded Bahrain by sending military troops to quell the uprising of Bahraini people on 14 March 2011. The Saudi government considered the two-month uprising as a "security threat" posed by the Shia who represent the majority of Bahrain population.
According to the Iraqi prime minister Nouri al-Maliki in March 2014, Saudi Arabia along with Qatar provided political, financial and media support to terrorists against the Iraqi government.
On March 25, 2015, Saudi Arabia, spearheading a coalition of Sunni Muslim states, started a military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings.
As of 2015, together with Qatar and Turkey, Saudi Arabia is openly supporting the Army of Conquest, an umbrella group of anti-government forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War that reportedly includes an al-Qaeda linked al-Nusra Front and another Salafi coalition known as Ahrar al-Sham.
Following a number of incidents during the Hajj season, the deadliest of which killed at least 2,070 pilgrim in 2015 Mina stampede, Saudi Arabia has been accused of mismanagement and focusing on increasing money revenues while neglecting pilgrims’ welfare.
Saudi Arabia has been seen as a moderating influence in the Arab-Israeli conflict, periodically putting forward a peace plan between Israel and the Palestinians and condemning Hezbollah. Following the Arab Spring Saudi Arabia offered asylum to deposed President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali of Tunisia and King Abdullah telephoned President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt (prior to his deposition) to offer his support. In early 2014 relations with Qatar became strained over its support for the Muslim Brotherhood, and Saudi Arabia's belief that Qatar was interfering in its affairs. In August 2014 both countries appeared to be exploring ways of ending the rift.
Saudi Arabia has one of the highest percentages of military expenditure in the world, spending more than 10% of its GDP in its military. The Saudi military consists of the Royal Saudi Land Forces, the Royal Saudi Air Force, the Royal Saudi Navy, the Royal Saudi Air Defense, the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG, an independent military force), and paramilitary forces, totaling nearly 200,000 active-duty personnel. In 2005 the armed forces had the following personnel: the army, 75,000; the air force, 18,000; air defense, 16,000; the navy, 15,500 (including 3,000 marines); and the SANG had 75,000 active soldiers and 25,000 tribal levies. In addition, there is an Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah military intelligence service.
The kingdom has a long-standing military relationship with Pakistan, it has long been speculated that Saudi Arabia secretly funded Pakistan's atomic bomb programme and seeks to purchase atomic weapons from Pakistan, in near future. The SANG is not a reserve but a fully operational front-line force, and originated out of Ibn Saud's tribal military-religious force, the Ikhwan. Its modern existence, however, is attributable to it being effectively Abdullah's private army since the 1960s and, unlike the rest of the armed forces, is independent of the Ministry of Defense and Aviation. The SANG has been a counterbalance to the Sudairi faction in the royal family: Prince Sultan, the Minister of Defense and Aviation, is one of the so-called 'Sudairi Seven' and controls the remainder of the armed forces.
Spending on defense and security has increased significantly since the mid-1990s and was about US$25.4 billion in 2005. Saudi Arabia ranks among the top 10 in the world in government spending for its military, representing about 7% of gross domestic product in 2005. Its modern high-technology arsenal makes Saudi Arabia among the world's most densely armed nations, with its military equipment being supplied primarily by the US, France and Britain.
The United States sold more than $80 billion in military hardware between 1951 and 2006 to the Saudi military. On 20 October 2010, the U.S. State Department notified Congress of its intention to make the biggest arms sale in American history-an estimated $60.5 billion purchase by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The package represents a considerable improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces. 2013 saw Saudi military spending climb to $67bn, overtaking that of the UK, France and Japan to place fourth globally.
The United Kingdom has also been a major supplier of military equipment to Saudi Arabia since 1965. Since 1985, the UK has supplied military aircraft-notably the Tornado and Eurofighter Typhoon combat aircraft-and other equipment as part of the long-term Al-Yamamah arms deal estimated to have been worth £43 billion by 2006 and thought to be worth a further £40 billion. In May 2012, British defence giant BAE signed a £1.9bn ($3bn) deal to supply Hawk trainer jets to Saudi Arabia.
According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI, in 2010–14 Saudi Arabia became the world's second largest arms importer, receiving four times more major arms than in 2005–2009. Major imports in 2010–14 included 45 combat aircraft from the UK, 38 combat helicopters from the USA, 4 tanker aircraft from Spain and over 600 armoured vehicles from Canada. Saudi Arabia has a long list of outstanding orders for arms, including 27 more combat aircraft from the UK, 154 combat aircraft from the USA and a large number of armoured vehicles from Canada. Saudi Arabia received 41 per cent of UK arms exports in 2010–14. France authorized $18 billion in weapons sales to Saudi Arabia in 2015 alone. The $15 billion arms deal with Saudi Arabia is believed to be the largest arms sale in Canadian history.
Saudi Arabia topography (Altitude color coded)
Saudi Arabia physical features
Saudi Arabia occupies about 80% of the Arabian Peninsula (the world's largest peninsula), lying between latitudes 16° and 33° N, and longitudes 34° and 56° E. Because the country's southern borders with the United Arab Emirates and Oman are not precisely marked, the exact size of the country is undefined. The CIA World Factbook estimates 2,149,690 km (830,000 sq mi) and lists Saudi Arabia as the world's 13th largest state. It is geographically the largest country in the Arabian Plate.
Saudi Arabia's geography is dominated by the Arabian Desert and associated semi-desert and shrubland (see satellite image). It is, in fact, a number of linked deserts and includes the 647,500 km (250,001 sq mi) Rub' al Khali ("Empty Quarter") in the southern part of the country, the world's largest contiguous sand desert. There are virtually no rivers or lakes in the country, but wadis are numerous. The few fertile areas are to be found in the alluvial deposits in wadis, basins, and oases. The main topographical feature is the central plateau which rises abruptly from the Red Sea and gradually descends into the Nejd and toward the Persian Gulf. On the Red Sea coast, there is a narrow coastal plain, known as the Tihamah parallel to which runs an imposing escarpment. The southwest province of Asir is mountainous, and contains the 3,133 m (10,279 ft) Mount Sawda, which is the highest point in the country.
Saudi Arabia satellite image-Ecoregions as delineated by the WWF
. The yellow line encloses the ecoregions – Arabian Desert, East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands and two other smaller desert areas.
Except for the southwestern province of Asir, Saudi Arabia has a desert climate with extremely high day-time temperatures and a sharp temperature drop at night. Average summer temperatures are around 113 °F (45 °C), but can be as high as 129 °F (54 °C). In the winter the temperature rarely drops below 32 °F (0 °C). In the spring and autumn the heat is temperate, temperatures average around 84 °F (29 °C). Annual rainfall is extremely low. The Asir region differs in that it is influenced by the Indian Ocean monsoons, usually occurring between October and March. An average of 300 mm (12 in) of rainfall occurs during this period, that is about 60% of the annual precipitation.
Animal life includes Arabian wolves, striped hyenas, mongooses, baboons, hares, sand rats, and jerboas. Larger animals such as gazelles, oryx, and leopards were relatively numerous until the 1950s, when hunting from motor vehicles reduced these animals almost to extinction. Birds include falcons (which are caught and trained for hunting), eagles, hawks, vultures, sandgrouse and bulbuls. There are several species of snakes, many of which are venomous, and numerous types of lizards. There is a wide variety of marine life in the Persian Gulf. Domesticated animals include Arabian camels or dromedaries, sheep, goats, donkeys, and chickens. Reflecting the country's desert conditions, Saudi Arabia's plant life mostly consists of small herbs and shrubs requiring little water. There are a few small areas of grass and trees in southern Asir. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widespread.
Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 regions (Arabic: مناطق إدارية; manatiq idāriyya, sing. منطقة إدارية; mintaqah idariyya). The regions are further divided into 118 governorates (Arabic: محافظات; muhafazat, sing. محافظة; muhafazah). This number includes the 13 regional capitals, which have a different status as municipalities (Arabic: أمانة; amanah) headed by mayors (Arabic: أمين; amin). The governorates are further sudivided into sub-governorates (Arabic: مراكز; marakiz, sing. مركز; markaz).
Saudi Arabia's command economy is petroleum-based; roughly 75% of budget revenues and 90% of export earnings come from the oil industry. It is strongly dependent on foreign workers with about 80% of those employed in the private sector being non-Saudi. Among the challenges to Saudi economy include halting or reversing the decline in per capita income, improving education to prepare youth for the workforce and providing them with employment, diversifying the economy, stimulating the private sector and housing construction, diminishing corruption and inequality.
The oil industry comprises about 45% of Saudi Arabia's nominal gross domestic product, compared with 40% from the private sector (see below). Saudi Arabia officially has about 260 billion barrels (4.1×10 m) of oil reserves, comprising about one-fifth of the world's proven total petroleum reserves.
In the 1990s, Saudi Arabia experienced a significant contraction of oil revenues combined with a high rate of population growth. Per capita income fell from a high of $11,700 at the height of the oil boom in 1981 to $6,300 in 1998. Taking into account the impact of the real oil price changes on the Kingdom's real gross domestic income, the real command-basis GDP was computed to be 330.381 billion 1999 USD in 2010. Increases in oil prices in the aughts helped boost per capita GDP to $17,000 in 2007 dollars (about $7,400 adjusted for inflation), but have declined since oil price drop in mid-2014.
Office of Saudi Aramco
, world's most valuable company and main source of revenue for the state.
OPEC (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) limits its members' oil production based on their "proven reserves." Saudi Arabia's published reserves have shown little change since 1980, with the main exception being an increase of about 100 billion barrels (1.6×10 m) between 1987 and 1988. Matthew Simmons has suggested that Saudi Arabia is greatly exaggerating its reserves and may soon show production declines (see peak oil).
From 2003–2013 "several key services" were privatized-municipal water supply, electricity, telecommunications-and parts of education and health care, traffic control and car accident reporting were also privatized. According to Arab News columnist Abdel Aziz Aluwaisheg, "in almost every one of these areas, consumers have raised serious concerns about the performance of these privatized entities." The Tadawul All Share Index (TASI) of the Saudi stock exchange peaked at 16,712.64 in 2005, and closed at 8,535.60, at the end of 2013. In November 2005, Saudi Arabia was approved as a member of the World Trade Organization. Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in 2000, the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom. Saudi Arabia maintains a list of sectors in which foreign investment is prohibited, but the government plans to open some closed sectors such as telecommunications, insurance, and power transmission/distribution over time.
The government has also made an attempt at "Saudizing" the economy, replacing foreign workers with Saudi nationals with limited success.
Saudi Arabia has had five-year "Development Plans" since 1970. Among its plans were to launch "economic cities" (e.g. King Abdullah Economic City) to be completed by 2020, in an effort to diversify the economy and provide jobs. As of 2013 four cities were planned. The King has announced that the per capita income is forecast to rise from $15,000 in 2006 to $33,500 in 2020. The cities will be spread around Saudi Arabia to promote diversification for each region and their economy, and the cities are projected to contribute $150 billion to the GDP.
In addition to petroleum and gas, Saudi also has a small gold mining sector in the Mahd adh Dhahab region and other mineral industries, an agricultural sector (especially in the southwest) based on dates and livestock, and large number of temporary jobs created by the roughly two million annual hajj pilgrims.
Statistics on poverty in the kingdom are not available through the UN resources because the Saudi government does not issue any. The Saudi state discourages calling attention to or complaining about poverty. In December 2011, the Saudi interior ministry arrested three reporters and held them for almost two weeks for questioning after they uploaded a video on the topic to YouTube. Authors of the video claim that 22% of Saudis may be considered poor (2009). Observers researching the issue prefer to stay anonymous because of the risk of being arrested.
Saudi Arabia encouraged desert agriculture by providing substantial subsidies as well as consuming 300 billion cubic meter of mostly non-renewable water reserves free of charge to grow alfalfa, cereals, meat and milk in the Arabian Desert. Consuming non-renewable groundwater resulted in the loss of an estimated four fifths of the total groundwater reserves by 2012.
Water supply and sanitation
Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is characterized by significant investments in seawater desalination, water distribution, sewerage and wastewater treatment leading to a substantial increase in access to drinking water and sanitation over the past decades. About 50% of drinking water comes from desalination, 40% from the mining of non-renewable groundwater and 10% from surface water, especially in the mountainous southwest of the country. The capital Riyadh, located in the heart of the country, is supplied with desalinated water pumped from the Persian Gulf over a distance of 467 km. Given the substantial oil wealth, water is provided almost for free. Despite improvements service quality remains poor. For example, in Riyadh water was available only once every 2.5 days in 2011, while in Jeddah it is available only every 9 days. Institutional capacity and governance in the sector are weak, reflecting general characteristics of the public sector in Saudi Arabia. Since 2000, the government has increasingly relied on the private sector to operate water and sanitation infrastructure, beginning with desalination and wastewater treatment plants. Since 2008, the operation of urban water distribution systems is being gradually delegated to private companies as well.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km)
The population of Saudi Arabia as of July 2013 is estimated to be 26.9 million, including between 5.5 million and 10 million non-nationalized immigrants, though the Saudi population has long proved difficult to accurately estimate due to Saudi leaders' historical tendency to artificially inflate census results. Saudi population has grown rapidly since 1950 when it was estimated to be 3 million, and for many years had one of the highest birthrates in the world at around 3% a year.
The ethnic composition of Saudi citizens is 90% Arab and 10% Afro-Asian. Most Saudis live in Hejaz (35%), Najd (28%), and the Eastern Province (15%). Hejaz is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia.
As late as 1970, most Saudis lived a subsistence life in the rural provinces, but in the last half of the 20th century the kingdom has urbanized rapidly. As of 2012 about 80% of Saudis live in urban metropolitan areas-specifically Riyadh, Jeddah, or Dammam.
Its population is also quite young with over half the population under 25 years old. A large fraction are foreign nationals. (The CIA Factbook estimated that as of 2013 foreign nationals living in Saudi Arabia made up about 21% of the population. Other estimates are 30% or 33%)
As recently as the early 1960s, Saudi Arabia's slave population was estimated at 300,000. Slavery was officially abolished in 1962.
The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic. The three main regional variants spoken by Saudis are Hejazi Arabic (about 6 million speakers), Najdi Arabic (about 8 million speakers), and Gulf Arabic (about 0.2 million speakers). Saudi Sign Language is the principal language of the deaf community. The large expatriate communities also speak their own languages, the most numerous of which are Tagalog (700,000), Rohingya (400,000), Urdu (380,000), and Egyptian Arabic (300,000).
An open-air mosque near Jeddah
Virtually all Saudi citizens are Muslim (officially, all are), and almost all Saudi residents are Muslim. Estimates of the Sunni population of Saudi Arabia range between 75% and 90%, with the remaining 10–25% being Shia Muslim. The official and dominant form of Sunni Islam in Saudi Arabia is commonly known as Wahhabism (proponents prefer the name Salafism, considering Wahhabi derogatory) and is often described as 'puritanical', 'intolerant', or 'ultra-conservative' by observers, and as "true" Islam by its adherents. It was founded in the Arabian Peninsula by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in the eighteenth century. Other denominations, such as the minority Shia Islam, are systematically suppressed.
According to estimates there are about 1,500,000 Christians in Saudi Arabia, almost all foreign workers. Saudi Arabia allows Christians to enter the country as foreign workers for temporary work, but does not allow them to practice their faith openly. The percentage of Saudi Arabian citizens who are Christians is officially zero, as Saudi Arabia forbids religious conversion from Islam (apostasy) and punishes it by death. In spite of this, a 2015 study estimates 60,000 Muslims converted to Christianity in Saudi Arabia. According to Pew Research Center there are 390,000 Hindu in Saudi Arabia, almost all foreign workers.
Saudi Arabia's Central Department of Statistics & Information estimated the foreign population at the end of 2014 at 33% (10.1 million). The CIA Factbook estimated that as of 2013 foreign nationals living in Saudi Arabia made up about 21% of the population. Other sources report differing estimates. Indian: 1.3 million, Pakistani: 1.5 million, Egyptian: 900,000, Yemeni: 800,000, Bangladeshi: 500,000, Filipino: 500,000, Jordanian/Palestinian: 260,000, Indonesian: 250,000, Sri Lankan: 350,000, Sudanese: 250,000, Syrian: 100,000 and Turkish: 100,000. There are around 100,000 Westerners in Saudi Arabia, most of whom live in compounds or gated communities.
Foreign Muslims who have resided in the kingdom for ten years may apply for Saudi citizenship. (Priority is given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields, and exception made for Palestinians who are excluded unless married to a Saudi national, because of Arab League instructions barring the Arab states from granting them citizenship.) Saudi Arabia is not a signatory to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention.
As Saudi population grows and oil export revenues stagnate, pressure for "Saudization" (the replacement of foreign workers with Saudis) has grown, and the Saudi government hopes to decrease the number of foreign nationals in the country. Saudi Arabia expelled 800,000 Yemenis in 1990 and 1991 and has built a Saudi–Yemen barrier against an influx of illegal immigrants and against the smuggling of drugs and weapons. In November 2013, Saudi Arabia expelled thousands of illegal Ethiopian residents from the Kingdom. Various Human Rights entities have criticised Saudi Arabia's handling of the issue. Over 500,000 undocumented migrant workers - mostly from Somalia, Ethiopia, and Yemen - have been detained and deported since 2013.
Largest cities or towns in Saudi Arabia
Central Department of Statistics & Information 
- King Abdulaziz (1932–1953); Second Longest reigning Saudi Monarch
- King Saud (1953–1964); Third Longest reigning Saudi Monarch
- King Faisal (1964–1975); Fourth Longest reigning Saudi Monarch
- King Khalid (1975–1982); Sixth Longest reigning Saudi Monarch
- King Fahd (1982–2005); Longest reigning Saudi Monarch
- King Abdullah (2005–2015); Fifth Longest reigning Saudi Monarch
- King Salman (2015–present); Current Monarch
Crown Princes (1933–present)
Second Deputy Prime Minister/Second-in-line (1965–2011)
Deputy Crown Prince/Second-in-line (2014–present)
Saudi Arabia has centuries-old attitudes and traditions, often derived from Arab civilization. This culture has been heavily influenced by the austerely puritanical Wahhabi form of Islam, which arose in the eighteenth century and now predominates in the country. Wahhabi Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture."
Religion in society
Saudi Arabia differs from other modern Muslim countries in being the only state "to have been created by jihad, the only one to claim the Quran as its constitution", and one of only four Muslim countries "to have escaped European imperialism." Its Hejaz region and its cities Mecca and Medina are the cradle of Islam, the destination of the hajj pilgrimage, the two holiest sites of Islam.
Islam is the state religion of Saudi Arabia and its law requires that all citizens be Muslims. Neither Saudi citizens nor guest workers have the right of freedom of religion. The official and dominant form of Islam in the kingdom – Wahhabism-arose in the central region of Najd, the eighteenth century. Proponents call the movement "Salafism", and believe that its teachings purify the practice of Islam of innovations or practices that deviate from the seventh-century teachings of Muhammad and his companions. The Saudi government has often been viewed as an active oppressor of Shia Muslims because of the funding of the Wahabbi ideology which denounces the Shia faith. Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Saudi ambassador to the United States, stated: "The time is not far off in the Middle East when it will be literally 'God help the Shia'. More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them."
Saudi Arabia is one of the few countries that have "religious police" (known as Haia or Mutaween), who patrol the streets "enjoining good and forbidding wrong" by enforcing dress codes, strict separation of men and women, attendance at prayer (salat) five times each day, the ban on alcohol, and other aspects of Sharia (Islamic law). (In the privacy of the home behavior can be far looser, and reports from the Daily Mail and WikiLeaks indicate that the ruling Saudi Royal family applies a different moral code to itself, indulging in parties, drugs and sex.)
The kingdom uses the lunar Islamic calendar, not the international Gregorian calendar. Daily life is dominated by Islamic observance. Businesses are closed three or four times a day for 30 to 45 minutes during business hours while employees and customers are sent off to pray. The weekend is Friday-Saturday, not Saturday-Sunday, because Friday is the holiest day for Muslims. For many years only two religious holidays were publicly recognized – ʿĪd al-Fiṭr and ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā. (ʿĪd al-Fiṭr is "the biggest" holiday, a three-day period of "feasting, gift-giving and general letting go".)
As of 2004 approximately half of the broadcast airtime of Saudi state television was devoted to religious issues. 90% of books published in the kingdom were on religious subjects, and most of the doctorates awarded by its universities were in Islamic studies. In the state school system, about half of the material taught is religious. In contrast, assigned readings over twelve years of primary and secondary schooling devoted to covering the history, literature, and cultures of the non-Muslim world comes to a total of about 40 pages.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the holy city of Mecca.
"Fierce religious resistance" had to be overcome to permit such innovations as paper money (in 1951), female education (1964), and television (1965) and the abolition of slavery (1962). Public support for the traditional political/religious structure of the kingdom is so strong that one researcher interviewing Saudis found virtually no support for reforms to secularize the state.
Because of religious restrictions, Saudi culture lacks any diversity of religious expression, buildings, annual festivals and public events. Celebration of other (non-Wahhabi) Islamic holidays, such as the Muhammad's birthday and the Day of Ashura, (an important holiday for the 10–25% of the population that is Shīʿa Muslim), are tolerated only when celebrated locally and on a small scale. Shia also face systematic discrimination in employment, education, the justice system according to Human Rights Watch. Non-Muslim festivals like Christmas and Easter are not tolerated at all, although there are nearly a million Christians as well as Hindus and Buddhists among the foreign workers. No churches, temples or other non-Muslim houses of worship are permitted in the country. Proselytizing by non-Muslims and conversion by Muslims to another religion is illegal, and as of 2014 the distribution of "publications that have prejudice to any other religious belief other than Islam" (such as Bibles), was reportedly punishable by death. In legal compensation court cases (Diyya) non-Muslim are awarded less than Muslims. Atheists are legally designated as terrorists. Saudis or foreign residents who call "into question the fundamentals of the Islamic religion on which this country is based" may be subject to as much as 20 years in prison. And at least one religious minority, the Ahmadiyya Muslims, had its adherents deported, as they are legally banned from entering the country.
Islamic heritage sites
Saudi Wahhabism is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to 'shirk' (idolatry), and the most significant historic Muslim sites (in Mecca and Medina) are located in the western Saudi region of Hejaz. As a consequence, under Saudi rule, an estimated 95% of Mecca's historic buildings, most over a thousand years old, have been demolished for religious reasons. Critics claim that over the last 50 years, 300 historic sites linked to Muhammad, his family or companions have been lost, leaving fewer than 20 structures remaining in Mecca that date back to the time of Muhammad. Demolished structures include the mosque originally built by Muhammad's daughter Fatima, and other mosques founded by Abu Bakr (Muhammad's father-in-law and the first Caliph), Umar (the second Caliph), Ali (Muhammad's son-in-law and the fourth Caliph), and Salman al-Farsi (another of Muhammad's companions).
Saudi Arabian dress strictly follows the principles of hijab (the Islamic principle of modesty, especially in dress). The predominantly loose and flowing, but covering, garments are suited to Saudi Arabia's desert climate. Traditionally, men usually wear a white ankle length garment woven from wool or cotton (known as a thawb), with a keffiyeh (a large checkered square of cotton held in place by an agal) or a ghutra (a plain white square made of finer cotton, also held in place by an agal) worn on the head. For rare chilly days, Saudi men wear a camel-hair cloak (bisht) over the top. In public women are required to wear a black abaya or other black clothing that covers everything under the neck with the exception of their hands and feet, although most women cover their head in respect for their religion. This requirement applies to non-Muslim women too and failure to abide can result in police action, particularly in more conservative areas of the country. Women's clothes are often decorated with tribal motifs, coins, sequins, metallic thread, and appliques.
- Ghutrah (Arabic: غتره) is a traditional headdress typically worn by Arab men. It is made of a square of cloth ("scarf"), usually cotton, folded and wrapped in various styles around the head. It is commonly worn in areas with an arid climate, to provide protection from direct sun exposure, and also protection of the mouth and eyes from blown dust and sand.
- Agal (Arabic: عقال) is an item of Arab headgear constructed of cord which is fastened around the Ghutrah to hold it in place. The agal is usually black in colour.
- Thawb (Arabic: ثوب) is the standard Arabic word for garment. It is ankle-length, usually with long sleeves, similar to a robe.
- Bisht (Arabic: بشت) is a traditional Arabic men's cloak usually only worn for prestige on special occasions such as weddings.
- Abaya (Arabic: عبائة) is a women's garment. It is a black cloak which loosely covers the entire body except the head. Some women choose to cover their faces with a niqāb and some do not. Some abayas cover the top of the head as well.
Arts and entertainment
King Abdullah practising falconry
, a traditional pursuit in Saudi Arabia
During the 1970s, cinemas were numerous in the Kingdom although they were seen as contrary to Wahhabi norms. During the Islamic revival movement in the 1980s, and as a political response to an increase in Islamist activism including the 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, the government closed all cinemas and theaters. However, with King Abdullah's reforms from 2005, some cinemas have re-opened, including one in KAUST.
From the 18th century onward, Wahhabi fundamentalism discouraged artistic development inconsistent with its teaching. In addition, Sunni Islamic prohibition of creating representations of people have limited the visual arts, which tend to be dominated by geometric, floral, and abstract designs and by calligraphy. With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes. Music and dance have always been part of Saudi life. Traditional music is generally associated with poetry and is sung collectively. Instruments include the rabābah, an instrument not unlike a three-string fiddle, and various types of percussion instruments, such as the ṭabl (drum) and the ṭār (tambourine). Of the native dances, the most popular is a martial line dance known as the ʿarḍah, which includes lines of men, frequently armed with swords or rifles, dancing to the beat of drums and tambourines. Bedouin poetry, known as nabaṭī, is still very popular.
Censorship has limited the development of Saudi literature, although several Saudi novelists and poets have achieved critical and popular acclaim in the Arab world-albeit generating official hostility in their home country. These include Ghazi Algosaibi, Abdelrahman Munif, Turki al-Hamad and Rajaa al-Sanea.
Football (soccer) is the national sport in Saudi Arabia. Scuba diving, windsurfing, sailing and basketball are also popular, played by both men and women, with the Saudi Arabian national basketball team winning bronze at the 1999 Asian Championship. More traditional sports such as camel racing became more popular in the 1970s. A stadium in Riyadh holds races in the winter. The annual King's Camel Race, begun in 1974, is one of the sport's most important contests and attracts animals and riders from throughout the region. Falconry, another traditional pursuit, is still practiced.
Saudi Arabian cuisine is similar to that of the surrounding countries in the Arabian Peninsula, and has been influenced by Turkish, Indian, Persian, and African food. Islamic dietary laws are enforced: pork is not allowed and other animals are slaughtered in accordance with halal. A dish consisting of a stuffed lamb, known as khūzī, is the traditional national dish. Kebabs are popular, as is shāwarmā (shawarma), a marinated grilled meat dish of lamb, mutton, or chicken. As in other Arab countries of the Arabian Peninsula, machbūs (kabsa), a rice dish with fish or shrimp, is popular. Flat, unleavened bread is a staple of virtually every meal, as are dates and fresh fruit. Coffee, served in the Turkish style, is the traditional beverage.
Saudi society's objective of being a religious Islamic country, coupled with economic difficulties, has created a number of issues and tensions. A rare independent opinion poll published in 2010 indicated that Saudis' main social concerns were unemployment (at 10% in 2010), corruption and religious extremism.
Crime has not been a significant problem. On the other hand, juvenile delinquency in practices such as Tafheet (illegal racing), drug-use and excessive use of alcohol are increasing. High unemployment and a generation of young males filled with contempt toward the Royal Family is a significant threat to Saudi social stability. Some Saudis feel they are entitled to well-paid government jobs, and the failure of the government to satisfy this sense of entitlement has led to considerable dissatisfaction.
According to a study conducted by Dr. Nura Al-Suwaiyan, director of the family safety program at the National Guard Hospital, one in four children are abused in Saudi Arabia. The National Society for Human Rights reports that almost 45% of the country's children are facing some sort of abuse and domestic violence. In 2013, the government passed a law criminalizing domestic violence against children.
It has been claimed that trafficking of women is a particular problem in Saudi Arabia as the country's large number of female foreign domestic workers, and loopholes in the system cause many to fall victim to abuse and torture.
Like many Muslim countries of the Middle East, Saudi Arabia has a high population growth rate and a high percentage of its population under 30 years of age, and significant change to Saudi culture is foreseen as this generation becomes older. A number of factors suggest that the lives and level of satisfaction of youth will be different from the generation before them:
- While for several decades Saudis have been able to expect undemanding, well-paid government jobs, the failure of oil revenue to keep up with population growth has raised unemployment, and poor education limits employment opportunity in the private sector. The young lack their parents' appreciation of how much living standards have improved since the mid 20th century. The average age of the king and crown prince is 74, making them a half century older than most of the population.
- Exposure to youth lifestyles of the outside world which clash with the native Saudi culture of strict religious obedience and conformity.
- Tendency for parents to leave child rearing to foreign servants who are unable to "pass down by example the core Islamic values and traditions that have always formed the bedrock of Saudi society."
In a 2011 survey, 31% of Saudi youth agreed with the statement `traditional values are outdated and ... I am keen to embrace modern values and beliefs`-the highest percentage in the ten Arab countries surveyed. The number who had confidence about the direction of their country dropped from 98% (in 2010) to 62%. While in most societies these numbers might seem unremarkable, in Saudi Arabia any rebellion stands out against "the unquestioning acceptance ... of previous generations".
Marriage between first or second cousins in Saudi Arabia is among the highest rate in the world. Traditionally considered a means of "securing relationships between tribes and preserving family wealth", the practice has been cited as a factor in higher rates of severe genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis or thalassemia, a blood disorder, Type 2 diabetes, (which affects about 32% of adult Saudis), hypertension, (which affects 33%), sickle cell anemia, spinal muscular atrophy, deafness and muteness.
Estimates of the number of Saudis below the poverty line range from between 12.7% and 25% Press reports and private estimates as of 2013 "suggest that between 2 million and 4 million" of the country's native Saudis live on "less than about $530 a month" – about $17 a day – considered the poverty line in Saudi Arabia. In contrast, Forbes magazine estimates King Abdullah's personal fortune at $18 billion.
Women do not have equal rights to men in the kingdom. The US State Department considers Saudi government's discrimination against women a "significant problem" in Saudi Arabia and notes that women have few political rights due to the government's discriminatory policies. The World Economic Forum 2010 Global Gender Gap Report ranked Saudi Arabia 129th out of 134 countries for gender parity. Other sources had complained of an absence of laws criminalizing violence against women.
In August 2013, a law was passed that criminalized domestic violence against women. The ban includes penalties of a 12-month jail sentence and fines of up to 50,000 riyals ($13,000).
A woman wearing a niqāb
. Under Saudi law, women are required to wear Hijab
but niqab is optional.
Under Saudi law, every adult female must have a male relative as her "guardian", whose permission she is required to have in order to travel, study, or work.
According to a leading Saudi feminist and journalist, Wajeha al-Huwaider, "Saudi women are weak, no matter how high their status, even the 'pampered' ones among them, because they have no law to protect them from attack by anyone."
Women face discrimination in the courts, where the testimony of one man equals that of two women in family and inheritance law. Polygamy is permitted for men, and men have a unilateral right to divorce their wives (talaq) without needing any legal justification. A woman can only obtain a divorce with the consent of her husband or judicially if her husband has harmed her. In practice, it is very difficult for a Saudi woman to obtain a judicial divorce. With regard to the law of inheritance, the Quran specifies that fixed portions of the deceased's estate must be left to the Qu'ranic heirs and generally, female heirs receive half the portion of male heirs.
The average age at first marriage among Saudi females is 25 years in Saudi Arabia, with child marriage no longer common. As of 2015, Saudi women constitute 13% of the country's native workforce despite being 51% of all university graduates. Female literacy is estimated to be 81%, lower than male literacy.
Obesity is a problem among middle and upper class Saudis who have domestic servants to do traditional work but are forbidden to drive and so are limited in their ability to leave their home. As of April 2014, Saudi authorities in the education ministry have been asked by the Shoura Council to consider lifting a state school ban on sports for girls with the proviso that any sports conform to Sharia rules on dress and gender segregation, according to the official SPA news agency.
The religious police, known as the mutawa, impose many restrictions on women in public in Saudi Arabia. The restrictions include forcing women to sit in separate specially designated family sections in restaurants, to wear an abaya and to cover their hair. Women are also forbidden to drive.
Although Saudi Arabia imposes a strict dress code on women throughout the country by using religious police, female anchors working for Al-Arabia news network which is partly owned by Prince Abdulaziz, the son of the late King Fahad, are prohibited from wearing a veil and are encouraged to adopt a Western dress code.
A few Saudi women have risen to the top of the medical profession; for example, Dr. Ghada Al-Mutairi heads a medical research center in California and Dr. Salwa Al-Hazzaa is head of the ophthalmology department at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh and was the late King Fahad's personal ophthalmologist.
On 25 September 2011, King Abdullah announced that Saudi women would gain the right to vote (and to be candidates) in municipal elections, provided that a male guardian grants permission. Women were finally allowed to vote on December 12, 2015.
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
Education is free at all levels. The school system is composed of elementary, intermediate, and secondary schools. A large part of the curriculum at all levels is devoted to Islam, and, at the secondary level, students are able to follow either a religious or a technical track. The rate of literacy is 90.4% among males and is about 81.3% among females. Classes are segregated by sex. Higher education has expanded rapidly, with large numbers of Universities and colleges being founded particularly since 2000. Institutions of higher education include the country's first university, King Saud University founded in 1957, the Islamic University at Medina founded in 1961, and the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah founded in 1967. Other colleges and universities emphasize curricula in sciences and technology, military studies, religion, and medicine. Institutes devoted to Islamic studies, in particular, abound. Women typically receive college instruction in segregated institutions.
According to critics, Saudi curriculum is not just dominated by Islam but suffers from Wahhabi dogma that propagates hatred towards non-Muslim and non-Wahhabis and lacks technical and other education useful for productive employment.
Memorization by rote of large parts of the Qu'ran, its interpretation and understanding (Tafsir) and the application of Islamic tradition to everyday life is at the core of the curriculum. Religion taught in this manner is also a compulsory subject for all University students. As a consequence, Saudi youth "generally lacks the education and technical skills the private sector needs" according to the CIA. Similarly, The Chronicle of Higher Education wrote in 2010 that "the country needs educated young Saudis with marketable skills and a capacity for innovation and entrepreneurship. That's not generally what Saudi Arabia's educational system delivers, steeped as it is in rote learning and religious instruction."
The religious sector of the Saudi national curriculum was examined in a 2006 report by Freedom House which concluded that "the Saudi public school religious curriculum continues to propagate an ideology of hate toward the 'unbeliever', that is, Christians, Jews, Shiites, Sufis, Sunni Muslims who do not follow Wahhabi doctrine, Hindus, atheists and others". The Saudi religious studies curriculum is taught outside the Kingdom via Saudi-linked madrasah, schools, and clubs throughout the world. Critics have described the education system as "medieval" and that its primary goal "is to maintain the rule of absolute monarchy by casting it as the ordained protector of the faith, and that Islam is at war with other faiths and cultures".
Saudi Arabia sponsors and promotes the teaching of Wahhabism ideology which is adopted by Sunni Jihadist groups such as ISIS, Al-Qaeda and the Nusra Front. This radical teaching takes place in Saudi funded mosques and madrasas across the Islamic world from Morocco to Pakistan to Indonesia.
ISIS edition of Tawhid reprinted from Saudi school textbook.
To impose Wahhabism on Iraqi children in the city of Mosul, ISIS banned schools from teaching the Iraqi curriculum and decided to use Saudi school textbooks. In particular, ISIS reprinted and distributed large quantities of an old edition of Tawhid textbook which was authored by Mohammed bin Abdulwahab, the founder of Wahhabism. This book is taught to all children in the intermediate level (7–9 grade) in Saudi Arabia schools.
According to the educational plan for secondary (high school) education 1435–1438 Hijri, students enrolling in the "natural sciences" path are required to take five religion subjects which are: Tawhid, Fiqh, Tafseer, Hadith and Islamic Education and Quran. In addition, students are required to take six science subjects which are Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geology and Computer.
The approach taken in the Saudi education system has been accused of encouraging Islamic terrorism, leading to reform efforts. Following the 9/11 attacks, the government aimed to tackle the twin problems of encouraging extremism and the inadequacy of the country's university education for a modern economy, by slowly modernising the education system through the "Tatweer" reform program. The Tatweer program is reported to have a budget of approximately US$2 billion and focuses on moving teaching away from the traditional Saudi methods of memorization and rote learning towards encouraging students to analyze and problem-solve. It also aims to create an education system which will provide a more secular and vocationally based training.
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Shia ... Saudi Arabia ... 24.8%
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Saudi Arabia ... Approximate Percentage of Muslim Population that is Shia .... 10–15
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Although they only represent 15% of the overall Saudi population of more than 25 million ...
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Small but potentially powerful Shiite are found throughout the Gulf States ... Saudi Arabia (15 percent)
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Almost half of Saudi state television's airtime is devoted to religious issues, as is about half the material taught in state schools" (source: By the estimate of an elementary schoolteacher in Riyadh, Islamic studies make up 30 percent of the actual curriculum. But another 20 percent creeps into textbooks on history, science, Arabic, and so forth. In contrast, by one unofficial count the entire syllabus for twelve years of Saudi schooling contains a total of just thirty-eight pages covering the history, literature, and cultures of the non-Muslim world.)
- Rodenbeck, Max (October 21, 2004). "Unloved in Arabia (Book Review)". The New York Review of Books. 51 (16).
Nine out of ten titles published in the kingdom are on religious subjects, and most of the doctorates its universities awards are in Islamic studies.
- Review. "Unloved in Arabia" By Max Rodenbeck. The New York Review of Books, Volume 51, Number 16 · October 21, 2004
- from p.195 of a review by Joshua Teitelbum, Middle East Studies, Vol. 38, No. 4, Oct., 2002, of Changed Identities: The Challenge of the New Generation in Saudi Arabia by anthropologist Mai Yamani, quoting p.116 |quote=Saudis of all stripes interviewed expressed a desire for the kingdom to remain a Muslim society ruled by an overtly Muslim state. Secularist are simply not to be found. [Both traditional and somewhat westernized Saudis she talked to mediate their concerns] though the certainties of religion.
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- The Economist magazine estimates 60% of the Saudi population to be under the age of 21, (dated March 3, 2012, source: "Out of the comfort zone". The Economist. March 3, 2012.)
- The "United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision" estimates only 28% of the population is under 14 years of age (source: "The demographic profile of Saudi Arabia" (PDF). p. 6.)
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- House, Karen Elliott (2012). On Saudi Arabia : Its People, Past, Religion, Fault Lines and Future. Knopf. p. 103.
- What is happening to Saudi society? Arab News | 12/26/01 | Raid Qusti |quote=There was once a time when we Saudis feared God and understood that we would be held accountable by God on the Day of Judgment for our children's upbringing - after all, they are our responsibility. Now it seems, maids are bringing up our children. How much respect do they receive? Fathers used to set an example to their children and mothers used to be a source of inspiration.
- Bradley, John R. (2005). Saudi Arabia Exposed : Inside a Kingdom in Crisis. Palgrave. p. 92.
Their numbers mushroomed during the oil-boom years, and their influence has led to a distancing of parents and children, since the servants were expected to act as surrogate parents. Most of the domestic servants were non-Muslims and non-Arabs, meaning the results have been doubly negative: They lack the authority – and presumably ... the inclination – to discipline those in their care, while being unable to pass down by example the core Islamic values and traditions that have always formed the bedrock of Saudi society. (p.92)
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- By 2014 the percentage was no longer the highest of Arab countries surveyed, but had grown to 45% ASDA'A Burston-Marsteller Arab Youth Survey 2014, p.9
- ASDA'A Burson-Marsteller, Arab Youth Survey, March 2011, p.18 http://www.Arabyouthsurvey.com
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In a country with vast oil wealth and lavish royalty, an estimated quarter of Saudis live below the poverty line
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- "Saudi Arabia passes law criminalizing domestic abuse". Al Jazeera America. Al Jazeera Media Network. August 30, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Heather Saul (August 29, 2013). "Saudi Arabia cabinet passes ban on domestic violence". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
- Human Rights Watch (2008). Perpetual Minors: human rights abuses from male guardianship and sex segregation in Saudi Arabia. p. 2.
- Human Rights Watch (2008). Perpetual Minors: human rights abuses from male guardianship and sex segregation in Saudi Arabia. p. 3.
- "Saudi Writer and Journalist Wajeha Al-Huwaider Fights for Women's Rights". MEMRI.
- , p. 66
- , p. 164
- , p. 163
- , p. 165
- Saudi women no longer confined to their conventional roles Arab News, Retrieved 3 July 2013
- Age at First Marriage, Female – All Countries Quandl, Retrieved 3 July 2013
- "Saudi Youth: Unveiling the Force for Change" (PDF).
- 'Top Saudi cleric: OK for young girls to wed' CNN, 17 January 2009; Retrieved 18 January 2011
- 'Saudi Human Rights Commission Tackles Child Marriages' at the Wayback Machine (archived May 1, 2011) Asharq Alawsat, 13 January 2009.
- "Women constitute 13% of Saudi workforce: stats agency". Al Arabiya. 10 February 2015.
- "Statistics 2012". unicef.org. UNICEF. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
*Youth (15–24 years) literacy rate (%) 2008–2012*, male 99 *Youth (15–24 years) literacy rate (%) 2008–2012*, female 97
- Al-Eisa, Einas S.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I. (2012). "Physical Activity and Health Beliefs among Saudi Women". Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism.
the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle-related obesity has been escalating among Saudi females
- Dammer,, Harry R.; Albanese, Jay S. (2010). Comparative Criminal Justice Systems. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-495-80989-0.
- Alsharif, Asma (24 May 2011). "Saudi should free woman driver-rights group". Reuters. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
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- Robert Sedgwick (November 1, 2001) Education in Saudi Arabia. World Education News and Reviews.
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- Friedman, Thomas L. (2015-09-02). "Our Radical Islamic BFF, Saudi Arabia". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-09-19.
- "Whatsupic – ISIS will Use Saudi School Books for Students Who Study in Territories it Occupies in Syria and Iraq". whatsupic.com. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
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- Al-Kinani, Mohammed SR9 billion Tatweer project set to transform education. The Saudi Gazette.
- Tripp, Harvey; North, Peter (2009). CultureShock! A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette. Saudi Arabia (3rd ed.). Marshall Cavendish.
- Tripp, Harvey; North, Peter (2003). Culture Shock, Saudi Arabia. A Guide to Customs and Etiquette. Singapore; Portland, Oregon: Times Media Private Limited.
- Abir, Mordechai (1987). Saudi Arabia in the oil era: regime and elites : conflict and collaboration. ISBN 978-0-7099-5129-2.
- Abir, Mordechai (1993). Saudi Arabia: Government, Society, and the Persian Gulf Crisis. ISBN 978-0-415-09325-5.
- Al-Rasheed, Madawi (2010). A History of Saudi Arabia. ISBN 978-0-521-74754-7.
- Bowen, Wayne H. (2007). The History of Saudi Arabia. ISBN 978-0-313-34012-3.
- Hegghammer, Thomas (2010). Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism Since 1979. ISBN 978-0-521-73236-9.
- House, Karen Elliott (18 September 2012). On Saudi Arabia: Its People, Past, Religion, Fault Lines-and Future. ISBN 0307272168.
- Long, David E. (2005). Culture and Customs of Saudi Arabia. ISBN 978-0-313-32021-7.
- Malbouisson, Cofie D. (2007). Focus on Islamic issues. ISBN 978-1-60021-204-8.
- Otto, Jan Michiel (2010). Sharia Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslim Countries in Past and Present. ISBN 978-90-8728-057-4.
Acèh Arab Saudi ▪ Адыгэбзэ Сауд Хьэрыпей ▪ Адыгабзэ Сауд Арабие ▪ Afrikaans Saoedi-Arabië ▪ Alemannisch Saudi-Arabien ▪ አማርኛ ሳዑዲ አረቢያ ▪ Ænglisc Saudisc Arabea ▪ العربية السعودية ▪ Aragonés Arabia Saudí ▪ ܐܪܡܝܐ ܣܥܘܕܝܐ ▪ Armãneashti Arabia Saudescã ▪ Arpetan Arabie saoudita ▪ Asturianu Arabia Saudita ▪ Avañe'ẽ Aravia Saudíta ▪ Авар СагІудиязул ГІарабия ▪ Azərbaycanca Səudiyyə Ərəbistanı ▪ تۆرکجه عربیستان ▪ Bamanankan Saudia Arabu ka Faamamara ▪ বাংলা সৌদি আরব ▪ Bân-lâm-gú Saudi A-la-pek ▪ Башҡортса Сәғүд Ғәрәбстаны ▪ Беларуская Саудаўская Аравія ▪ Беларуская (тарашкевіца) Саудаўская Арабія ▪ भोजपुरी सउदी अरब ▪ Bikol Central Arabya Saudita ▪ Български Саудитска Арабия ▪ Boarisch Saudi Arabien ▪ བོད་ཡིག སའུ་དི་ཨ་ར་པི་ཡ། ▪ Bosanski Saudijska Arabija ▪ Brezhoneg Arabia Saoudat ▪ Буряад Саудай Араб ▪ Català Aràbia Saudita ▪ Чӑвашла Сауд Аравийĕ ▪ Cebuano Arabyang Saudita ▪ Čeština Saúdská Arábie ▪ ChiShona Saudi Arabia ▪ ChiTumbuka Saudi Arabia ▪ Cymraeg Sawdi Arabia ▪ Dansk Saudi-Arabien ▪ Deitsch Saudi Arabia ▪ Deutsch Saudi-Arabien ▪ ދިވެހިބަސް ސައޫދީ އަރަބިއްޔާ ▪ Diné bizaad Ásáí Bikéyah Saʼoodí ▪ Dolnoserbski Saudi-Arabska ▪ ཇོང་ཁ སའུ་དི་ཨེ་ར་སྦི་ཡ་ ▪ Eesti Saudi Araabia ▪ Ελληνικά Σαουδική Αραβία ▪ Español Arabia Saudita ▪ Esperanto Sauda Arabio ▪ Estremeñu Arabia Saudita ▪ Euskara Saudi Arabia ▪ فارسی عربستان سعودی ▪ Fiji Hindi Saudi Arabia ▪ Føroyskt Saudiarabia ▪ Français Arabie saoudite ▪ Frysk Saûdy-Araabje ▪ Gaeilge An Araib Shádach ▪ Gaelg Yn Araab Saudi ▪ Gagauz Saudi Arabiya ▪ Gàidhlig Aràibia nan Sabhd ▪ Galego Arabia Saudita ▪ 贛語 沙特阿拉伯 ▪ Gĩkũyũ Saudi Arabia ▪ ગુજરાતી સાઉદી અરેબિયા ▪ गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni सौदी अरेबिया ▪ 客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî Saudi Â-lâ-pak ▪ Хальмг Саудин Араб Нутг ▪ 한국어 사우디아라비아 ▪ Hausa Saudiyya ▪ Hawaiʻi Saudi ʻAlapia ▪ Հայերեն Սաուդյան Արաբիա ▪ हिन्दी सउदी अरब ▪ Hornjoserbsce Sawdi-Arabska ▪ Hrvatski Saudijska Arabija ▪ Ido Saudi-Arabia ▪ Ilokano Saudi Arabia ▪ বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী সৌদি আরব ▪ Bahasa Indonesia Arab Saudi ▪ Interlingua Arabia Saudita ▪ Interlingue Saudi Arabia ▪ Ирон Сауды Арави ▪ Íslenska Sádí-Arabía ▪ Italiano Arabia Saudita ▪ עברית ערב הסעודית ▪ Basa Jawa Arab Saudi ▪ Kalaallisut Saudi Arabia ▪ ಕನ್ನಡ ಸೌದಿ ಅರೆಬಿಯ ▪ Kapampangan Saudita Arabia ▪ Къарачай-малкъар Сауд Арабия ▪ ქართული საუდის არაბეთი ▪ Kaszëbsczi Saudëjskô Arabijô ▪ Қазақша Сауд Арабиясы ▪ Kernowek Arabi Saoudek ▪ Kinyarwanda Arabiya Sawudite ▪ Kiswahili Saudia ▪ Коми Саудса Аравия ▪ Kongo Saudi Arabia ▪ Kreyòl ayisyen Arabi Sawoudit ▪ Kurdî Erebistana Siyûdî ▪ Кыргызча Сауд Арaбиясы ▪ Лакку Саоьдуллал Аьрабусттан ▪ Лезги Сауди Арабистан ▪ لۊری شومالی عأرأڤئستان سوعوٙدی ▪ Latina Arabia Saudiana ▪ Latviešu Saūda Arābija ▪ Lëtzebuergesch Saudi-Arabien ▪ Lietuvių Saudo Arabija ▪ Ligure Arabia Saudïa ▪ Limburgs Saoedi-Arabië ▪ Lingála Saudi Arabia ▪ La .lojban. djogu'e ▪ Lumbaart Arabia Saudita ▪ Magyar Szaúd-Arábia ▪ Македонски Саудиска Арабија ▪ Malagasy Arabia Saodita ▪ മലയാളം സൗദി അറേബ്യ ▪ Malti Arabja Sawdija ▪ मराठी सौदी अरेबिया ▪ მარგალური საუდიშ არაბეთი ▪ مصرى المملكه العربيه السعوديه ▪ مازِرونی عربستون ▪ Bahasa Melayu Arab Saudi ▪ Baso Minangkabau Arab Saudi ▪ Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄ Saudi Ā-lá-báik ▪ Монгол Саудын Араб ▪ မြန်မာဘာသာ ဆော်ဒီအာရေဗျနိုင်ငံ ▪ Nāhuatl Saudarabia ▪ Dorerin Naoero Taudiarabiya ▪ Nederlands Saoedi-Arabië ▪ नेपाली साउदी अरब ▪ 日本語 サウジアラビア ▪ Нохчийн СаӀудийн Ӏаьрбийчоь ▪ Nordfriisk Saudi-Araabien ▪ Norfuk / Pitkern Saudi Arabia ▪ Norsk bokmål Saudi-Arabia ▪ Norsk nynorsk Saudi-Arabia ▪ Nouormand Arabie Saudi ▪ Novial Saudi Arabia ▪ Occitan Arabia Saudita ▪ ଓଡ଼ିଆ ସାଉଦି ଆରବ ▪ Oromoo Sa'ud Arabiyaa ▪ Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча Saudiya Arabistoni ▪ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਸਾਊਦੀ ਅਰਬ ▪ पालि सऊदी अरब ▪ پنجابی سعودی عرب ▪ Papiamentu Saudi Arabia ▪ پښتو سعودي عربستان ▪ Patois Saadi Ariebia ▪ ភាសាខ្មែរ អារ៉ាប៊ីសាអូឌីត ▪ Picard Arabie saoudite ▪ Piemontèis Arabia Saodita ▪ Tok Pisin Saudi Arabia ▪ Plattdüütsch Saudi-Arabien ▪ Polski Arabia Saudyjska ▪ Português Arábia Saudita ▪ Qaraqalpaqsha Saudiya Arabıstanı ▪ Qırımtatarca Saudiy Arabistan ▪ Română Arabia Saudită ▪ Rumantsch Arabia Saudita ▪ Runa Simi Sawud Arabya ▪ Русиньскый Саудьска Арабія ▪ Русский Саудовская Аравия ▪ Саха тыла Сауд Арабията ▪ Sámegiella Saudi-Arábia ▪ संस्कृतम् सऊदी अरब ▪ Scots Saudi Arabie ▪ Shqip Arabia Saudite ▪ Sicilianu Arabbia Saudita ▪ සිංහල සවුදි අරාබියාව ▪ Simple English Saudi Arabia ▪ سنڌي سعودي عرب ▪ SiSwati I-Arabhiya ▪ Slovenčina Saudská Arábia ▪ Slovenščina Saudova Arabija ▪ Ślůnski Saudyjsko Arabijo ▪ Soomaaliga Sacuudi Carabiya ▪ کوردیی ناوەندی عەرەبستانی سعوودی ▪ Српски / srpski Саудијска Арабија ▪ Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Saudijska Arabija ▪ Basa Sunda Saudi Arabia ▪ Suomi Saudi-Arabia ▪ Svenska Saudiarabien ▪ Tagalog Saudi Arabia ▪ தமிழ் சவூதி அரேபியா ▪ Taqbaylit Tagelda Tasaɛudit ▪ Tarandíne Arabie Saudite ▪ Татарча/tatarça Согуд Гарәбстаны ▪ తెలుగు సౌదీ అరేబియా ▪ Tetun Arábia Saudita ▪ ไทย ประเทศซาอุดีอาระเบีย ▪ Тоҷикӣ Арабистони Саудӣ ▪ ᏣᎳᎩ ᏌᎤᏗ ᎡᎴᏈᎠ ▪ Türkçe Suudi Arabistan ▪ Türkmençe Saud Arabystany ▪ Удмурт Сауд Аравия ▪ ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ Arab Saudi ▪ Українська Саудівська Аравія ▪ اردو سعودی عرب ▪ ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche سەئۇدى ئەرەبىستان ▪ Vahcuengh Saudi Ahlazbwz ▪ Vèneto Arabia Saudìa ▪ Vepsän kel’ Saudan Arabii ▪ Tiếng Việt Ả Rập Saudi ▪ Volapük Sauda-Larabän ▪ Võro Saudi Araabia ▪ 文言 沙特阿拉伯 ▪ Winaray Arabya Saudita ▪ Wolof Araabi Sawdit ▪ 吴语 沙特阿拉伯 ▪ ייִדיש סאודי אראביע ▪ Yorùbá Sáúdí Arábíà ▪ 粵語 沙地阿拉伯 ▪ Zazaki Erebıstanê Seudi ▪ Zeêuws Saoedi-Araobië ▪ Žemaitėška Sauda Arabėjė ▪ 中文 沙特阿拉伯 ▪
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As you know, the goods by your query "Saudi Arabia" in Indiana can be received in such cities as Indianapolis, Fort Wayne, Evansville, South Bend, Carmel, Fishers, Bloomington, Hammond, Gary, Lafayette, Muncie, Terre Haute, Kokomo, Noblesville, Anderson, Greenwood, Elkhart, Mishawaka, Lawrence, Jeffersonville, Columbus, Portage, New Albany, Richmond, Westfield, Valparaiso, Goshen, Michigan City, West Lafayette, Marion, East Chicago, Hobart, Crown Point, Franklin, La Porte, Greenfield, etc.
Naturally, the goods by request "Saudi Arabia" in Iowa can be bought in Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, Davenport, Sioux City, Iowa City, Waterloo, Council Bluffs, Ames, West Des Moines, Dubuque, Ankeny, Urbandale, Cedar Falls, Marion, Bettendorf, Marshalltown, Mason City, Clinton, Burlington, Ottumwa, Fort Dodge, Muscatine, Coralville, Johnston, North Liberty, Altoona, Newton, Indianola and smaller towns.
Today any products related with "Saudi Arabia" in Kansas can be delivered to the following cities: Wichita, Overland Park, Kansas City, Olathe, Topeka, Lawrence, Shawnee, Manhattan, Lenexa, Salina, Hutchinson, Leavenworth, Leawood, Dodge City, Garden City, Junction City, Emporia, Derby, Prairie Village, Hays, Liberal, Gardner, Pittsburg, Newton, Great Bend, McPherson, El Dorado, Ottawa, Winfield, Arkansas City, Andover, Lansing, Merriam, Haysville, Atchison, Parsons, and so on.
Usually, the products related to the term "Saudi Arabia" in Kentucky can be sent to Louisville, Lexington, Bowling Green, Owensboro, Covington, Hopkinsville, Richmond, Florence, Georgetown, Henderson, Elizabethtown, Nicholasville, Jeffersontown, Frankfort, Paducah, Independence, Radcliff, Ashland, Madisonville, Winchester, Erlanger, Murray, St. Matthews, Fort Thomas, Danville, Newport, Shively, Shelbyville, Glasgow, Berea, Bardstown, Shepherdsville, Somerset, Lyndon, Lawrenceburg, Middlesboro, Mayfield, etc.
And today the goods by request "Saudi Arabia" in Louisiana can be bought in New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Shreveport, Metairie, Lafayette, Lake Charles, Kenner, Bossier City, Monroe, Alexandria, Houma, Marrero, New Iberia, Laplace, Slidell, Prairieville, Central, Terrytown, Ruston, Sulphur, Harvey, Hammond, Bayou Cane, Shenandoah, Natchitoches, Gretna, Chalmette, Opelousas, Estelle, Zachary and smaller towns.
Normally, any things related with "Saudi Arabia" in Maine can be shipped to such cities as Portland, Lewiston, Bangor, South Portland, Auburn, Biddeford, Sanford, Saco, Augusta, Westbrook, Waterville, Presque Isle, Brewer, Bath, Caribou, Ellsworth, Old Town, Rockland, Belfast, Gardiner, Calais, Hallowell, Eastport...
It goes without saying that the goods by request "Saudi Arabia" in Maryland can be bought in Baltimore, Frederick, Rockville, Gaithersburg, Bowie, Hagerstown, Annapolis, College Park, Salisbury, Laurel, Greenbelt, Cumberland, Westminster, Hyattsville, Takoma Park, Easton, Elkton, Aberdeen, Havre de Grace, Cambridge, New Carrollton, Bel Air...
Today the products by request "Saudi Arabia" in Massachusetts can be bought in Boston, Worcester, Springfield, Lowell, Cambridge, New Bedford, Brockton, Quincy, Lynn, Fall River, Newton, Lawrence, Somerville, Framingham, Haverhill, Waltham, Malden, Brookline, Plymouth, Medford, Taunton, Chicopee, Weymouth, Revere, Peabody, Methuen, Barnstable, Pittsfield, Attleboro, Arlington, Everett, Salem, Westfield, Leominster, Fitchburg, Billerica, Holyoke, Beverly, Marlborough, Woburn, Amherst, Braintree, Shrewsbury, Chelsea, Dartmouth, Chelmsford, Andover, Natick, Randolph, Watertown and smaller towns.
No doubt, any things related with "Saudi Arabia" in Michigan can be bought in Detroit, Grand Rapids, Warren, Sterling Heights, Lansing, Ann Arbor, Flint, Dearborn, Livonia, Clinton, Canton, Westland, Troy, Farmington Hills, Macomb Township, Kalamazoo, Shelby, Wyoming, Southfield, Waterford, Rochester Hills, West Bloomfield, Taylor, Saint Clair Shores, Pontiac, Dearborn Heights, Royal Oak, Novi, Ypsilanti, Battle Creek, Saginaw, Kentwood, East Lansing, Redford, Roseville, Georgetown, Portage, Chesterfield Township, Midland, Bloomfield Charter Township, Oakland County, Saginaw, Commerce, Meridian, Muskegon, Lincoln Park, Grand Blanc, Holland, Orion, Bay City, Independence Charter Township, etc.
It goes without saying that any things related with "Saudi Arabia" in Minnesota can be shipped to such cities as Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Rochester, Bloomington, Duluth, Brooklyn Park, Plymouth, Maple Grove, Woodbury, St. Cloud, Eagan, Eden Prairie, Coon Rapids, Blaine, Burnsville, Lakeville, Minnetonka, Apple Valley, Edina, St. Louis Park, Moorhead, Mankato, Maplewood, Shakopee, Richfield, Cottage Grove, Roseville, Inver Grove Heights, Andover, Brooklyn Center, Savage, Oakdale, Fridley, Winona, Shoreview, Ramsey, Owatonna, Chanhassen, Prior Lake, White Bear Lake, Chaska, Austin, Elk River, Champlin, Faribault, Rosemount, Crystal, Farmington, Hastings, New Brighton and smaller towns.
As you know, any products related with "Saudi Arabia" in Mississippi can be sent to Jackson, Gulfport, Southaven, Hattiesburg, Biloxi, Meridian, Tupelo, Greenville, Olive Branch, Horn Lake, Clinton, Pearl, Ridgeland, Starkville, Columbus, Vicksburg, Pascagoula, Clarksdale, Oxford, Laurel, Gautier, Ocean Springs, Madison, Brandon, Greenwood, Cleveland, Natchez, Long Beach, Corinth, Hernando, Moss Point, McComb, Canton, Carriere, Grenada, Brookhaven, Indianola, Yazoo City, West Point, Picayune, Petal, and other cities and towns.
Today the goods by your query "Saudi Arabia" in Missouri can be sent to Kansas City, St. Louis, Springfield, Independence, Columbia, Lee’s Summit, O’Fallon, St. Joseph, St. Charles, Blue Springs, St. Peters, Florissant, Joplin, Chesterfield, Jefferson City, Cape Girardeau, Oakville, Wildwood, University City, Ballwin, Raytown, Liberty, Wentzville, Mehlville, Kirkwood, Maryland Heights, Hazelwood, Gladstone, Grandview, Belton, Webster Groves, Sedalia, Ferguson, Arnold, Affton and smaller towns.
Of course, the goods named "Saudi Arabia" in Montana can be delivered to Billings, Missoula, Great Falls, Bozeman, Butte, Helena, Kalispell, Havre, Anaconda, Miles City, Belgrade, Livingston, Laurel, Whitefish, Lewistown, Sidney.
It goes without saying that the goods named "Saudi Arabia" in Nebraska can be bought in Omaha, Lincoln, Bellevue, Grand Island, Kearney, Fremont, Hastings, Norfolk, North Platte, Papillion, Columbus, La Vista, Scottsbluff, South Sioux City, Beatrice, Lexington...
It goes without saying that the goods by your query "Saudi Arabia" in Nevada can be bought in Las Vegas, Henderson, Reno, North Las Vegas, Sparks, Carson City, Fernley, Elko, Mesquite, Boulder City, Fallon, Winnemucca, West Wendover, Ely, Yerington, Carlin, Lovelock, Wells, Caliente and smaller towns.
As usual, the goods by request "Saudi Arabia" in New Hampshire can be purchased if you live in Manchester, Nashua, Concord, Derry, Dover, Rochester, Salem, Merrimack, Hudson, Londonderry, Keene, Bedford, Portsmouth, Goffstown, Laconia, Hampton, Milford, Durham, Exeter, Windham, Hooksett, Claremont, Lebanon, Pelham, Somersworth, Hanover, Amherst, Raymond, Conway, Berlin and smaller towns.
Usually, the goods by request "Saudi Arabia" in New Jersey can be sent to Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Elizabeth, Edison, Woodbridge, Lakewood, Toms River, Hamilton, Trenton, Clifton, Camden, Brick, Cherry Hill, Passaic, Middletown, Union City, Old Bridge, Gloucester Township, East Orange, Bayonne, Franklin, North Bergen, Vineland, Union, Piscataway, New Brunswick, Jackson, Wayne, Irvington, Parsippany-Troy Hills, Howell, Perth Amboy, Hoboken, Plainfield, West New York, Washington Township, East Brunswick, Bloomfield, West Orange, Evesham, Bridgewater, South Brunswick, Egg Harbor, Manchester, Hackensack, Sayreville, Mount Laurel, Berkeley, North Brunswick.
Usually, the goods by your query "Saudi Arabia" in New Mexico can be received in such cities as Albuquerque, Las Cruces, Rio Rancho, Santa Fe, Roswell, Farmington, South Valley, Clovis, Hobbs, Alamogordo, Carlsbad, Gallup, Deming, Los Lunas, Chaparral, Sunland Park, Las Vegas, Portales, Los Alamos, North Valley, Artesia, Lovington, Silver City, Española.
It goes without saying that any products related with "Saudi Arabia" in New York can be shipped to such cities as New York, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, Syracuse, Albany, New Rochelle, Mount Vernon, Schenectady, Utica, White Plains, Troy, Niagara Falls, Binghamton, Rome, Long Beach, Poughkeepsie, North Tonawanda, Jamestown, Ithaca, Elmira, Newburgh, Middletown, Auburn, Watertown, Glen Cove, Saratoga Springs, Kingston, Peekskill, Lockport, Plattsburgh, Cortland, Amsterdam, Oswego, Lackawanna, Cohoes, Rye, Gloversville, Beacon, Batavia, Tonawanda, Glens Falls, Olean, Oneonta, Geneva, Dunkirk, Fulton, Oneida, Corning, Ogdensburg, Canandaigua, Watervliet and smaller towns.
And today the products by request "Saudi Arabia" in North Carolina can be delivered to the following cities: Charlotte, Raleigh, Greensboro, Durham, Winston-Salem, Fayetteville, Cary, Wilmington, High Point, Greenville, Asheville, Concord, Gastonia, Jacksonville, Chapel Hill, Rocky Mount, Huntersville, Burlington, Wilson, Kannapolis, Apex, Hickory, Wake Forest, Indian Trail, Mooresville, Goldsboro, Monroe, Salisbury, Holly Springs, Matthews, New Bern, Sanford, Cornelius, Garner, Thomasville, Statesville, Asheboro, Mint Hill, Fuquay-Varina, Morrisville, Kernersville, Lumberton, Kinston, Carrboro, Havelock, Shelby, Clemmons, Lexington, Clayton, Boone, etc.
As usual, the products related to the term "Saudi Arabia" in North Dakota can be received in Fargo, Bismarck, Grand Forks, Minot, West Fargo, Williston, Dickinson, Mandan, Jamestown, Wahpeton, Devils Lake, Watford City, Valley City, Grafton, Lincoln, Beulah, Rugby, Stanley, Horace, Casselton, New Town, Hazen, Bottineau, Lisbon, Carrington, and other cities and towns.
Today the found goods by query "Saudi Arabia" in Ohio can be shipped to Columbus, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Toledo, Akron, Dayton, Parma, Canton, Youngstown, Lorain, Hamilton, Springfield, Kettering, Elyria, Lakewood, Cuyahoga Falls, Euclid, Middletown, Mansfield, Newark, Mentor, Cleveland Heights, Beavercreek, Strongsville, Fairfield, Dublin, Warren, Findlay, Lancaster, Lima, Huber Heights, Marion, Westerville, Reynoldsburg, Grove City, Stow, Delaware, Brunswick, Upper Arlington, Gahanna, Westlake, North Olmsted, Fairborn, Massillon, Mason, North Royalton, Bowling Green, North Ridgeville, Kent, Garfield Heights, and so on.
As always, the products by request "Saudi Arabia" in Oklahoma can be received in Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Norman, Broken Arrow, Lawton, Edmond, Moore, Midwest City, Enid, Stillwater, Muskogee, Bartlesville, Owasso, Shawnee, Yukon, Ardmore, Ponca City, Bixby, Duncan, Del City, Jenks, Sapulpa, Mustang, Sand Springs, Bethany, Altus, Claremore, El Reno, McAlester, Ada, Durant, Tahlequah, Chickasha, Miami, Glenpool, Elk City, Woodward, Okmulgee, Choctaw, Weatherford, Guymon, Guthrie, Warr Acres, etc.
Naturally, the goods named "Saudi Arabia" in Oregon can be sent to Portland, Salem, Eugene, Gresham, Hillsboro, Beaverton, Bend, Medford, Springfield, Corvallis, Albany, Tigard, Lake Oswego, Keizer, Grants Pass, Oregon City, McMinnville, Redmond, Tualatin, West Linn, Woodburn, Forest Grove, Newberg, Wilsonville, Roseburg, Klamath Falls, Ashland, Milwaukie, Sherwood, Happy Valley, Central Point, Canby, Hermiston, Pendleton, Troutdale, Lebanon, Coos Bay, The Dalles, Dallas, St. Helens, La Grande, Cornelius, Gladstone, Ontario, Sandy, Newport, Monmouth...
No need to say, the products by request "Saudi Arabia" in Pennsylvania can be purchased if you live in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading, Scranton, Bethlehem, Lancaster, Harrisburg, Altoona, York, Wilkes-Barre, Chester, Williamsport, Easton, Lebanon, Hazleton, New Castle, Johnstown, McKeesport, Hermitage, Greensburg, Pottsville, Sharon, Butler, Washington, Meadville, New Kensington, Coatesville, St. Marys, Lower Burrell, Oil City, Nanticoke, Uniontown, etc.
As always, the goods named "Saudi Arabia" in Rhode Island can be received in such cities as Providence, Warwick, Cranston, Pawtucket, East Providence, Woonsocket, Coventry, Cumberland, North Providence, South Kingstown, West Warwick, Johnston, North Kingstown, Newport, Bristol, Westerly, Smithfield, Lincoln, Central Falls, Portsmouth, Barrington, Middletown, Burrillville, Narragansett, Tiverton, East Greenwich, North Smithfield, Warren, Scituate and smaller towns.
Undoubtedly, the products by request "Saudi Arabia" in South Carolina can be bought in Columbia, Charleston, North Charleston, Mount Pleasant, Rock Hill, Greenville, Summerville, Sumter, Hilton Head Island, Spartanburg, Florence, Goose Creek, Aiken, Myrtle Beach, Anderson, Greer, Mauldin, Greenwood, North Augusta, Easley, Simpsonville, Hanahan, Lexington, Conway, West Columbia, North Myrtle Beach, Clemson, Orangeburg, Cayce, Bluffton, Beaufort, Gaffney, Irmo, Fort Mill, Port Royal, Forest Acres, Newberry.
No doubt, any products related with "Saudi Arabia" in South Dakota can be shipped to Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Brookings, Watertown, Mitchell, Yankton, Pierre, Huron, Spearfish, Vermillion and smaller towns.
Today the goods related with "Saudi Arabia" in Tennessee can be received in such cities as Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Clarksville, Murfreesboro, Franklin, Jackson, Johnson City, Bartlett, Hendersonville, Kingsport, Collierville, Smyrna, Cleveland, Brentwood, Germantown, Columbia, Spring Hill, La Vergne, Gallatin, Cookeville, Mount Juliet, Lebanon, Morristown, Oak Ridge, Maryville, Bristol, Farragut, Shelbyville, East Ridge, Tullahoma.
Usually, the goods by your query "Saudi Arabia" in Texas can be shipped to Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, El Paso, Arlington, Corpus Christi, Plano, Laredo, Lubbock, Garland, Irving, Amarillo, Grand Prairie, Brownsville, McKinney, Frisco, Pasadena, Mesquite, Killeen, McAllen, Carrollton, Midland, Waco, Denton, Abilene, Odessa, Beaumont, Round Rock, The Woodlands, Richardson, Pearland, College Station, Wichita Falls, Lewisville, Tyler, San Angelo, League City, Allen, Sugar Land, Edinburg, Mission, Longview, Bryan, Pharr, Baytown, Missouri City, Temple, Flower Mound, New Braunfels, North Richland Hills, Conroe, Victoria, Cedar Park, Harlingen, Atascocita, Mansfield, Georgetown, San Marcos, Rowlett, Pflugerville, Port Arthur, Spring, Euless, DeSoto, Grapevine, Galveston and smaller towns.
No doubt, the goods by request "Saudi Arabia" in Utah can be shipped to such cities as Salt Lake City, West Valley City, Provo, West Jordan, Orem, Sandy, Ogden, St. George, Layton, Taylorsville, South Jordan, Logan, Lehi, Murray, Bountiful, Draper, Riverton, Roy, Spanish Fork, Pleasant Grove, Cottonwood Heights, Tooele, Springville, Cedar City, Midvale. Delivery is also carried out in Kaysville, Holladay, American Fork, Clearfield, Syracuse, South Salt Lake, Herriman, Eagle Mountain, Clinton, Washington, Payson, Farmington, Brigham City, Saratoga Springs, North Ogden, South Ogden, North Salt Lake, Highland, Centerville, Hurricane, Heber City, West Haven, Lindon, and so on.
No doubt, the goods by your query "Saudi Arabia" in Vermont can be bought in Burlington, South Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier, Winooski, St. Albans, Newport, Vergennes and smaller towns.
No doubt, the goods by request "Saudi Arabia" in Virginia can be delivered to Virginia Beach, Norfolk, Chesapeake, Richmond, Newport News, Alexandria, Hampton, Roanoke, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Lynchburg, Harrisonburg, Charlottesville, Danville, Manassas, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, Winchester, Salem, Staunton, Fairfax, Hopewell, Waynesboro, Colonial Heights, Radford, Bristol, Manassas Park, Williamsburg, Falls Church, Martinsville, Poquoson, and so on.
No need to say, any things related with "Saudi Arabia" in Washington can be delivered to the following cities: Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, Vancouver, Bellevue, Kent, Everett, Renton, Federal Way, Yakima, Spokane Valley, Kirkland, Bellingham, Kennewick, Auburn, Pasco, Marysville, Lakewood, Redmond, Shoreline, Richland, Sammamish, Burien, Olympia, Lacey. The shipping is also available in Edmonds, Puyallup, Bremerton, Lynnwood, Bothell, Longview, Issaquah, Wenatchee, Mount Vernon, University Place, Walla Walla, Pullman, Des Moines, Lake Stevens, SeaTac, Maple Valley, Mercer Island, Bainbridge Island, Oak Harbor, Kenmore, Moses Lake, Camas, Mukilteo, Mountlake Terrace, Tukwila, and so on.
As you know, the goods by request "Saudi Arabia" in West Virginia can be shipped to such cities as Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Parkersburg, Wheeling, Weirton, Fairmont, Martinsburg, Beckley, Clarksburg, South Charleston, St. Albans, Vienna, Bluefield, and so on.
As usual, the goods named "Saudi Arabia" in Wisconsin can be sent to Milwaukee, Madison, Green Bay, Kenosha, Racine, Appleton, Waukesha, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, Janesville, West Allis, La Crosse, Sheboygan, Wauwatosa, Fond du Lac, New Berlin, Wausau. The shipping is also available in Brookfield, Beloit, Greenfield, Franklin, Oak Creek, Manitowoc, West Bend, Sun Prairie, Superior, Stevens Point, Neenah, Fitchburg, Muskego, Watertown, De Pere, Mequon, South Milwaukee, Marshfield and smaller towns.
And today the products related to the term "Saudi Arabia" in Wyoming can be received in Cheyenne, Casper, Laramie, Gillette, Rock Springs, Sheridan, Green River, Evanston, Riverton, Jackson, Cody, Rawlins, Lander, Torrington, Powell, Douglas, Worland, etc.
Canada Delivery, Shipping to Canada
As always, the found goods by query "Saudi Arabia" in Canada can be shipped to Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa, Edmonton, Mississauga, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Brampton, Hamilton, Quebec City, Surrey, Laval, Halifax, London, Markham, Vaughan, Gatineau, Longueuil, Burnaby, Saskatoon, Kitchener, Windsor, Regina, Richmond, Richmond Hill.
It's also available for those who live in Oakville, Burlington, Greater Sudbury, Sherbrooke, Oshawa, Saguenay, Lévis, Barrie, Abbotsford, St. Catharines, Trois-Rivières, Cambridge, Coquitlam, Kingston, Whitby, Guelph, Kelowna, Saanich, Ajax, Thunder Bay, Terrebonne, St. John's, Langley, Chatham-Kent, Delta.
And other cities and towns, such as Waterloo, Cape Breton, Brantford, Strathcona County, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Red Deer, Pickering, Kamloops, Clarington, North Vancouver, Milton, Nanaimo, Lethbridge, Niagara Falls, Repentigny, Victoria, Newmarket, Brossard, Peterborough, Chilliwack, Maple Ridge, Sault Ste. Marie, Kawartha Lakes, Sarnia, Prince George.
The delivery is also available in Drummondville, Saint John, Moncton, Saint-Jérôme, New Westminster, Wood Buffalo, Granby, Norfolk County, St. Albert, Medicine Hat, Caledon, Halton Hills, Port Coquitlam, Fredericton, Grande Prairie, North Bay, Blainville, Saint-Hyacinthe, Aurora, Welland, Shawinigan, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Belleville, North Vancouver.
In fact, the goods by request "Saudi Arabia" can be shipped to any place in Canada, including Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island.
UK Delivery, Shipping to the United Kingdom
And today the goods by request "Saudi Arabia" in the United Kingdom can be shipped to London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Bradford, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Wakefield, Cardiff, Coventry, Nottingham, Leicester, Sunderland, Belfast, Newcastle upon Tyne, Brighton, Hull, Plymouth, Stoke-on-Trent.
The delivery is also available in Wolverhampton, Derby, Swansea, Southampton, Salford, Aberdeen, Westminster, Portsmouth, York, Peterborough, Dundee, Lancaster, Oxford, Newport, Preston, St Albans, Norwich, Chester, Cambridge, Salisbury, Exeter, Gloucester. The shipping is also available in Lisburn, Chichester, Winchester, Londonderry, Carlisle, Worcester, Bath, Durham, Lincoln, Hereford, Armagh, Inverness, Stirling, Canterbury, Lichfield, Newry, Ripon, Bangor, Truro, Ely, Wells, St. Davids, and other cities and towns.
In other words, the products related to the term "Saudi Arabia" can be shipped to any place in the UK, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
Ireland Delivery, Shipping to Ireland
And today the products by request "Saudi Arabia" in Ireland can be received in such cities as Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford, Drogheda, Dundalk, Swords, Bray, Navan, Ennis, Kilkenny, Tralee, Carlow, Newbridge, Naas, Athlone, Portlaoise, Mullingar, Wexford, Balbriggan, Letterkenny, Celbridge, Sligo. And, of course, Clonmel, Greystones, Malahide, Leixlip, Carrigaline, Tullamore, Killarney, Arklow, Maynooth, Cobh, Castlebar, Midleton, Mallow, Ashbourne, Ballina, Laytown-Bettystown-Mornington, Enniscorthy, Wicklow, Tramore, Cavan, and so on.
Actually, the products related to the term "Saudi Arabia" can be shipped to any place in Ireland, including Leinster, Ulster, Munster, and Connacht.
Australia Delivery, Shipping to Australia
And today the found goods by query "Saudi Arabia" in Australia can be purchased if you live in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Tweed Heads, Newcastle, Maitland, Canberra, Queanbeyan, Sunshine Coast, Wollongong, Hobart, Geelong, Townsville, Cairns, Darwin, Toowoomba, Ballarat, Bendigo, Albury, Wodonga, Launceston, Mackay.
The shipping is also available in Rockhampton, Bunbury, Bundaberg, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga, Hervey Bay, Mildura, Wentworth, Shepparton, Mooroopna, Gladstone, Tannum Sands, Port Macquarie, Tamworth, Traralgon, Morwell, Orange, Geraldton, Bowral, Mittagong, Dubbo, Busselton, Bathurst, Nowra, Bomaderry, Warrnambool, Albany, Warragul, Drouin, Kalgoorlie, Boulder, Devonport, etc.
Generally, the goods by your query "Saudi Arabia" can be shipped to any place in Australia, including New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory, and Northern Territory.
New Zealand Delivery, Shipping to New Zealand
It goes without saying that the goods by your query "Saudi Arabia" in New Zealand can be shipped to such cities as Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier-Hastings, Dunedin, Lower Hutt, Palmerston North, Nelson, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Whangarei, Invercargill, Whanganui, Gisborne, Porirua, Invercargill, Nelson, Upper Hutt, Gisborne, Blenheim, Pukekohe, Timaru, Taupo, etc.
Generally, the found goods by query "Saudi Arabia" can be shipped to any place in New Zealand, including North Island, South Island, Waiheke Island, and smaller islands.
It goes without saying thatthe found goods by querycan be purchased if you live inThe delivery is also available in, and other cities and towns.
Abkhazia: Gagra, Gudauta, New Athos, Ochamchire, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, Tsandryphsh, etc.
Afghanistan: Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Taloqan, etc.
Albania: Durrës, Himarë, Sarandë, Shkodër, Tirana, Vlorë, etc.
Algeria: Algiers, Oran, etc.
Andorra: Andorra la Vella, Arinsal, El Pas de la Casa, Encamp, Grandvalira, Ordino, Pal, Soldeu, Vallnord, etc.
Angola: Benguela, Luanda, etc.
Anguilla: The Valley, West End, etc.
Antigua And Barbuda: Saint John’s, etc.
Argentina: Buenos Aires, Colón, Córdoba, El Calafate, La Plata, Los Glaciares, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Pinamar, Puerto Iguazú, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, Salta, San Carlos de Bariloche, San Martín de los Andes, San Miguel de Tucumán, San Rafael, Tandil, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Gesell, Villa La Angostura, Villa de Merlo, etc.
Armenia: Dilijan, Etchmiadzin, Goris, Gyumri, Jermuk, Sevan, Tsaghkadzor, Vagharshapat, Vanadzor, Yerevan, etc.
Aruba: Oranjestad, etc.
Australia: Adelaide, Brisbane, Byron Bay, Cairns, Canberra, Darwin, Gold Coast, Great Barrier Reef, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney, Tasmania, etc.
Austria: Abtenau, Alpbach, Austrian Alps, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Dürnstein, Flachau, Fugen, Graz, Innsbruck, Ischgl, Kaprun, Kitzbühel, Klagenfurt, Kufstein, Lech, Leogang, Lienz, Linz, Maria Alm, Mayrhofen, Neustift im Stubaital, Obergurgl, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Salzburg, Schladming, Seefeld, Serfaus, St. Anton, St. Johann im Pongau, Sölden, Tux, Tyrol, Vienna, Villach, Wachau, Wagrain, Zell am See, etc.
Azerbaijan: Baku, Ganja, Lankaran, Quba, Qusar, Shahdag, Sheki, Stepanakert, etc.
Bahamas: Freeport, Nassau, etc.
Bahrain: Manama, etc.
Bangladesh: Dhaka, etc.
Barbados: Bridgetown, etc.
Belarus: Babruysk, Białowieża Forest, Brest Belarus, Gomel, Grodno, Lahoysk, Maladzyechna, Minsk, Mogilev, Nesvizh, Pinsk, Silichi, Vitebsk, etc.
Belgium: Antwerp, Ardennes, Blankenberge, Bouillon, Bruges, Brussels, Charleroi, De Haan, De Panne, Durbuy, Flanders, Ghent, Hasselt, Kortrijk, Leuven, Liège, Namur, Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Spa, Ypres, Zeebrugge, etc.
Belize: Belize City, Placencia, San Pedro, etc.
Benin: Cotonou, etc.
Bermuda: Hamilton, etc.
Bhutan: Paro, Thimphu, etc.
Bolivia: Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, Quillacollo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sucre, Uyuni, etc.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Jahorina, Medjugorje, Mostar, Neum, Sarajevo, etc.
Botswana: Gaborone, Maun, etc.
Brazil: Amazon River, Amazonia, Angra dos Reis, Arraial do Cabo, Atlantic Forest, Balneário Camboriú, Belo Horizonte, Bombinhas, Brasília, Búzios, Cabo Frio, Camaçari, Campos do Jordão, Copacabana, Costa do Sauípe, Curitiba, Fernando de Noronha, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Gramado, Guarujá, Iguazu Falls, Ilha Grande, Ilhabela, Ilhéus, Ipanema, Itacaré, Manaus, Morro de São Paulo, Natal, Niterói, Ouro Preto, Paraty, Petrópolis, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Praia do Forte, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, São Paulo, São Sebastião, Trancoso, Ubatuba, Vila do Abraão, etc.
British Virgin Islands: Tortola, etc.
Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan, etc.
Bulgaria: Albena, Balchik, Bansko, Blagoevgrad, Borovets, Burgas, Chernomorets, Dobrinishte, Golden Sands, Kiten, Koprivshtitsa, Lozenets, Nesebar, Obzor, Pamporovo, Pirin, Pleven, Plovdiv, Pomorie, Primorsko, Ravda, Razlog, Rila, Ruse, Samokov, Sandanski, Shumen, Sofia, Sozopol, Stara Zagora, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Tsarevo, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, etc.
Burkina Faso: Ouagadougou, etc.
Burundi: Bujumbura, etc.
Cambodia: Angkor, Battambang, Kampot, Kep, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, etc.
Cameroon: Douala, Yaoundé, etc.
Canada: Alberta, Banff, British Columbia, Burnaby, Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Halifax, Jasper, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kingston, London, Manitoba, Mississauga, Moncton, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal, Nanaimo, New Brunswick, Niagara Falls, Niagara on the Lake, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ottawa, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Richmond, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver, Victoria, Whistler, Whitehorse, Winnipeg, Yukon, etc.
Cape Verde: Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc.
Caribbean Netherlands:, etc.
Cayman Islands: George Town, West Bay, etc.
Chad: N'Djamena, etc.
Chile: Antofagasta, Arica, Atacama, Coquimbo, Easter Island, Hanga Roa, Iquique, La Serena, Patagonia, Pucón, Puerto Montt, Puerto Natales, Puerto Varas, Punta Arenas, San Pedro de Atacama, Santiago, Torres del Paine, Valdivia, Valparaíso, Villarrica, Viña del Mar, etc.
China: Anshun, Baishan, Baoding, Baoshan, Baotou, Beijing, Binzhou, Changchun, Changsha, Changzhi, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dali, Dalian, Datong, Dengfeng, Diqing, Dongguan, Emeishan, Foshan, Great Wall of China, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Hainan, Hangzhou, Harbin, Honghe, Huashan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Jiangxi, Jiaxing, Jilin, Jinan, Jincheng, Jingdezhen, Jinzhong, Jiujiang, Jiuzhaigou, Kunming, Langfang, Lanzhou, Laoshan, Leshan, Lhasa, Lianyungang, Lijiang, Linfen, Linyi, Luoyang, Lushan, Lüliang, Mianyang, Nanchang, Nanchong, Nanjing, Nantong, Ngawa, Ningbo, Qiandongnan, Qingdao, Qingyuan, Qinhuangdao, Qujing, Rizhao, Sanya, Shanghai, Shangri-La, Shantou, Shanxi, Shaoguan, Shaolin, Shaoxing, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Shigatse, Shijiazhuang, Sichuan, Suzhou, Tai'an, Taiyuan, Taizhou Jiangsu, Tangshan, Tianjin, Tibet, Weifang, Weihai, Wuhan, Wulingyuan, Wutai, Wuxi, Xi'an, Xiamen, Xinzhou, Xishuangbanna, Ya'an, Yanbian, Yangtze, Yangzhou, Yantai, Yellow River, Yibin, Yinchuan, Yiwu, Yuncheng, Yunnan, Zhangjiajie, Zhanjiang, Zhejiang, Zhengzhou, Zhongshan, Zhongwei, Zhoushan, Zhuhai, Zunyi, etc.
Colombia: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín, Pereira, San Andrés, Santa Marta, Villa de Leyva, Villavicencio, etc.
Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jacó, La Fortuna, Manuel Antonio, Monteverde, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Puntarenas, Quepos, San José, Santa Teresa, Tamarindo, Tortuguero, etc.
Croatia: Baška Voda, Baška, Bibinje, Biograd na Moru, Bol, Brač, Brela, Cavtat, Cres, Dalmatia, Fažana, Hvar, Istria, Ičići, Korčula, Krk, Lopud, Lovran, Lošinj, Makarska, Mali Lošinj, Malinska, Medulin, Mlini, Nin, Novi Vinodolski, Novigrad, Omiš, Opatija, Orebić, Pag, Podstrana, Poreč, Pula, Rab, Rabac, Rijeka, Rovinj, Split, Stari Grad, Sukošan, Supetar, Trogir, Tučepi, Umag, Vrsar, Zadar, Zagreb, Čiovo, Šibenik, etc.
Cuba: Baracoa, Camagüey, Cayo Coco, Cayo Santa María, Cienfuegos, Havana, Pinar del Río, Santiago de Cuba, Trinidad, Varadero, Viñales, etc.
Curaçao: Willemstad, etc.
Cyprus: Ayia Napa, Coral Bay Cyprus, Famagusta, Kouklia, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Paralimni, Peyia, Pissouri, Polis, Protaras, etc.
Czech Republic: Bohemia, Brno, Děčín, Frymburk, Frýdek-Místek, Harrachov, Hradec Králové, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Krkonoše, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Marienbad, Mikulov, Mladá Boleslav, Mělník, Olomouc, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzeň, Poděbrady, Prague, Teplice, Třeboň, Zlín, Znojmo, Ústí nad Labem, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Špindlerův Mlýn, etc.
Democratic Republic of the Congo: Kinshasa, etc.
Denmark: Aalborg, Aarhus, Billund, Copenhagen, Ebeltoft, Esbjerg, Frederikshavn, Greenland, Helsingør, Herning, Hirtshals, Hjørring, Holstebro, Jutland, Odense, Silkeborg, Skagen, Skive, Sønderborg, Vejle, Viborg, etc.
Djibouti: Djibouti City, etc.
Dominican Republic: Boca Chica, Bávaro, Punta Cana, Santo Domingo, Sosúa, etc.
Ecuador: Baños, Cuenca, Galápagos Islands, Guayaquil, Manta, Otavalo, Puerto Ayora, Puerto López, Quito, Salinas, etc.
Egypt: Abu Simbel, Al Qusair, Alexandria, Aswan, Cairo, Dahab, El Alamein, El Gouna, El Hadaba, Faiyum, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh, Naama Bay, Nabq Bay, Nile, Nuweiba, Port Said, Red Sea, Safaga, Sahl Hasheesh, Scharm asch-Schaich, Sharks Bay, Sinai, Suez, Taba, Valley of the Kings, etc.
El Salvador: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.
Equatorial Guinea: Malabo, etc.
Eritrea: Asmara, etc.
Estonia: Haapsalu, Kuressaare, Narva, Pärnu, Saaremaa, Tallinn, Tartu, etc.
Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Gondar, etc.
Faroe Islands: Tórshavn, etc.
Fiji: Nadi, Suva, Viti Levu Island, etc.
Finland: Espoo, Helsinki, Imatra, Joensuu, Jyväskylä, Jämsä, Kotka, Kuopio, Kuusamo, Lahti, Lapland, Lappeenranta, Levi, Mariehamn, Mikkeli, Moomin World, Naantali, Nilsiä, Oulu, Pori, Porvoo, Pyhätunturi, Rovaniemi, Rukatunturi, Saariselkä, Saimaa, Tampere, Turku, Vaasa, Vantaa, Vuokatti, Åland Islands, etc.
France: Aix-en-Provence, Ajaccio, Alsace, Annecy, Antibes, Aquitaine, Arles, Avignon, Avoriaz, Beaune, Biarritz, Bonifacio, Bordeaux, Briançon, Brittany, Burgundy, Cabourg, Cagnes-sur-Mer, Calais, Calvi, Canet-en-Roussillon, Cannes, Carcassonne, Cassis, Chambéry, Chamonix, Colmar, Corsica, Courchevel, Deauville, Dijon, Dunkirk, French Alps, French Riviera, Fréjus, Grenoble, Honfleur, La Ciotat, La Plagne, La Rochelle, Le Havre, Les Arcs, Les Gets, Les Menuires, Lille, Limoges, Lourdes, Lyon, Mandelieu-la-Napoule, Marseille, Megève, Menton, Montpellier, Morzine, Méribel, Nantes, Nice, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Normandy, Paradiski, Paris, Pas-de-Calais, Portes du Soleil, Porto-Vecchio, Provence, Périgueux, Reims, Rhône-Alpes, Rouen, Saint-Gervais-les-Bains, Saint-Malo, Saint-Martin-de-Belleville, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Saint-Tropez, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Strasbourg, The Three Valleys, Tignes, Toulouse, Trouville-sur-Mer, Val Thorens, Val-d'Isère, Versailles, Île-de-France, etc.
French Polynesia: Bora Bora, Mo'orea, Papeete, Tahiti, etc.
Gabon: Libreville, etc.
Gambia: Banjul, Serekunda, etc.
Georgia: Bakuriani, Batumi, Borjomi, Gudauri, Kobuleti, Kutaisi, Mestia, Sighnaghi, Stepantsminda, Tbilisi, Telavi, Zugdidi, etc.
Germany: Aachen, Augsburg, Bad Ems, Bad Füssing, Bad Harzburg, Bad Homburg, Bad Kissingen, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Bad Reichenhall, Bad Salzuflen, Bad Schandau, Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Bamberg, Bavaria, Berchtesgaden, Berlin, Bernkastel-Kues, Bielefeld, Binz, Bonn, Brandenburg, Braunlage, Braunschweig, Bremen, Chemnitz, Cochem, Cologne, Cuxhaven, Dortmund, Dresden, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Eisenach, Erfurt, Erlangen, Essen, Europa-Park, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Friedrichshafen, Fürth, Füssen, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Goslar, Görlitz, Göttingen, Hamburg, Hanover, Heidelberg, Heiligendamm, Heligoland, Hesse, Ingolstadt, Inzell, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Koblenz, Lake Constance, Leipzig, Lindau, Lower Saxony, Lübeck, Magdeburg, Mainz, Mannheim, Marburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Munich, Münster, Neuschwanstein Castle, Neuss, Norddeich, Norden, North Rhine-Westphalia, Nuremberg, Oberstdorf, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Potsdam, Quedlinburg, Regensburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Rostock, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Ruhpolding, Rust, Rügen, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Schmallenberg, Schwerin, Schönau am Königsee, Speyer, Stuttgart, Sylt, Thuringia, Travemünde, Trier, Ulm, Warnemünde, Weimar, Wernigerode, Westerland, Wiesbaden, Wolfsburg, Würzburg, etc.
Ghana: Accra, Kumasi, etc.
Greece: Acharavi, Aegina, Afantou, Afytos, Agios Gordios, Andros, Arkadia, Athens, Cephalonia, Chania, Chaniotis, Chios, Corfu, Corinth, Crete, Cyclades, Dassia, Delphi, Dodecanese, Faliraki, Halkidiki, Heraklion, Hersonissos, Hydra, Ialysos, Ionian Islands, Kalamata, Kalavryta, Kalymnos, Kardamaina, Karpathos, Kassandra, Kastoria, Katerini, Kavos, Kefalos, Kokkari, Kos, Kriopigi, Laganas, Lefkada, Lemnos, Lesbos, Lindos, Loutraki, Marathokampos, Meteora, Mithymna, Monemvasia, Mount Athos, Mykonos, Mytilene, Nafplio, Naxos, Neos Marmaras, Paleokastritsa, Parga, Patmos, Patras, Pefkochori, Pefkos, Peloponnese, Polychrono, Poros, Pythagoreio, Rethymno, Rhodes, Samos, Samothrace, Santorini, Sidari, Sithonia, Sparta, Spetses, Sporades, Syros, Thasos, Thessaloniki, Tingaki, Zakynthos, etc.
Guadeloupe: Saint-François, etc.
Guam: Tamuning, Tumon, etc.
Guatemala: Antigua Guatemala, etc.
Guinea: Conakry, etc.
Guyana: Georgetown, etc.
Haiti: Cap-Haitien, Port-au-Prince, etc.
Honduras: Roatán, Tegucigalpa, etc.
Hong Kong: Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, Mong Kok, New Territories, Repulse Bay, Tsim Sha Tsui, Wan Chai, etc.
Hungary: Budapest, Eger, Gyula, Hajdúszoboszló, Hévíz, Lake Balaton, Pécs, Siófok, Szeged, Zalakaros, etc.
Iceland: Akureyri, Höfn, Kópavogur, Reykjavik, etc.
India: Agra, Ahmedabad, Allahabad, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Darjeeling, Delhi, Gangtok, Goa, Gurgaon, Haridwar, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Karnataka, Kerala, Khajuraho, Kochi, Kolhapur, Kolkata, Ladakh, Leh, Madurai, Maharashtra, Manali, Mangalore, Mumbai, Nagpur, Nashik, New Delhi, Pune, Punjab, Rajasthan, Rishikesh, Sikkim, Srinagar, Thiruvananthapuram, Varanasi, Varkala, etc.
Indonesia: Bali, Balikpapan, Bandung, Batu, Bintan, Bogor, Borobudur, Denpasar, Jakarta, Java, Jimbaran, Kalimantan, Kuta, Lombok, Makassar, Malang, Mataram, Medan, Nusa Dua, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sanur, Semarang, Seminyak, Sumatra, Surabaya, Surakarta, Ubud, Yogyakarta, etc.
Iran: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc.
Iraq: Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Erbil, Karbala, Sulaymaniyah, etc.
Ireland: Bundoran, Connemara, Cork, Dingle, Donegal, Doolin, Dublin, Ennis, Galway, Kenmare, Kilkenny, Killarney, Letterkenny, Limerick, Shannon, Tralee, Westport, etc.
Isle of Man: Douglas, etc.
Israel: Acre, Arad, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Bat Yam, Beersheba, Caesarea, Dead Sea, Eilat, Ein Bokek, Galilee, Golan Heights, Gush Dan, Haifa, Hermon, Herzliya, Jerusalem, Mitzpe Ramon, Nahariya, Nazareth, Netanya, Petah Tikva, Ramat Gan, Rosh Pinna, Safed, Tel Aviv, Tiberias, Zikhron Ya'akov, etc.
Italy: Abano Terme, Abruzzo, Agrigento, Alassio, Alberobello, Alghero, Amalfi Coast, Aosta Valley, Apulia, Arezzo, Arzachena, Assisi, Asti, Bardolino, Bari, Basilicata, Bellagio, Bellaria-Igea Marina, Benevento, Bergamo, Bologna, Bolzano, Bordighera, Bormio, Brescia, Breuil-Cervinia, Brindisi, Cagliari, Calabria, Campania, Canazei, Caorle, Capri, Carrara, Castiglione della Pescaia, Catania, Cefalù, Cervia, Cesenatico, Chioggia, Cinque Terre, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Cortona, Costa Smeralda, Courmayeur, Desenzano del Garda, Dolomites, Elba, Emilia-Romagna, Ercolano, Fasano, Fassa Valley, Ferrara, Finale Ligure, Florence, Forte dei Marmi, Gallipoli, Genoa, Golfo Aranci, Greve in Chianti, Grosseto, Gubbio, Herculaneum, Imperia, Ischia, Italian Alps, Jesolo, La Spezia, Lake Como, Lake Garda, Lake Maggiore, Lampedusa, Lazio, Lazise, Lecco, Lerici, Lido di Jesolo, Lignano Sabbiadoro, Liguria, Livigno, Livorno, Lombardy, Lucca, Madonna di Campiglio, Malcesine, Manarola, Mantua, Maratea, Massa, Matera, Menaggio, Merano, Messina, Mestre, Milan, Milazzo, Monopoli, Montecatini Terme, Montepulciano, Monterosso al Mare, Monza, Naples, Nardò, Novara, Olbia, Ortisei, Ostuni, Otranto, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Peschici, Peschiera del Garda, Piacenza, Piedmont, Pisa, Pistoia, Polignano a Mare, Pompeii, Porto Cervo, Porto Cesareo, Portoferraio, Portofino, Positano, Prato, Ragusa, Rapallo, Ravenna, Riccione, Rimini, Riomaggiore, Riva del Garda, Rome, Salerno, San Gimignano, Sanremo, Sardinia, Savona, Sestriere, Sicily, Siena, Siracusa, Sirmione, Sorrento, Sottomarina, Stresa, Sëlva, Taormina, Taranto, Trani, Trapani, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Treviso, Trieste, Turin, Tuscany, Umbria, Urbino, Val Gardena, Veneto, Venice, Ventimiglia, Verbania, Vernazza, Verona, Vesuvius, Viareggio, Vicenza, Vieste, etc.
Ivory Coast: Abidjan, etc.
Jamaica: Kingston, Montego Bay, Negril, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Runaway Bay, etc.
Japan: Atami, Fujisawa, Fukuoka, Furano, Hakodate, Hakone, Hakuba, Hamamatsu, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Ishigaki, Itō, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kanazawa, Karuizawa, Kawasaki, Kobe, Kutchan, Kyoto, Matsumoto, Miyakojima, Nagasaki, Nagoya, Naha, Nanjō, Nikkō, Okinawa, Onna, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Shizuoka, Takayama, Tokyo, Yokohama, etc.
Jordan: Amman, Aqaba, Irbid, Jerash, Madaba, Petra, Sweimeh, Wadi Musa, Wadi Rum, Zarqa, etc.
Kazakhstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Astana, Atyrau, Burabay, Karagandy, Kokshetau, Kostanay, Lake Balkhash, Oskemen, Pavlodar, Semey, Shymbulak, Shymkent, Taraz, etc.
Kenya: Kisumu, Lake Victoria, Masai Mara, Mombasa, Nairobi, Ukunda, etc.
Kongo: Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, etc.
Kosovo: Pristina, Prizren, etc.
Kuwait: Hawally, Kuwait City, Salmiya, etc.
Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Bosteri, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk Kul, Karakol, Osh, etc.
Laos: Luang Prabang, Vientiane, etc.
Latvia: Cēsis, Daugavpils, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Riga, Rēzekne, Sigulda, Ventspils, etc.
Lebanon: Baalbeck, Beirut, Byblos, Faraya, Jounieh, Mzaar Kfardebian, Tripoli Lebanon, etc.
Lesotho: Maseru, etc.
Libya: Tripoli, etc.
Liechtenstein: Schaan, Vaduz, etc.
Lithuania: Druskininkai, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Nida, Palanga, Panevėžys, Trakai, Vilnius, Šiauliai, Šventoji, etc.
Luxembourg: Luxembourg City, etc.
Macedonia: Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc.
Madagascar: Antananarivo, etc.
Malawi: Blantyre, Lilongwe, etc.
Malaysia: Borneo, George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Johor, Kedah, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan, Kuching, Langkawi, Malacca, Penang, Putrajaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shah Alam, etc.
Maldives: Kaafu Atoll, Malé, etc.
Mali: Bamako, etc.
Malta: Buġibba, Gozo, Mellieħa, Paceville, Qawra, Sliema, St. Julian's, Valletta, etc.
Martinique: Fort-de-France, Les Trois-Îlets, Sainte-Luce, etc.
Mauritania: Nouakchott, etc.
Mauritius: Port Louis, etc.
Mexico: Acapulco, Akumal, Cabo San Lucas, Cancún, Chetumal, Chichen Itza, Cozumel, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Isla Mujeres, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Mexico City, Monterrey, Mérida, Oaxaca, Playa del Carmen, Puebla, Puerto Aventuras, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Morelos, Puerto Peñasco, Puerto Vallarta, Querétaro, Riviera Maya, San Cristóbal de las Casas, San Miguel de Allende, San Miguel de Cozumel, Tulum, etc.
Moldova: Bălți, Chișinău, Tiraspol, etc.
Monaco: Monte Carlo, etc.
Mongolia: Ulaanbaatar, etc.
Montenegro: Bar, Bečići, Bijela, Budva, Cetinje, Dobra Voda, Dobrota, Herceg Novi, Igalo, Kolašin, Kotor, Miločer, Nikšić, Perast, Petrovac, Podgorica, Prčanj, Sutomore, Sveti Stefan, Tivat, Ulcinj, Žabljak, etc.
Morocco: Agadir, Asilah, Casablanca, Chefchaouen, El Jadida, Essaouira, Fez, Marrakesh, Meknes, Merzouga, Mohammedia, Nador, Ouarzazate, Rabat, Tangier, Taroudant, Tinghir, Tétouan, etc.
Mozambique: Maputo, etc.
Myanmar: Mandalay, Yangon, etc.
Namibia: Windhoek, etc.
Nepal: Chitwan, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Lukla, Lumbini, Mount Everest, Nagarkot, Namche Bazaar, Patan, Pokhara, Tengboche, etc.
Netherlands: Amsterdam, Delft, Domburg, Eindhoven, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Maastricht, Noordwijk, Rotterdam, Texel, The Hague, Utrecht, Zandvoort, etc.
New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Queenstown, Rotorua, Wellington, etc.
Nicaragua: Granada, Managua, etc.
Nigeria: Abuja, Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jos, Kaduna, Lagos, Owerri, Port Harcourt, Uyo, etc.
North Korea: Pyongyang, etc.
Northern Mariana Islands: Saipan, etc.
Norway: Beitostølen, Bergen, Bodø, Gardermoen, Geilo, Geirangerfjord, Hardangerfjord, Hemsedal, Kristiansand, Larvik, Lillehammer, Lofoten, Narvik, Oslo, Sognefjord, Stavanger, Stryn, Svalbard, Tromsø, Trondheim, Ålesund, etc.
Oman: Muscat, Nizwa, Salalah, Seeb, etc.
Pakistan: Bhurban, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, etc.
Palau: Koror, Peleliu, etc.
Palestine: Beit Sahour, Bethlehem, Hebron, Jericho, Nablus, Ramallah, etc.
Panama: Bocas del Toro, Panama City, etc.
Papua New Guinea: Port Moresby, etc.
Paraguay: Asunción, Ciudad Del Este, etc.
Peru: Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Chiclayo, Cusco, Huancayo, Huanchaco, Huaraz, Ica, Iquitos, Lima, Machu Picchu, Máncora, Nazca, Ollantaytambo, Paracas, Pisco, Piura, Puerto Maldonado, Puno, Tacna, Tarapoto, Trujillo, Urubamba, etc.
Philippines: Angeles City, Bacolod, Baguio, Bohol, Boracay, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Dumaguete, El Nido, Kalibo, Lapu-Lapu City, Luzon, Mactan, Makati, Manila, Mindanao, Palawan, Panglao, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Galera, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, etc.
Poland: Białowieża Forest, Białystok, Bielsko-Biała, Bydgoszcz, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Katowice, Kielce, Kołobrzeg, Kraków, Lublin, Olsztyn, Oświęcim, Poznań, Rzeszów, Sopot, Szczecin, Toruń, Tricity, Warsaw, Wrocław, Zakopane, Zielona Góra, Łódź, Świnoujście, etc.
Portugal: Albufeira, Algarve, Azores, Funchal, Lagos, Lisbon, Madeira, Porto, Sintra, etc.
Puerto Rico: San Juan, etc.
Qatar: Doha, etc.
Romania: Bran, Brașov, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Constanța, Poiana Brașov, Sibiu, Sighișoara, Timișoara, Transylvania, etc.
Russia: Abakan, Abrau-Dyurso, Abzakovo, Adler, Altai Republic, Alupka, Alushta, Anadyr, Anapa, Angarsk, Arkhangelsk, Arkhipo Osipovka, Armavir, Astrakhan, Bakhchysarai, Balakovo, Balashikha, Baltic Sea, Barnaul, Belgorod, Belokurikha, Biysk, Black Sea, Blagoveshchensk, Bolshoy Utrish, Bratsk, Bryansk, Caucasian Mineral Waters, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Cherepovets, Cherkessk, Chita, Chornomorske, Crimea, Curonian Spit, Dagomys, Divnomorskoye, Dombay, Domodedovo, Dzerzhinsk, Dzhankhot, Dzhubga, Elektrostal, Elista, Engels, Estosadok, Feodosia, Foros, Gaspra, Gatchina, Gelendzhik, Golden Ring, Golubitskaya, Gornaya Karusel, Gorno-Altaysk, Goryachy Klyuch, Grozny, Gurzuf, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kabardinka, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka, Karelia, Kazan, Kemerovo, Kerch, Khabarovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk, Khibiny, Khimki, Khosta, Kirov, Kirovsk, Kislovodsk, Kizhi, Koktebel, Kolomna, Komsomolsk on Amur, Konakovo, Koreiz, Korolev, Kostroma, Krasnaya Polyana, Krasnodar Krai, Krasnodar, Krasnogorsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kurgan, Kursk, Kyzyl, Lake Baikal, Lake Seliger, Lazarevskoye, Lipetsk, Listvyanka, Loo, Lyubertsy, Magadan, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Massandra, Matsesta, Maykop, Miass, Mineralnye Vody, Moscow, Mount Elbrus, Murmansk, Murom, Mytishchi, Naberezhnye Chelny, Nakhodka, Nalchik, Naryan-Mar, Nebug, Nizhnekamsk, Nizhnevartovsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Tagil, Norilsk, Novokuznetsk, Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, Novyi Svit, Novyy Urengoy, Obninsk, Odintsovo, Olginka, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Oryol, Partenit, Penza, Pereslavl Zalessky, Perm, Petergof, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Petrozavodsk, Plyos, Podolsk, Popovka, Primorsko-Akhtarsk, Pskov, Pulkovo, Pushkin, Pushkino, Pyatigorsk, Repino, Rosa Khutor, Rostov-on-Don, Ryazan, Rybachye, Rybinsk, Saint Petersburg, Sakhalin, Saky, Salekhard, Samara, Saransk, Saratov, Sea of Azov, Sergiyev Posad, Serpukhov, Sestroretsk, Sevastopol, Shakhty, Sheregesh, Sheremetyevo, Siberia, Simeiz, Simferopol, Smolensk, Sochi, Solovetsky Islands, Sortavala, Stary Oskol, Stavropol, Sterlitamak, Sudak, Sukko, Surgut, Suzdal, Svetlogorsk, Syktyvkar, Syzran, Taganrog, Tambov, Tarusa, Terskol, Tobolsk, Tolyatti, Tomsk, Torzhok, Tuapse, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ufa, Uglich, Ulan-Ude, Ulyanovsk, Utes, Valaam, Valday, Velikiye Luki, Veliky Novgorod, Veliky Ustyug, Vityazevo, Vladikavkaz, Vladimir, Vladivostok, Vnukovo International Airport, Volga, Volgograd, Vologda, Volzhskiy, Voronezh, Vyborg, Yakhroma, Yakutsk, Yalta, Yaroslavl, Yekaterinburg, Yelets, Yenisei, Yessentuki, Yevpatoria, Yeysk, Yoshkar-Ola, Yuzhno Sakhalinsk, Zelenogradsk, Zheleznovodsk, Zhukovsky, Zvenigorod, etc.
Rwanda: Butare, Gisenyi, Kibuye, Kigali, etc.
Réunion: Saint-Denis, etc.
Saint Barthélemy: Gustavia, etc.
Saint Kitts and Nevis: Basseterre, etc.
Saint Lucia: Anse La Raye, Castries, Gros Islet, Soufrière, etc.
Saint Martin:, etc.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Kingstown, etc.
Samoa: Apia, etc.
San Marino: City of San Marino, etc.
Saudi Arabia: Al Khobar, Jeddah, Mecca, Medina, Riyadh, etc.
Senegal: Dakar, etc.
Serbia: Belgrade, Kopaonik, Niš, Novi Sad, Palić, Stara Planina, Subotica, Zlatibor, etc.
Seychelles: La Digue, Mahé, Praslin, etc.
Sierra Leone: Freetown, etc.
Singapore: Changi, Sentosa, etc.
Sint Maarten:, etc.
Slovakia: Bratislava, Jasná, Liptov, Tatranská Lomnica, Vysoké Tatry, Štrbské Pleso, etc.
Slovenia: Bled, Bohinj, Bovec, Kranjska Gora, Ljubljana, Maribor, Piran, Portorož, Rogaška Slatina, etc.
South Africa: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Kruger National Park, Marloth Park, Port Elizabeth, Pretoria, etc.
South Korea: Busan, Daegu, Gyeongju, Incheon, Jejudo, Pyeongchang, Seogwipo, Seoul, Suwon, etc.
Spain: A Coruña, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Altea, Andalusia, Antequera, Aragon, Asturias, Ayamonte, Balearic Islands, Barbate, Barcelona, Basque Country, Benalmádena, Benidorm, Benissa, Besalú, Bilbao, Blanes, Buñol, Cadaqués, Calella, Calonge, Calp, Cambrils, Canary Islands, Cangas de Onís, Cantabria, Cartagena, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Chiclana de la Frontera, Costa Blanca, Costa Brava, Costa Dorada, Costa del Maresme, Costa del Sol, Cádiz, Córdoba, Dénia, El Puerto de Santa María, Empuriabrava, Estepona, Figueres, Formentera, Fuerteventura, Galicia, Gijón, Girona, Gran Canaria, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera, L'Escala, L'Estartit, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Pineda, Lanzarote, Llançà, Lloret de Mar, Madrid, Malgrat de Mar, Mallorca, Marbella, Maspalomas, Menorca, Mijas, Mojácar, Moraira, Murcia, Málaga, Navarre, Nerja, Oviedo, Palma, Pals, PortAventura, Ronda, Roquetas de Mar, Roses, Salamanca, Salou, San Sebastian, Sant Antoni de Portmany, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Santillana del Mar, Seville, Sidges, Sierra Nevada, Tarifa, Tarragona, Tenerife, Toledo, Torremolinos, Torrevieja, Torroella de Montgrí, Tossa de Mar, Valencia, Vélez-Málaga, Xàbia, Zaragoza, etc.
Sri Lanka: Anuradhapura, Bentota, Beruwala, Colombo, Dambulla, Galle, Hikkaduwa, Jaffna, Kandy, Mirissa, Negombo, Nuwara Eliya, Sigiriya, Tangalle, Trincomalee, Unawatuna, Weligama, etc.
Sudan: Khartoum, etc.
Suriname: Paramaribo, etc.
Swaziland: Lobamba, Mbabane, etc.
Sweden: Bohuslän, Gothenburg, Gotland, Helsingborg, Lund, Malmö, Stockholm, Uppsala, Visby, Åre, etc.
Switzerland: Adelboden, Andermatt, Anzère, Arosa, Ascona, Basel, Bellinzona, Bern, Crans-Montana, Davos, Engelberg, Fribourg, Geneva, Grindelwald, Gstaad, Haute-Nendaz, Interlaken, Jungfrau, Lake Maggiore, Lausanne, Lauterbrunnen, Locarno, Lucerne, Lugano, Matterhorn, Montreux, Nendaz, Neuchâtel, Pontresina, Portes du Soleil, Saas-Fee, Silvaplana, Sion, St. Gallen, St. Moritz, Swiss Alps, Ticino, Valais, Verbier, Vevey, Veysonnaz, Wengen, Zermatt, Zug, Zürich, etc.
Syria: Aleppo, Damascus, Latakia, Palmyra, etc.
Taiwan: Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc.
Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Khujand, etc.
Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Zanzibar, etc.
Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chonburi, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Karon, Ko Chang, Ko Lanta, Ko Phangan, Ko Samui, Krabi, Pai, Patong, Pattaya, Phi Phi Islands, Phuket, Ranong, River Kwai, Udon Thani, etc.
Togo: Lomé, etc.
Tonga: Nukuʻalofa, etc.
Trinidad and Tobago: Port of Spain, etc.
Tunisia: Djerba, Hammamet, Midoun, Monastir, Port El Kantaoui, Sousse, Tunis, etc.
Turkey: Adana, Alacati, Alanya, Ankara, Antakya, Antalya, Ayvalık, Beldibi, Belek, Bodrum, Bozcaada, Bursa, Büyükada, Cappadocia, Dalyan, Datça, Denizli, Didim, Edirne, Ephesus, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Fethiye, Gaziantep, Göynük, Istanbul, Kalkan, Kayseri, Kaş, Kemer, Konakli, Konya, Kuşadası, Lara, Mahmutlar, Marmaris, Mersin, Olympos, Palandöken, Pamukkale, Prince Islands, Samsun, Sapanca, Sarıkamış, Selçuk, Side, Tekirova, Trabzon, Troy, Turkish Riviera, Uludağ, Van, Çamyuva, Çanakkale, Çeşme, Çıralı, Ölüdeniz, İzmir, İçmeler, Şanlıurfa, etc.
Turkmenistan: Ashgabat, Avaza, etc.
Turks and Caicos Islands: Cockburn Town, North Caicos, Pine Cay, Providenciales, etc.
U.S. Virgin Islands: Charlotte Amalie, etc.
Uganda: Kampala, etc.
Ukraine: Berdiansk, Bukovel, Chernivtsi, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Kharkiv, Kherson, Kiev, Koblevo, Kremenchuk, Kryvyi Rih, Luhansk, Lviv, Mariupol, Mykolaiv, Odessa, Poltava, Slavske, Sumy, Truskavets, Uzhgorod, Vinnytsia, Yaremche, Zaporizhia, Zatoka, Zhytomyr, etc.
United Arab Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Persian Gulf, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, etc.
United Kingdom: Aberdeen, Bath, Belfast, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Brighton, Bristol, Cambridge, Canterbury, Cardiff, Channel Tunnel, Cheltenham, Chester, Cornwall, Coventry, Cumbria, Derry, Devon, Dorset, Dover, Eastbourne, Edinburgh, England, English Channel, Exeter, Folkestone, Fort William, Glasgow, Hampshire, Inverness, Kent, Lancashire, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, Llandudno, London, Manchester, Milton Keynes, Newcastle, Newquay, Northern Ireland, Norwich, Nottingham, Oban, Oxford, Paignton, Plymouth, Portmeirion, Reading, Scarborough, Scotland, Sheffield, Somerset, Southampton, St Albans, Stonehenge, Sussex, Swansea, Torquay, Wales, Windsor, York, etc.
United States: Alabama, Alaska, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Anaheim, Anchorage, Arizona, Arkansas, Arlington, Aspen, Atlanta, Austin, Bakersfield, Baltimore, Beaver Creek, Billings, Birmingham, Boise, Boston, Breckenridge, Brooklyn, California, Carlsbad, Charlotte, Cheyenne, Chicago, Cincinnati, Clearwater, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Columbus, Connecticut, Corpus Christi, Dallas, Daytona Beach, Death Valley, Delaware, Denver, Des Moines, Destin, Detroit, El Paso, Estes Park, Fargo, Florida, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Fort Walton Beach, Fort Worth, Fresno, Galveston, Georgia, Grand Canyon, Grand Teton, Great Smoky Mountains, Hawaii, Hollywood, Honolulu, Hot Springs, Houston, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indianapolis, Iowa, Irving, Jackson, Jackson, Jacksonville, Jersey City, Juneau, Kansas City, Kansas, Kentucky, Key Largo, Key West, Lahaina, Lake Tahoe, Las Vegas, Lexington, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Louisville, Madison, Maine, Manhattan, Marathon, Maryland, Massachusetts, Memphis, Miami Beach, Miami, Michigan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Moab, Montana, Monterey, Mountain View, Myrtle Beach, Napa, Naples, Nashville, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New Orleans, New York City, New York, Newport, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oakland, Ocean City, Ohio, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Omaha, Oregon, Orlando, Palm Coast, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Panama City Beach, Park City, Pasadena, Pennsylvania, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Plano, Portland, Portland, Providence, Raleigh, Reno, Rhode Island, Richmond, Rocky Mountains, Sacramento, Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Sanibel, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Monica, Sarasota, Savannah, Scottsdale, Seattle, Silicon Valley, South Carolina, South Dakota, Springfield, Squaw Valley, St. Augustine, Steamboat Springs, Sunny Isles Beach, Tallahassee, Tampa, Telluride, Tennessee, Texas, Tucson, Tulsa, Utah, Vail, Vermont, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Waikiki, Washington D.C., Washington, West Virginia, Wichita, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yellowstone, Yosemite, Zion, etc.
Uruguay: Montevideo, Punta del Este, etc.
Uzbekistan: Bukhara, Khiva, Samarkand, Tashkent, etc.
Vanuatu: Port Vila, etc.
Vatican City:, etc.
Venezuela: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc.
Vietnam: Cần Thơ, Da Lat, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Huế, Hạ Long, Hội An, Nha Trang, Phan Thiết, Phú Quốc, Sa Pa, Vũng Tàu, etc.
Yemen: Aden, Sana'a, etc.
Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, etc.
Zimbabwe: Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc.