One-day disposable contact lenses with blue handling tint in blister-pack packaging
A contact lens, or simply contacts, is a thin lens placed directly on the surface of the eye. Contact lenses are considered medical devices and can be worn to correct vision, or for cosmetic or therapeutic reasons. In 2004, it was estimated that 125 million people worldwide use contact lenses, including 28 to 38 million in the United States. In 2010, the worldwide market for contact lenses was estimated at $6.1 billion, while the US soft lens market was estimated at $2.1 billion. Multiple analysts estimated that the global market for contact lenses would reach $11.7 billion by 2015. As of 2010, the average age of contact lens wearers globally was 31 years old, and two-thirds of wearers were female.
People choose to wear contact lenses for many reasons. Aesthetics and cosmetics are the main motivating factors for people who want to avoid wearing glasses or to change the appearance of their eyes. Others wear contact lenses for functional or optical reasons. When compared with spectacles, contact lenses typically provide better peripheral vision, and do not collect moisture (from rain, snow, condensation etc.) or perspiration. This can make them preferable for sports and other outdoor activities. Contact lens wearers can also wear sunglasses, goggles, or other eyewear of their choice without having to fit them with prescription lenses or worry about compatibility with glasses. Additionally, there are conditions such as keratoconus and aniseikonia that are typically corrected better with contact lenses than with glasses.
The size of the contact lens market is likely to grow due to the increasing occurrence of eye-related conditions such as astigmatism, hyperopia and myopia. The other drivers are increasing population, the desire to make fashion statements, and technological advancement. By the end of 2020, the value of the contact lens market is predicted to reach $13.5 billion.
Origins and first functional prototypes
Artist's impression of da Vinci's method for neutralizing the refractive power of the cornea
Leonardo da Vinci is frequently credited with introducing the idea of contact lenses in his 1508 Codex of the eye, Manual D, wherein he described a method of directly altering corneal power by either submerging the head in a bowl of water or wearing a water-filled glass hemisphere over the eye. Neither idea was practically implementable in da Vinci's time. He did not suggest his idea be used for correcting vision, as he was more interested in learning about the mechanisms of accommodation of the eye.
Descartes proposed another idea in 1636-a glass tube filled with liquid placed in direct contact with the cornea. The protruding end was to be composed of clear glass, shaped to correct vision; however, the idea was impracticable since it made blinking impossible.
In 1801, Thomas Young made a pair of basic contact lenses based on Descartes' model. He used wax to affix water-filled lenses to his eyes, which neutralized its refractive power. He then corrected for it with another pair of lenses.
However, like da Vinci's, Young's device was not intended to correct refraction errors. Sir John Herschel, in a footnote of the 1845 edition of the Encyclopedia Metropolitana, posed two ideas for the visual correction: the first "a spherical capsule of glass filled with animal jelly", and "a mould of the cornea" that could be impressed on "some sort of transparent medium". Though Herschel reportedly never tested these ideas, they were both later advanced by several independent inventors such as Hungarian Dallos with István Komáromy (1929), who perfected a method of making molds from living eyes. This enabled the manufacture of lenses that, for the first time, conformed to the actual shape of the eye.
In 1888, Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick was the first to successfully fit contact lenses, which were made from blown glass
In 1888, German ophthalmologist Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick constructed and fitted the first successful contact lens. While working in Zürich, he described fabricating afocalscleral contact shells, which rested on the less sensitive rim of tissue around the cornea, and experimentally fitting them; initially on rabbits, then on himself, and lastly on a small group of volunteers. These lenses were made from heavy blown glass and were 18–21 mm (0.71–0.83 in) in diameter. Fick filled the empty space between cornea and glass with a dextrose solution. He published his work, "Contactbrille", in the journal Archiv für Augenheilkunde in March 1888.
Fick's lens was large and unwieldy, and could be worn only for a couple of hours at a time. August Müller in Kiel, Germany, corrected his own severe myopia with a more convenient blown-glass scleral contact lens of his own manufacture in 1888.
Also in 1887, Louis J. Girard invented a similar scleral form of contact lens. Blown-glass scleral lenses remained the only form of contact lens until the 1930s when Perspex/Plexiglas was developed, allowing plastic scleral lenses to be manufactured for the first time. In 1936, optometrist William Feinbloom introduced plastic in lenses, making them lighter and more convenient. These lenses were a combination of glass and plastic. In 1939, Hungarian optometrist Dr István Györffy produced first fully plastic lenses. Later, in 1940, German optometrist Heinrich Wöhlk produced fully plastic lenses too, based on experiments performed during the 1930s.
Corneal and rigid lenses (1949-1960s)
In 1949, the first "corneal" lenses were developed. These were much smaller than the original scleral lenses, as they sat only on the cornea rather than across all of the visible ocular surface, and could be worn up to sixteen hours a day. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) corneal lenses became the first contact lenses to have mass appeal through the 1960s, as lens designs became more sophisticated with improving manufacturing technology. On Oct. 18, 1964, in a television studio in Washington, D. C, Lyndon Baines Johnson became the first President in the history of these United States to appear in public wearing contact lenses.
Early corneal lenses of the 1950s and '60s were relatively expensive and fragile, resulting in the development of a market for contact lens insurance. Replacement Lens Insurance, Inc. (now known as RLI Corp.) phased out its original flagship product in 1994 after contact lenses became more affordable and easier to replace.
Gas permeable and soft lenses (1959-current)
One major disadvantage of PMMA lenses is that they allow no oxygen to get through to the conjunctiva and cornea, causing a number of adverse and potentially serious clinical effects. By the end of the 1970s and through the '80s and '90s, a range of oxygen-permeable but rigid materials were developed to overcome this problem. Chemist Norman Gaylord played a prominent role in the development of these new oxygen-permeable contact lenses. Collectively, these polymers are referred to as rigid gas permeable or RGP materials or lenses. Though all the above contact lens types-sclerals, PMMAs and RGPs-could be correctly referred to as "rigid" or "hard", the latter term is now used to the original PMMAs, which are still occasionally fitted and worn, whereas "rigid" is a generic term for all these lens types; thus hard lenses (PMMAs) are a subset of rigid contact lenses. Occasionally, the term "gas permeable" is used to describe RGPs, which is somewhat misleading as soft contact lenses are also gas permeable in that they allow oxygen to get through to the ocular surface.
The principal breakthrough in soft lenses was made by Czech chemists Otto Wichterle and Drahoslav Lím, who published their work "Hydrophilic gels for biological use" in the journal Nature in 1959. In 1965, National Patent Development Corporation (NPDC) bought the American rights to produce the lenses and then sublicensed the rights to Bausch & Lomb, which started to manufacture them in the United States. The Czech scientists' work led to the launch of the first soft (hydrogel) contact lenses in some countries in the 1960s and the first approval of the Soflens material by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1971. These soft lenses were soon prescribed more often than rigid ones, due to the immediate and much greater comfort (rigid lenses require a period of adaptation before full comfort is achieved). Polymers from which soft lenses are manufactured improved over the next 25 years, primarily in terms of increasing oxygen permeability, by varying the ingredients. In 1972, British optometrist Rishi Agarwal was the first to suggest disposable soft contact lenses.
In 1998, the first silicone hydrogel contact lenses were released by Ciba Vision in Mexico. These new materials encapsulated the benefits of silicone-which has extremely high oxygen permeability-with the comfort and clinical performance of the conventional hydrogels that had been used for the previous 30 years. These contact lenses were initially advocated primarily for extended (overnight) wear, although more recently, daily (no overnight) wear silicone hydrogels have been launched.
In a slightly modified molecule, a polar group is added without changing the structure of the silicone hydrogel. This is referred to as the Tanaka monomer because it was invented and patented by Kyoichi Tanaka of Menicon Co. of Japan in 1979. Second-generation silicone hydrogels, such as galyfilcon A (Acuvue Advance, Vistakon) and senofilcon A (Acuvue Oasys, Vistakon), use the Tanaka monomer. Vistakon improved the Tanaka monomer even further and added other molecules, which serve as an internal wetting agent.
Comfilcon A (Biofinity, CooperVision) was the first third-generation polymer. Its patent claims that the material uses two siloxy macromers of different sizes that, when used in combination, produce very high oxygen permeability (for a given water content). Enfilcon A (Avaira, CooperVision) is another third-generation material that is naturally wettable; its water content is 46%.
Contact lenses are classified in many different ways: by their primary function, material, wear schedule (how long a lens can be worn), and replacement schedule (how long before a lens needs to be discarded).
Corrective contact lenses
Corrective contact lenses are designed to improve vision, most commonly by correcting refractive error. This is done by directly focusing light so it enters the eye with the proper power for clear vision.
A spherical contact lens bends light evenly in every direction (horizontally, vertically, etc.). They are typically used to correct myopia and hypermetropia. A toric contact lens has a different focusing power horizontally than vertically, and as a result can correct for astigmatism. Some spherical rigid lenses can also correct for astigmatism. Because a toric lens must have the proper orientation to correct for a person's astigmatism, such a lens must have additional design characteristics to prevent it from rotating away from the ideal alignment. This can be done by weighting the bottom of the lens or by using other physical characteristics to rotate the lens back into position. Some toric contact lenses have marks or etchings that can assist the eye doctor or the user in fitting the lens. The first disposable toric contact lenses were introduced in 2000 by Vistakon.
Correction of presbyopia (a need for a reading prescription different from the prescription needed for distance) presents an additional challenge in the fitting of contact lenses. Two main strategies exist: multifocal lenses and monovision.
Multifocal contact lenses (e.g. bifocals or progressives) are comparable to spectacles with bifocals or progressive lenses because they have multiple focal points. Multifocal contact lenses are typically designed for constant viewing through the center of the lens, but some designs do incorporate a shift in lens position to view through the reading power (similar to bifocal glasses).
Monovision is the use of single-vision lenses (one focal point per lens) to focus an eye (typically the dominant one) for distance vision and the other for near work. The brain then learns to use this setup to see clearly at all distances. A technique called modified monovision uses multifocal lenses and also specializes one eye for distance and the other for near, thus gaining the benefits of both systems. Alternatively, a person may simply wear reading glasses over their distance contact lenses. Care is advised for persons with a previous history of strabismus and those with significant phorias, who are at risk of eye misalignment under monovision. Studies have shown no adverse effect to driving performance in adapted monovision contact lens wearers.
Other types of vision correction
For those with certain color deficiencies, a red-tinted "X-Chrom" contact lens may be used. Although such a lens does not restore normal color vision, it allows some color-blind people to distinguish colors better. Red-filtering contact lenses can also be an option for extreme light sensitivity in some visual deficiencies such as achromatopsia.
ChromaGen contact lenses have been used and shown to have some limitations with vision at night although otherwise producing significant improvements in color vision. An earlier study showed very significant improvements in color vision and patient satisfaction.
Later work that used these ChromaGen lenses with dyslexics in a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial showed highly significant improvements in reading ability over reading without the lenses. This system has been granted FDA approval for use in the United States.
Magnification is another area being researched for future contact lens applications. Embedding of telescopic lenses and electronic components suggests that future uses of contact lenses may become extremely diverse. However, there are still barriers that prevent transition of these technologies, from research and development to practical application and commercial availability.
Cosmetic contact lenses
Woman wearing a cosmetic type of contact lens; enlarged detail shows the grain produced during the manufacturing process. Curving of the lines of printed dots suggests these lenses were manufactured by printing onto a flat sheet then shaping it.
A cosmetic contact lens is designed to change the appearance of the eye. These lenses may also correct refractive error. Although many brands of contact lenses are lightly tinted to make them easier to handle, cosmetic lenses worn to change eye color are far less common, accounting for only 3% of contact lens fits in 2004.
In the United States, the FDA labels non-corrective cosmetic contact lenses as decorative contact lenses. Like any contact lens, cosmetic lenses carry risks of mild to serious complications, including ocular redness, irritation and infection.
Due to their medical nature, colored contact lenses, similar to regular ones, are illegal to purchase in the United States without a valid prescription. Those with perfect vision can buy color contacts for cosmetic reasons, but they still need their eyes to be measured for a "plano" prescription, meaning one with zero vision correction. This is for safety reasons so the lenses will fit the eye without causing irritation or redness.
Some colored contact lenses completely cover the iris, thus dramatically changing eye colour. Other colored contact lenses merely tint the iris, highlighting and beautifying its natural colour. A new trend in Japan, South Korea and China is the circle contact lens, which extend the appearance of the iris onto the sclera by having a dark tinted area all around. The result is an appearance of a bigger, wider iris, a look reminiscent of dolls' eyes.
One of the drawbacks of cosmetic lenses is not knowing how they will look before physically trying them on. This has led to an industry where lens retailers are heavily influenced by cutting edge digital fashion technology, specifically the Virtual Dressing Room technology. Virtual Dressing Room technology offers users the option to upload a photo so they can virtually try on different lenses and experience how they will look before committing to a purchase. Examples of retailers that currently offer this technology are Freshlook Color Studios and Colorful Eyes.
Cosmetic lenses can have more direct medical applications. For example, some contact lenses can restore the appearance and, to some extent the function, of a damaged or missingiris.
Therapeutic scleral lenses
Scleral lens, with visible outer edge resting on the sclera of a patient with severe dry eye syndrome
A scleral lens is a large, firm, oxygen permeable contact lens that rests on the sclera and creates a tear-filled vault over the cornea. The cause of this unique positioning is usually relevant to a specific patient whose cornea is too sensitive to support the lens directly. Scleral lenses may be used to improve vision and reduce pain and light sensitivity for people suffering from a growing number of disorders or injuries to the eye, such as severe dry eye syndrome (Kerotanconjuctivis sicca), microphthalmia, keratoconus, corneal ectasia, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, Sjögren's syndrome, aniridia, neurotrophic keratitis (aneasthetic corneas), complications post-LASIK, high order Aberrations of the eye, complications post-corneal transplant and pellucid degeneration. Injuries to the eye such as surgical complications, distorted corneal implants, as well as chemical and burn injuries also may be treated with scleral lenses.
Therapeutic soft lenses
Soft lenses are often used in the treatment and management of non-refractive disorders of the eye. A bandage contact lens protects an injured or diseased cornea from the constant rubbing of blinking eyelids thereby allowing it to heal. They are used in the treatment of conditions including bullous keratopathy, dry eyes, corneal abrasions and erosion, keratitis, corneal edema, descemetocele, corneal ectasis, Mooren's ulcer, anterior corneal dystrophy, and neurotrophic keratoconjunctivitis. Contact lenses that deliver drugs to the eye have also been developed.
Contact lenses, other than the cosmetic variety, become almost invisible once inserted in the eye. Most corrective contact lenses come with a light "handling tint" that renders the lens slightly more visible on the eye. Soft contact lenses extend beyond the cornea, their rim sometimes visible against the sclera.
Glass lenses were never comfortable enough to gain widespread popularity. The first lenses to do so were those made from polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA or Perspex/Plexiglas), now commonly referred to as "hard" lenses. Their main disadvantage is they do not allow oxygen to pass through to the cornea, which can cause a number of adverse, and often serious, clinical events. Starting in the late 1970s, improved rigid materials which were oxygen-permeable were developed. Contact lenses made from these materials are called rigid gas permeable lenses or 'RGPs'.
A rigid lens is able to cover the natural shape of the cornea with a new refracting surface. This means that a spherical rigid contact lens can correct corneal astigmatism. Rigid lenses can also be made as a front-toric, back-toric, or bitoric. Rigid lenses can also correct corneas with irregular geometries, such as those with keratoconus or post surgical ectasias. In most cases, patients with keratoconus see better through rigid lenses than through glasses. Rigid lenses are more chemically inert, allowing them to be worn in more challenging environments than soft lenses.
Soft lenses are more flexible than rigid lenses, and can be gently rolled or folded without damaging the lens. While rigid lenses require a period of adaptation before comfort is achieved, new soft lens wearers typically report lens awareness rather than pain or discomfort.
Hydrogel lenses rely on their water content to transmit oxygen through the lens to the cornea. As a result, higher water content lenses allowed more oxygen to the cornea. In 1998, silicone hydrogel, or Si-hy lenses became available. These materials have both the extremely high oxygen permeability of silicone and the comfort and clinical performance of the conventional hydrogels. Because silicone allows more oxygen permeability than water, oxygen permeability of silicone hydrogels is not tied to the lenses' water content. Lenses have now been developed with so much oxygen permeability that they are approved for overnight wear (extended wear). Lenses approved for daily wear are also available in silicone hydrogel materials.
Disadvantages of silicone hydrogels are that they are slightly stiffer and the lens surface can be hydrophobic, thus less "wettable" – factors that can influence comfort of lens use. New manufacturing techniques and changes to multipurpose solutions have minimized these effects. A surface modification process called plasma coating alters the lens surface's hydrophobic nature. Another technique incorporates internal rewetting agents to make the lens surface hydrophilic. A third process uses longer backbone polymer chains that results in less cross linking and increased wetting without surface alterations or additive agents.
Current brands of soft lenses are either traditional hydrogel or silicone hydrogel. Because of drastic differences in oxygen permeability, replacement schedule, and other design characteristics, it is very important to follow the instructions of the eye care professional prescribing the lenses.
A small number of hybrid lenses exist. Typically these contact lenses consist of a rigid center and a soft "skirt". A similar technique is the "piggybacking" of a smaller, rigid lens on the surface of a larger, soft lens. These techniques are often chosen to give the vision correction benefits of a rigid lens and the comfort of a soft lens.
A "daily wear" (DW) contact lens is designed to be worn for one day and removed before sleeping. An "extended wear" (EW) contact lens is designed for continuous overnight wear, typically for up to 6 consecutive nights. Newer materials, such as silicone hydrogels, allow for even longer wear periods of up to 30 consecutive nights; these longer-wear lenses are often referred to as "continuous wear" (CW). EW and CW contact lenses can be worn overnight because of their high oxygen permeability. While awake, the eyes are mostly open, allowing oxygen from the air to dissolve into the tears and pass through the lens to the cornea. While asleep, oxygen is supplied from the blood vessels in the back of the eyelid. A lens hindering passage of oxygen to the cornea causes corneal hypoxia which can result in serious complications, such as corneal ulcer that, if left untreated, can permanently decrease vision. EW and CW contact lenses typically allow for a transfer of 5–6 times more oxygen than conventional softs, allowing the cornea to remain healthy, even with closed eyelids.
Wearing lenses designed for daily wear overnight has an increased risk for corneal infections, corneal ulcers and corneal neovascularization-this latter condition, once it sets in, cannot be reversed and will eventually spoil vision acuity through diminishing corneal transparency. The most common complication of extended wear is giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC), sometimes associated with a poorly fitting contact lens.
Contact lenses are often categorized by their replacement schedule. Single use lenses (called 1-day or daily disposables) are discarded after one use. Because they do not have to stand up to the wear and tear of repeated uses, these lenses can be made thinner and lighter, greatly improving their comfort. Lenses replaced frequently gather fewer deposits of allergens and germs, making these lenses preferable for patients with ocular allergies or for those who are prone to infection. Single-use lenses are also useful for people who wear contact lenses infrequently, or when losing a lens is likely or not easily replaced (such as when on vacation). They are also considered useful for children because cleaning or disinfecting is not needed, leading to improved compliance.
Other disposable contact lenses are designed for replacement every two or four weeks. Quarterly or annual lenses, which used to be very common, are much less so. Rigid gas permeable lenses are very durable and may last for several years without the need for replacement. PMMA hards were very durable and were commonly worn for 5 to 10 years, but had several drawbacks.
Lenses with different replacement schedules can be made of the same material. Although the materials are alike, differences in the manufacturing processes determine if the resulting lens will be a "daily disposable" or one recommended for two or four week replacement. However, sometimes manufacturers use absolutely identical lenses and just repackage them with different labels.
Typically, soft contact lenses are mass-produced, while rigids are custom-made to exact specifications for the individual patient.
Spin-cast lenses – A soft lens manufactured by whirling liquid silicone in a revolving mold at high speed.
Diamond turning – This type is cut and polished on a CNC lathe. The lens starts out as a cylindrical disk held in the jaws of the lathe that is equipped with an industrial-grade diamond as the cutting tool. The CNC lathe may turn at nearly 6000 RPM as the cutter removes the desired amount of material from the inside of the lens. The concave (inner) surface of the lens is then polished with some fine abrasive paste, oil, and a small polyester cotton ball turned at high speeds. To hold the delicate lens in reverse manner, wax is used as an adhesive. The lens' convex (outer) surface is thus cut and polished by the same process. This method can be used to shape rigid as well as soft lenses. In the case of softs, the lens is cut from a dehydrated polymer that is rigid until water is reintroduced.
Molded – Molding is used to manufacture some brands of soft contact lenses. Rotating molds are used and the molten material is added and shaped by centripetal forces. Injection molding and computer control are also used to create nearly perfect lenses. The lens is kept moist throughout the entire molding process and is never dried and rehydrated.
Many companies make contact lenses. In the United States, there are five major manufacturers:
Prescriptions for contact lenses and glasses may be similar, but are not interchangeable. Prescribing of contact lenses is usually restricted to various combinations of ophthalmologists, optometrists and opticians. An eye examination is needed to determine an individual's suitability for contact lens wear. This typically includes a refraction to determine the proper power of the lens and an assessment of the health of the eye's anterior segment. Many eye diseases prohibits contact lens wear, such as active infections, allergies, and dry eye. Keratometry is especially important in the fitting of rigid lenses.
Contact lenses are prescribed by ophthalmologists, optometrists, or specially licensed opticians under the supervision of an eye doctor. Contact lenses can typically be ordered at the office that conducts the eye exam and fitting. The Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act gives consumers the right to obtain a copy of their contact lens prescription, allowing them to fill it at the lens provider of their choice.
Many complications arise when contact lenses are worn not as prescribed (improper wear schedule or lens replacement). Sleeping in lenses not designed or approved for extended wear is a common cause of complications. Many people go too long before replacing their contacts, wearing lenses designed for 1, 14, or 30 days of wear for multiple months or years. While this does save on the cost of lenses, it risks permanent damage to the eye and even loss of sight.
One of the major factors that causes complications is that the contact lens is an oxygen barrier. The cornea needs a constant supply of oxygen to remain completely transparent and function as it should; it normally gets that oxygen from the surrounding air while awake, and from the blood vessels in the back of the eyelid while asleep. The most prominent risks associated with long-term, chronic low oxygen to the cornea include corneal neovascularization, increased epithelial permeability, bacterial adherence, microcysts, corneal edema, endothelial polymegethism, dry eye and potential increase in myopia. That is why much of the research into the latest soft and rigid contact lens materials has centered on improving oxygen transmission through the lens.
Mishandling of contact lenses can also cause problems. Corneal abrasions can increase the chances of infection. When combined with improper cleaning and disinfection of the lens, a risk of infection further increases. Decreased corneal sensitivity after extended contact lens wear may cause a patient to miss some of the earliest symptoms of such complications.
The way contact lenses interact with the natural tear layer is a major factor in determining lens comfort and visual clarity. People suffering from dry eyes are particularly vulnerable to discomfort and episodes of brief blurry vision. Proper lens selection can minimize these effects.
Long-term wear (over five years) of contact lenses may "decrease the entire corneal thickness and increase the corneal curvature and surface irregularity." Long-term wear of rigid contacts is associated with decreased corneal keratocyte density and increased number of epithelialLangerhans cells.
All contact lenses sold in the United States are studied and approved as safe by the FDA when specific handling and care procedures, wear schedules, and replacement schedules are followed.
Before touching the contact lens or the eye, it is important to wash hands thoroughly with soap and rinse well. Soaps containing moisturizers or allergens should be avoided as these can cause eye irritation. Drying of hands using towels or tissues before handling contact lenses can transfer lint (fluff) to the hands and, subsequently, to the lenses, causing irritation upon insertion. Towels, unless freshly laundered on high temperature wash, are frequently contaminated with large quantities of bacteria and, as such, should be avoided when handling lenses. Dust, lint and other debris may collect on the outside of contact lenses. Again, hand contact with this material, before handling contact lenses, may transfer it to the lenses themselves. Rinsing the case under a source of clean running water, before opening it, can help alleviate this problem. Next the lens should be removed from its case and inspected for defects (e.g. splits, folds, lint). A 'gritty' or rough appearance to the lens surface may indicate that a considerable quantity of proteins, lipids and debris has built up on it and that additional cleaning is required; this is often accompanied and felt by unusually high irritation upon insertion.
Make sure the soft lens is not inserted inside-out. Edge of a lens turned inside out has a different appearance, especially when the lens is slightly folded. Insertion of an inside-out lens for a brief time (less than one minute) should not cause any damage to the eye. Some brands of lenses have markings (e.g. numbers) on the rim that make it easier to tell the front of the lens from the back.
The technique for removing or inserting a contact lens varies depending upon whether the lens is soft or rigid. There are many subtle variations to insertion and removal techniques. Because of differences in anatomy, manual dexterity, and visual limitations, every person must find the technique that works best for them. In all cases, the insertion and removal of lenses requires some training and practice on part of the user.
Inserting a contact lens
Contact lenses are typically inserted into the eye by placing them on the pad of the index or middle finger with the concave side upward and then using that finger to place the lens on the eye. Rigid lenses should be placed directly on the cornea. Soft lenses may be placed on the sclera (white of the eye) and then slid into place. Another finger of the same hand, or a finger of the other hand, is used to keep the eye wide open. Alternatively, the user may close their eyes and then look towards their nose, sliding the lens into place over the cornea. Problems may arise if the lens folds, turns inside-out, slides off the finger prematurely, or adheres more tightly to the finger than the eye surface. A drop of solution may help the lens adhere to the eye.
When the lens first contacts the eye, it should be comfortable. By making sure that particular attention is given to the eyelid margins for the presence of inflammation and signs of debris in the lashes, wearing contact lenses should be easy. A brief period of irritation may occur, caused by a difference in pH and/or salinity between that of the lens solution and the tear. This discomfort fades quickly as the solution drains away and is replaced by the natural tears. However, if irritation persists, the cause could be a dirty, damaged, or inside-out lens. Removing and inspecting it for damage and proper orientation, and re-cleaning if necessary, should correct the problem. If discomfort continues, the lens should not be worn. In some cases, taking a break from lens wear for a day may correct the problem. In case of severe discomfort, or if it does not resolve by the next day, the person should be seen as soon as possible by an eye doctor to rule out potentially serious complications.
Young woman removing contact lenses from her eyes in front of a mirror
Removing contact lenses incorrectly could result in damage to the lens and injury to the eye so certain precautions must be taken. Rigid contact lenses can best be removed by pulling the eyelid tight and then blinking, whereupon the lens drops out. With one finger on the outer corner of the eyelids, or lateral canthus, the person stretches the eyelids towards the ear; the increased tension of the eyelid margins against the edge of lens allows the blink to break the capillary action that adheres the lens to the eye. The other hand is typically cupped underneath the eye to catch the lens as it drops out. For soft lenses, which have a stronger adherence to the eye surface, this technique is less suitable.
A soft contact lens may be removed by pinching the edge between the thumb and index finger. Moving the lens off the cornea first can improve comfort during removal and reduce risk of scratching the cornea with a fingernail. It is also possible to push or pull a soft lens far enough to the side or bottom of the eyeball to get it to fold then fall out, without pinching and thereby damaging it. If these techniques are used with a rigid lens, it may scratch the cornea.
There are also small tools specifically for removing lenses. Usually made of flexible plastic, they resemble small tweezers, or plungers that suction onto the front of the lens. Typically these tools are used only with rigid lenses. Extreme care must be exercised when using mechanical tools or fingernails to insert or remove contact lenses.
Lens case to store contacts
Lens care varies depending on material and wear schedule. Daily disposables are discarded after a single use and thus require no cleaning. Other lenses need regular cleaning and disinfecting to prevent surface coating and infections.
There are many ways to clean and care for contact lenses, typically called care systems or lens solutions:
Multipurpose solutions are the most common method for rinsing, disinfecting, cleaning, and storing soft lenses. In 2002, concerns were raised that multipurpose solutions are not effective at disinfecting Acanthamoeba from the lens. In May 2007, one brand of multipurpose solution was recalled due to a cluster of Acanthamoeba infections. Since then, studies showed that multipurpose solutions are ineffective against Acanthamoebae. The latest multipurpose solutions also contain ingredients that improve the surface wetability and comfort of silicone hydrogel lenses.
Hydrogen peroxide can be used to disinfect contact lenses. Care should be taken not to get hydrogen peroxide in the eye because it is very painful and irritating. With "two-step" products, the hydrogen peroxide must be rinsed away with saline before the lenses may be worn. "One-step" systems allow the hydrogen peroxide to react completely, becoming pure water. Thus "one-step" hydrogen peroxide systems do not require the lenses to be rinsed before insertion, provided the solution has been given enough time to react. An exposure time of 2-3 hours to 3% H 2O 2 (non neutralized solution) is sufficient to kill bacteria, HIV, fungi, and Acanthamoeba. This can be achieved by using a "two-step" product or a "one-step" tablet system if the catalytic tablet isn't added before 2-3 hours. However, the "one-step" catalytic disk systems are not effective against Acanthamoeba.
Enzymatic cleaner – Used for cleaning protein deposits off lenses, usually weekly, if the daily cleaner is not sufficient. Typically, this cleaner is in tablet form.
Ultraviolet, vibration, or ultrasonic devices – Used to both disinfect and clean CLs. The lenses are inserted inside the portable device (running on batteries and/or plug-in) for 2 to 6 minutes during which both the microorganisms and protein build-up are thoroughly cleaned. These devices are not usually available in optic retailers but are in other stores.
Sterile saline is used for rinsing the lens after cleaning and preparing it for insertion. Saline solutions do not disinfect, so it must be used in conjunction with some type of disinfection system. One advantage to saline is that it cannot cause an allergic response, so it is well suited for individuals with sensitive eyes or strong allergies.
Used to clean lenses on a daily basis. A few drops of cleaner are applied to the lens while it rests in the palm of the hand; the lens is rubbed for about 20 seconds with a clean fingertip (depending on the product) on each side. Lens must then be rinsed. This system is commonly used to care for rigid lenses.
Aside from cleaning the contact lenses, it is highly advised to also clean the cases to avoid any possible infection. Replacing the case monthly, and storing it in a clean and safe environment is also recommended.
Contact lenses can be mechanically cleaned of more substantial protein, lipid and debris build up by rubbing them between the clean pad of a finger and the palm of a hand, using a small amount of cleaning fluid as a lubricant. However, this method does not sterilize the lenses and so should be performed only before a full sterilization cycle (e.g. when putting the contact lens away at night).
Some products must be used only with certain types of contact lenses. Water alone will not at all disinfect the lens, and can lead to lens contamination causing potentially irreparable harm to the eye.
Contact lens solutions often contain preservatives such as benzalkonium chloride and benzyl alcohol. Preservative-free products usually have shorter shelf lives, but are better suited for individuals with an allergy or sensitivity to a preservative. In the past, thiomersal was used as a preservative. In 1989, thiomersal was responsible for about 10% of problems related to contact lenses. As a result, most products no longer contain thiomersal.
A large segment of current contact lens research is directed towards the treatment and prevention of conditions resulting from contact lens contamination and colonization by foreign organisms. Clinicians tend to agree that the most significant complication of contact lens wear is microbial keratitis and that the most predominant microbial pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Other organisms are also major causative factors in bacterial keratitis associated with contact lens wear, although their prevalence varies across different locations. These include both the Staphylococcus species (aureus and epidermidis) and the Streptococcus species, among others. Microbial keratitis is a serious focal point of current research due to its potentially devastating effect on the eye, including severe vision loss.
One specific research topic of interest is how microbes such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa invade the eye and cause infection. Although the pathogenesis of microbial keratitis is not well understood, many different factors have been investigated. One group of researchers showed that corneal hypoxia exacerbated Pseudomonas binding to the corneal epithelium, internalization of the microbes, and induction of the inflammatory response. One way to alleviate hypoxia is to increase the amount of oxygen transmitted to the cornea. Although silicone-hydrogel lenses almost eliminate hypoxia in patients due to their very high levels of oxygen transmissibility, they also seem to provide a more efficient platform for bacterial contamination and corneal infiltration than other conventional hydrogel soft contact lenses. A recent study showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermis adhere much more strongly to unworn silicone hydrogel contact lenses than conventional hydrogel lenses and that adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 20 times stronger than that of Staphylococcus epidermidis. This might partly explain why Pseudomonas infections are the most predominant. However, another study conducted with worn and unworn silicone and conventional hydrogel contact lenses showed that worn silicone contact lenses were less prone to Staphylococcus epidermidis colonization than conventional hydrogel lenses.
Another important area of contact lens research deals with patient compliance. Compliance is a major issue pertaining to the use of contact lenses because patient noncompliance often leads to contamination of the lens, storage case, or both. However, careful users can extend the wear of lenses through proper handling: there is, unfortunately, no disinterested research on the issue of "compliance" or the length of time a user can safely wear a lens beyond its stated use. The introduction of multipurpose solutions and daily disposable lenses have helped to alleviate some of the problems observed from inadequate cleaning but new methods of combating microbial contamination are currently being developed. A silver-impregnated lens case has been developed which helps to eradicate any potentially contaminating microbes that come in contact with the lens case. Additionally, a number of antimicrobial agents are being developed that have been embedded into contact lenses themselves. Lenses with covalently attached selenium molecules have been shown to reduce bacterial colonization without adversely affecting the cornea of a rabbit eye and octyl glucoside used as a lens surfactant significantly decreases bacterial adhesion. These compounds are of particular interest to contact lens manufacturers and prescribing optometrists because they do not require any patient compliance to effectively attenuate the effects of bacterial colonization.
A recent area of research is in the field of bionic lenses. These are visual displays that include built-in electric circuits and light-emitting diodes and can harvest radio waves for their electric power. Bionic lenses can display information beamed from a mobile device overcoming the small display size problem. The technology involves embedding nano and microscale electronic devices in lenses. These lenses will also need to have an array of microlenses to focus the image so that it appears suspended in front of the wearer’s eyes. The lens could also serve as a head-up display for pilots or gamers.
Drug administration through contact lenses is also becoming an area of research. One application is a lens that releases anesthesia to the eye for post-surgery pain relief, especially after PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) in which the healing process takes several days. One experiment shows that silicone contact lenses that contain vitamin E deliver pain medication for up to seven days compared with less than two hours in usual lenses.
Another study of the usage of contact lens is aimed to address the issue of macular degeneration (AMD or age-related macular degeneration). An international collaboration of researchers was able to develop a contact lens that can shift between magnified and normal vision. Previous solutions to AMD included bulky glasses or surgical implants. But the advancement of this new contact lens, which is made of polymethyl methacrylate, could offer an unobtrusive solution.
In popular culture
Christopher Lee as the title character in Dracula (1958) in one the first uses of contact lens with makeup in films
Heitz, RF and Enoch, J. M. (1987) "Leonardo da Vinci: An assessment on his discourses on image formation in the eye." Advances in Diagnostic Visual Optics 19-26, Springer-Verlag.
Leonard G. Schifrin and William J. Rich (December 1984). The Contact Lens Industry: Structure, Competition, and Public Policy. United States Office of Technology Assessment.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
"The History of Contact Lenses." eyeTopics.com. Accessed 18 October 2006.
"Adolf Eugen Fick (1852–1937)". Retrieved 26 March 2015.
Pearson, RM; Efron, N (1989). "Hundredth anniversary of August Müller's inaugural dissertation on contact lenses". Survey of ophthalmology. 34 (2): 133–41. doi:10.1016/0039-6257(89)90041-6. PMID 2686057.
Hellemans, Alexander; Bunch, Bryan (1988). The Timetables of Science. Buy book ISBN 0671621300.
Robert B. Mandell. Contact Lens Practice, 4th Edition. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1988.
Gyorgy, Salacz (January 2001). "Dr István Györffy, 1912–1999". Contact Lens and Anterior Eye. 24 (4): 180–182. doi:10.1016/S1367-0484(01)80040-0. ISSN 1367-0484.
U.S. Patent No. 2,510,438, filed 28 February 1948.
"The Corneal Lens", The Optician, 2 September 1949, pp. 141–144.
"Corneal Contact Lenses", The Optician, 9 September 1949, p. 185.
"nytimes archive". New York Times. December 6, 1964. Retrieved 2018-08-24.
Pearce, Jeremy (23 September 2007). "Norman Gaylord, 84; helped develop type of contact lens". (New York Times News Service). The Boston Globe. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
Wichterle O, Lim D (1960). "Hydrophilic gels for biological use". Nature. 185 (4706): 117–118. Bibcode:1960Natur.185..117W. doi:10.1038/185117a0.
"CONTACT LENS HISTORY – Otto Wichterle". Archived from the original on 29 January 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
Agarwal Rishi K (1972). "Some Thoughts on Soft Lenses". The Contact Lens. 4 (1): 28.
"Editorial note". American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics. 65 (9): 744. 1988.
"Looking at Silicone Hydrogels Across Generations". Optometric Management. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
Lebow, KA; Goldberg, JB (1975). "Characteristic of binocular vision found for presbyopic patients wearing single vision contact lenses". Journal of the American Optometric Association. 46 (11): 1116–23. PMID 802938.
Zane F. Pollard; Marc F. Greenberg; Mark Bordenca; Joshua Elliott; Victoria Hsu (September 2011). "Strabismus Precipitated by Monovision". American Journal of Ophthalmology. 152 (3): 479–482. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2011.02.008.
Wood, Joanne M.; Wick, Kristan; Shuley, Vicki; Pearce, Brendon; Evans, Dean (1998-06-01). "The effect of monovision contact lens wear on driving performance". Clinical & Experimental Optometry. 81 (3): 100–103. doi:10.1111/j.1444-0938.1998.tb06727.x. ISSN 1444-0938. PMID 12482258.
Hartenbaum, NP; Stack, CM (1997). "Color vision deficiency and the X-Chrom lens". Occupational Health & Safety. 66 (9): 36–40, 42. PMID 9314196.
Siegel, IM (1981). "The X-Chrom lens. On seeing red". Survey of ophthalmology. 25 (5): 312–24. PMID 6971497.
http://www.achromatopsia.info/red-contact-lenses/ Red contact lenses for achromats
Swarbrick, HA; Nguyen, P; Nguyen, T; Pham, P (2001). "The ChromaGen contact lens system: Colour vision test results and subjective responses". Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. 21 (3): 182–96. doi:10.1046/j.1475-1313.2001.00583.x. PMID 11396392.
Harris D "Colouring Sight: A study of CL fittings with colour enhancing lenses" 'Optician' 8 June 1997
Harris DA, MacRow-Hill SJ "Application of ChromaGen haploscopic lenses to patients with dyslexia: a double masked placebo controlled trial" Journal of the American Optometric Association 25/10/99.
"Telescopic contact lens magnifies vision by 2.8 times on demand". Wired UK. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
Morgan PB et al."International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2004: An analysis of more than 17,000 contact lens fits from 14 countries in 2004 reveals the diversity of contact lens practice worldwide." Contact Lens Spectrum. January 2005.
Vanderbilt University Medical Center – Vanderbilt Eye Doctors Warn of the Dangers of Cosmetic Contact Lenses. Mc.vanderbilt.edu (19 April 2010). Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
"Color Contacts". colorfuleyes.org. February 2016.
"Coloured Contact Lenses". lenses-contact.co.uk.
"How Do You Find the Right Circle Lens?". EyeCandy's. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
"Freshlook Color Studio". Freshlook. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
"Eye Color Changer". Colorful Eyes. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
Caceres, Vanessa (June 2009). "Taking a second look at scleral lenses". ASCRS EyeWorld. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
"Eye Health Guide – Eye Diseases, Eye Problems and Eye Conditions". All About Vision. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainesville, Florida: Triad Publishing Company, 1990.
Manufacture of soft contact lenses. "Manufacture of soft contact lenses".
Federal Trade Commission. "The Strength of Competition in the Sale of Rx Contact Lenses: An FTC Study". February 2005.
Agarwal, R.K. (1970), Some reasons for not fitting contact lenses, The Optician, 4 December, page 623 (published in London, England).
"Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act". 15 October 2003.
John Stamler. "Contact Lens Complications." eMedicine.com. 1 September 2004.
"Do Contact Lenses Damage The Eye?". Lensite. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
"What's the Best Prescription for Healthy Contact Lens Wear?". Contact Lens Spectrum.
"Corneal Abrasion in Emergency Medicine". Medscape Reference.
Liu, Z.; Pflugfelder, S. (January 2000). "The effects of long-term contact lens wear on corneal thickness, curvature, and surface regularity". Ophthalmology. 107 (1): 105–111. doi:10.1016/S0161-6420(99)00027-5. PMID 10647727.
Liu Z, Pflugfelder SC (January 2000). "The effects of long-term contact lens wear on corneal thickness, curvature, and surface regularity". Ophthalmology. 107 (1): 105–11. doi:10.1016/S0161-6420(99)00027-5. PMID 10647727.
Hollingsworth JG, Efron N (June 2004). "Confocal microscopy of the corneas of long-term rigid contact lens wearers". Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 27 (2): 57–64. doi:10.1016/j.clae.2004.02.002. PMID 16303530.
Zhivov A, Stave J, Vollmar B, Guthoff R (January 2007). "In vivo confocal microscopic evaluation of langerhans cell density and distribution in the corneal epithelium of healthy volunteers and contact lens wearers". Cornea. 26 (1): 47–54. doi:10.1097/ICO.0b013e31802e3b55. PMID 17198013.
"How to Put Contacts in Your Eyes". CooperVision. Retrieved 20 November 2014. use plain soap without any heavy moisturizers or perfumes. Rinse well and dry your hands. Again, this is to prevent transmitting anything unwanted to your eyes.
"Increase contact lens comfort by paying attention to the lids". OptometryTimes. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
Demas GN (1989). "pH consistency and stability of contact lens solutions". J Am Optom Assoc. 60 (10): 732–4. PMID 2584587. The pH of contact lens solutions has been implicated in the comfort of contact lenses on insertion.
"Eye Care". CLH. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
Hiti, K; Walochnik, J; Haller-Schober, E M; Faschinger, C; Aspöck, H (February 2002). "Viability of Acanthamoeba after exposure to a multipurpose disinfecting contact lens solution and two hydrogen peroxide systems". British Journal of Ophthalmology. 86 (2): 144–6. doi:10.1136/bjo.86.2.144. PMC1771011. PMID 11815336.
Early Report of Serious Eye Infections Associated with Soft Contact Lens Solution Archived 31 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. CDC health advisory. 25 May 2007. CDCHAN-00260-2007-05-25-ADV-N
Acanthamoeba Keratitis --- Multiple States, 2005–2007. Center for Disease Control MMWR dispatch. 26 May 2007 / 56(Dispatch);1–3
Johnston, S. P.; R. Sriram; Y. Qvarnstrom; S. Roy; J. Verani; J. Yoder; S. Lorick; J. Roberts; M. J. Beach; G. Visvesvara (2009). "Resistance of Acanthamoeba Cysts to Disinfection in Multiple Contact Lens Solutions". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 47 (7): 2040–2045. doi:10.1128/JCM.00575-09. ISSN 0095-1137. PMC2708465. PMID 19403771.
Padzik, Marcin; Lidia Chomicz; Jacek P. Szaflik; Agnieszka Chruścikowska; Konrad Perkowski; Jerzy Szaflik (2014). "In vitro effects of selected contact lens care solutions on Acanthamoeba castellanii strains in Poland". Experimental Parasitology. 145: S98–S101. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2014.06.014. ISSN 0014-4894.
de Aguiar, Ana Paula Costa; Caroline de Oliveira Silveira; Mari Aline Todero Winck; Marilise Brittes Rott (2013). "Susceptibility of Acanthamoeba to multipurpose lens-cleaning solutions". Acta Parasitologica. 58 (3): 304–308. doi:10.2478/s11686-013-0143-9. ISSN 1230-2821.
Fejzaj, Klaudio Modern Silicone-Hydrogel Contact Lenses
Hughes, Reanne; Kilvington, Simon (July 2001). "Comparison of Hydrogen Peroxide Contact Lens Disinfection Systems and Solutions against Acanthamoeba polyphaga". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 45 (7): 2038–43. doi:10.1128/AAC.45.7.2038-2043.2001. PMC90597. PMID 11408220.
Hiti, K (2002). "Viability of Acanthamoeba after exposure to a multipurpose disinfecting contact lens solution and two hydrogen peroxide systems". British Journal of Ophthalmology. 86 (2): 144–146. doi:10.1136/bjo.86.2.144. ISSN 0007-1161. PMC1771011. PMID 11815336.
Hiti, K; J Walochnik; C Faschinger; E-M Haller-Schober; H Aspöck (2004). "One- and two-step hydrogen peroxide contact lens disinfection solutions against Acanthamoeba: How effective are they?". Eye. 19 (12): 1301–1305. doi:10.1038/sj.eye.6701752. ISSN 0950-222X.
"How Optical Ultrasonic Cleaners Work".
White, Gina. "Caring for Soft Contact Lenses".
Ward, Michael. "Soft Contact Lens Care Products".
www.feelgoodcontacts.com. "Caring For Contact Lenses – Feel Good Contact Lenses". www.feelgoodcontacts.com. Retrieved 2016-09-05.
Sharma, S, Kunimoto, D, Rao, N, Garg, P & Rao, G: Trends in antibiotic resistance of corneal pathogens: Part II. An analysis of leading bacterial keratitis isolates, 1999.
Verhelst D, Koppen C, Looveren JV, Meheus A, Tassignon M (2005). "Clinical, epidemiological and cost aspects of contact lens related infectious keratitis in Belgium: results of a seven-year retrospective study". Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. 297: 7–15.
Burd EM, Ogawa GSH, Hyndiuk RA. Bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis. In: Smolin G, Thoft RA, editors. The Cornea. Scientific Foundations and Clinical Practice. 3rd ed. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co, 1994. p 115–67.
Zaidi T, Mowrey-McKee M, Pier GB (2004). "Hypoxia increases corneal cell expression of CFTR leading to increased Pseudomonas aeruginosa binding, internalization, and initiation of inflammation". Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 45: 4066–74. doi:10.1167/iovs.04-0627. PMC1317302.
Sweeney DF, Keay L, Jalbert I. Clinical performance of silicone hydrogel lenses. In Sweeney DF, ed. Silicone Hydrogels: The Rebirth of Continuous Wear Contact Lenses. Woburn, Ma: Butterworth Heinemann; 2000.
Kodjikian L, Casoli-Bergeron E, Malet F, Janin-Manificat H, Freney J, Burillon C, Colin J, Steghens JP (2008). "Bacterial adhesion to conventional hydrogel and new silicone hydrogel contact lens materials". Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 246: 267–73. doi:10.1007/s00417-007-0703-5.
Santos, Lívia; Diana Rodrigues; Madalena Lira; M Elisabete C. D. Real Oliveira; Rosário Oliveira; Eva Yebra-Pimente Vilar; Joana Azeredo (2008). "Bacterial Adhesion to Worn Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses". Optometry and Vision Science. 85 (7): 520–525. doi:10.1097/OPX.0b013e31817c92f3. ISSN 1040-5488.
Agarwal R.K. (1971). "A legally problematical but clinically interesting contact lens case". The Contact Lens. 3 (3): 13.
Yung MS, Boost M, Cho P, Yap M (2007). "Microbial contamination of contact lenses and lens care accessories of soft contact lens wearers (university students) in Hong Kong". Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 27 (1): 11–21. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2006.00427.x.
Midelfart J.; Midelfart A.; Bevanger L. (1996). "Microbial contamination of contact lens cases among medical students". CLAO J. 22 (1): 21–24.
Gray T.B.; Cursons R.T.; Sherwan J.F.; Rose P.R. (1995). "Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of contact lens storage cases". Br J Ophthalmol. 79: 601–605. doi:10.1136/bjo.79.6.601. PMC505174.
Amos CF, George MD (2006). "Clinical and laboratory testing of a silver-impregnated lens case". Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 29: 247–55. doi:10.1016/j.clae.2006.09.007.
Mathews SM, Spallholz JE, Grimson MJ, Dubielzig RR, Gray T, Reid TW (2006). "Prevention of bacterial colonization of contact lenses with covalently attached selenium and effects on the rabbit cornea". Cornea. 25: 806–14. doi:10.1097/01.ico.0000224636.57062.90.
Santos L; Rodrigues D; Lira M; Oliveira R; Oliveira Real, ME; Vilar EY; Azeredo J (2007). "The effect of octylglucoside and sodium cholate in Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to soft contact lenses". Optom Vis Sci. 84: 429–34. doi:10.1097/opx.0b013e318058a0cc. PMID 17502827.
"Contacts Release Anesthesia to Eyes of Post-Surgery Patients". Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
"First Ever Switchable Telescopic Contact Lens". Retrieved 23 March 2018.
Klepper, Robert K. (2005). Silent Films, 1877–1996: A Critical Guide to 646 Movies. McFarland. p. 373.
Yazigi, Monique P. (July 17, 1994). "On Film, Them There Eyes Are Often Contact Lenses". New York Times.
Buy book ISBN 0-7506-4690-X.
Heitz, Robert (2003, 2005 and 2014). "The History of Contact Lenses". In: Julius Hirschberg, History of Ophthalmology, vols. 11/3a, 11/3b, and 11/3c. Ostend, Belgium: Wayenborgh Publishing; Paraguay: Piribebuy. Buy book ISBN 978-90-6299-463-2.
Contact lens and anterior eye journal
"Glass Disks Under Eyelids Replace Spectacles" Popular Mechanics Monthly, July 1930, left-bottom pg 31
Search by date: Contacts 2020, Contacts 2019, Contacts 2018, Contacts 2017, Contacts 24/7, Contacts in the summer, Contacts in June, Contacts in July, Contacts in August, Contacts in the autumn, Contacts in September, Contacts in October, Contacts in November, Contacts in the winter, Contacts in December, Contacts in January, Contacts in February, Contacts in the spring, Contacts in March, Contacts in April, Contacts in May, Contacts yesterday, Contacts today, Contacts tomorrow, Contacts in the morning, Contacts in the afternoon, Contacts in the evening, Contacts at night, etc.
Delivery to the United States: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Phoenix, Philadelphia, San Antonio, San Diego, Dallas, San Jose, Austin, Jacksonville, San Francisco, Columbus, Fort Worth, Indianapolis, Charlotte, Seattle, Denver, Washington, Boston, El Paso, Detroit, Nashville-Davidson, Memphis, Portland, Oklahoma City, Las Vegas, Louisville/JeffersonCounty, Escondido, Paterson, Joliet, Naperville, Rockford, Torrance, Bridgeport, Savannah, Killeen, Bellevue, Mesquite, Syracuse, McAllen, Pasadena, Orange, Fullerton, Dayton, Miramar, etc.
Delivery to the cities of the United States: Olathe, Thornton, Waco, Murfreesboro, Denton, West Valley City, Midland, Carrollton, Roseville, Warren, Charleston, Hampton, Surprise, Columbia, Coral Springs, Visalia, Sterling Heights, Gainesville, Cedar Rapids, New Haven, Stamford, Elizabeth, Concord, Thousand Oaks, Kent, Santa Clara, Simi Valley, Lafayette, Topeka, Athens-Clarke, Round Rock, Hartford, Norman, Victorville, Fargo, Berkeley, Vallejo, Abilene, Columbia, Ann Arbor, Allentown, Pearland, Beaumont, Wilmington, Evansville, Arvada, Provo, Independence, Lansing, Odessa, Richardson, Fairfield, El Monte, Rochester, Clearwater, Carlsbad, Springfield, Temecula, West Jordan, Costa Mesa, Miami Gardens, Cambridge, College Station, Murrieta, Downey, Peoria, Westminster, Elgin, Antioch, Palm Bay, High Point, Lowell, Manchester, Pueblo, Gresham, North Charleston, San Buenaventura (Ventura), Inglewood, Pompano Beach, Centennial, West Palm Beach, Everett, Richmond, Clovis, Billings, Waterbury, Broken Arrow, Lakeland, West Covina, Boulder, Daly City, Santa Maria, Hillsboro, Sandy Springs, Norwalk, Jurupa Valley, Lewisville, Greeley, Davie town, etc.
Delivery to other cities of the USA: Green Bay, Tyler, League City, Burbank, San Mateo, Wichita Falls, El Cajon, Rialto, Davenport, South Bend, Las Cruces, Vista, Renton, Sparks, Allen, Tuscaloosa, San Angelo, Vacaville, Meridian, Kenosha, Roanoke, Albany, Boca Raton, Spokane Valley, Orem, Compton, Beaverton, Erie, Lee's Summit, Lawrence, Federal Way, Flint, San Marcos, Rio Rancho, Sandy, Mission Viejo, Brockton, Yuma, South Gate, New Bedford, Hesperia, Roswell, Portsmouth, Bend, Dearborn, Longmont, Sunrise, Quincy, Livonia, Lynn, Plantation, Lawton, Yakima, Nampa, Chico, Carson, Miami Beach, Santa Monica, Carmel, Greenville, Santa Barbara, Concord, Edmond, Asheville, Fishers, Redding, Westminster, Tracy, Deltona, Menifee, San Leandro, Livermore, Edinburg, Suffolk, Chino, Indio, Fall River, Bellingham, Norwalk, Newton, Kirkland, Sugar Land, Reading, Nashua, Fort Smith, Citrus Heights, Hawthorne, Waukegan, O'Fallon, Champaign, Ogden, Whittier, Redwood City, Mount Pleasant, Clifton, Palm Coast, Newport Beach, Duluth, Bloomington, Alhambra, Fayetteville, Danbury, Hemet, Bloomington, Trenton, Hoover, Largo, Mission, St. George, Conroe, Johns Creek, Lake Forest, etc.
Delivery to the US cities: Avondale, Bryan, Troy, Santa Fe, Merced, Buena Park, Pleasanton, Cicero, Sioux City, Melbourne, Medford, Westland, Kennewick, Longview, Mountain View, Somerville, Cranston, Farmington Hills, Lynchburg, Lakewood, Warwick, Auburn, Brooklyn Park, Deerfield Beach, Tustin, Chino Hills, Lawrence, New Rochelle, Fort Myers, Goodyear, Napa, Springdale, Pharr, Manteca, Alameda, Parma, New Braunfels, Plymouth, Franklin, Milpitas, Folsom, Bloomington, Perris, Bellflower, Boynton Beach, Scranton, Racine, Lake Charles, Upland, Baytown, Loveland, Layton, Flower Mound, Hammond, Gastonia, St. Joseph, Baldwin Park, Gary, Wyoming, San Ramon, Jonesboro, Kalamazoo, Iowa City, Bethlehem, Cedar Park, Arlington Heights, Union City, Bolingbrook, Warner Robins, Evanston, Appleton, Camden, Temple, Missouri City, Rapid City, Rochester Hills, Schaumburg, Rancho Cordova, Turlock, Missoula, Southfield, Albany, Apple Valley, Rock Hill, Pasco, Bismarck, New Britain, Waukesha, Jacksonville, Lafayette, Decatur, Pittsburg, Pawtucket, Flagstaff, Lauderhill, Gulfport, Redlands, etc.
Delivery to other US cities: Frederick, Passaic, Wilmington, Kissimmee, Lynwood, Maple Grove, South Jordan, Weston, Canton, Georgetown, North Richland Hills, Union City, St. Charles, Homestead, Walnut Creek, Woodbury, Davis, Mansfield, Marysville, Delray Beach, Gaithersburg, Mount Vernon, Palatine, Muncie, Eau Claire, Bossier City, Buckeye, Rockville, Broomfield, Yorba Linda, Greenville, Dothan, Daytona Beach, St. Cloud, Redondo Beach, Camarillo, Waterloo, Kenner, South San Francisco, Bayonne, Palo Alto, Victoria, Bowling Green, Portland, Yuba City, Jackson, Oshkosh, Eagan, Ames, Rogers, Lake Elsinore, Johnson City, Laguna Niguel, North Port, North Little Rock, Lodi, Alpharetta, Conway, Tamarac, Schenectady, West Des Moines, Shawnee, Madera, Harlingen, East Orange, San Clemente, Santa Cruz, Jupiter, Wellington, Rocklin, Youngstown, Blaine, Sammamish, Eden Prairie, Janesville, Redmond, Skokie, Auburn, Tulare, Lorain, Lakeville, Haverhill, Cheyenne, Pico Rivera, Pflugerville, Eastvale, Port Orange, Montebello, Encinitas, San Marcos, Rowlett, Lehi, Coon Rapids, Grand Junction, La Habra, Waltham, Brentwood, etc.
Delivery to the US towns: Ankeny, Springfield, Council Bluffs, Castle Rock, North Miami, Hamilton, Noblesville, Moore, Burnsville, National City, Taylor, Malden, Doral, Idaho Falls, Marietta, Monterey Park, Coconut Creek, Dublin, Petaluma, Cupertino, Terre Haute, Utica, Vineland, Lakewood, Gardena, Bristol, Millcreek, La Mesa, Woodland, Taylorsville, West Allis, Meriden, Chapel Hill, Pontiac, Novi, Lancaster, St. Clair Shores, Owensboro, Sanford, Springfield, Porterville, Royal Oak, Ocala, Bartlett, San Rafael, White Plains, Great Falls, Bowie, Huntington Park, Arcadia, Orland Park, Margate, Dubuque, Des Plaines, Santee, Corvallis, Kokomo, Casper, Medford, Gilroy, Hendersonville, Greenwood, Midwest City, St. Peters, Taunton, New Brunswick, Grand Forks, Sarasota, Smyrna, Tinley Park, Diamond Bar, Weymouth Town, Bradenton, Hanford, Fountain Valley, Richland, Huntersville, Shoreline, Bonita Springs, Oak Lawn, Valdosta, Novato, Commerce City, Hempstead, Dearborn Heights, Berwyn, Chicopee, Port Arthur, Casa Grande, Highland, Pocatello, etc.
Delivery to other US towns: Kettering, Euless, Hoboken, Anderson, Palm Beach Gardens, Blue Springs, Paramount, West Haven, Manhattan, Colton, Carson City, Caldwell, Cathedral City, Rosemead, Rocky Mount, Stonecrest, Lake Havasu City, Decatur, Normal, West New York, Harrisonburg, Leesburg, Parker, Watsonville, Southaven, Revere, Grapevine, Mount Prospect, Elyria, Yucaipa, DeSoto, Lenexa, Brookhaven, West Sacramento, Albany, Bellevue, Kingsport, Wheaton, Tigard, Delano, Minnetonka, Burlington, Peabody, Milford, Palm Desert, Pinellas Park, Perth Amboy, Pensacola, Elkhart, Glendora, Apple Valley, Joplin, Oak Park, Placentia, Edina, La Crosse, Kentwood, Aliso Viejo, Burien, Olympia, Hoffman Estates village, Apopka, Florissant, Grand Island, Plainfield, Battle Creek, St. Cloud, Logan, Coral Gables, Cerritos, Coeur d'Alene, Galveston, Apex town, Summerville town, Collierville town, Methuen Town, Lakewood, Enid, Poway, Troy, Saginaw, Niagara Falls, Charleston city, etc.
Delivery to Canada: Toronto, Montreal, Calgary, Ottawa, Edmonton, Mississauga, North York, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Scarborough, Quebec, Hamilton, Brampton, Surrey, Laval, Halifax, Etobicoke, London, Okanagan, Victoria, Windsor, Markham, Oshawa, Gatineau, Vaughan, Kitchener, Longueuil, Burnaby, Ladner, Saskatoon, Richmond Hill, Barrie, Richmond, Nepean, Regina, Oakville, Burlington, Greater Sudbury, Abbotsford, Saguenay, St. Catharines, Sherbrooke, Anmore, Levis, Kelowna, Cambridge, Trois-Rivieres, Guelph, East York, Coquitlam, Kingston, Sydney, Delta, Dartmouth, Thunder Bay, St. John's, Waterloo, Terrebonne, Langley, Ajax, etc.
Delivery to the cities of Canada: Saint John, Pickering, Brantford, Moncton, Nanaimo, Milton, Sarnia, Niagara Falls, Willowdale, Saint-Laurent, Chilliwack, Repentigny, Fort McMurray, Peterborough, Sault Ste. Marie, Newmarket, Red Deer, Saint-Leonard, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Lethbridge, Maple Ridge, Brossard, Kamloops, Notre-Dame-de-Grace, White Rock, Prince George, Medicine Hat, Norfolk County, Drummondville, New Westminster, St. Albert, Sherwood Park, Saint-Jerome, Jonquiere, Granby, Fredericton, Welland, Saint-Hyacinthe, North Bay, Belleville, Shawinigan, Dollard-Des Ormeaux, Cornwall, North Vancouver, Vernon, Blainville, West End, Chatham, etc.
Delivery to other cities of Canada: Timmins, Chateauguay, Quinte West, West Vancouver, Charlottetown, Rimouski, Saint-Eustache, Grande Prairie, Boucherville, Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, Penticton, St. Thomas, Rock Forest, Joliette, Mascouche, Mirabel, Prince Albert, Victoriaville, Brant, Woodstock, Campbell River, Ancaster, Courtenay, Orangeville, North Cowichan, Moose Jaw, Midland, Cote-Saint-Luc, Saint-Georges, Val-d'Or, Stratford, Orillia, Pointe-Claire, Baie-Comeau, Alma, Sainte-Julie, West Kelowna, Port Moody, Boisbriand, Brandon, Vaudreuil-Dorion, Thetford-Mines, Walnut Grove, Prince Edward, Sainte-Therese, Airdrie, Mount Pearl, etc.
Delivery to other cities of Canada: Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville, Rouyn-Noranda, Saint-Constant, Brockville, Langley, Whitehorse, Owen Sound, Chambly, Sept-Iles, Langford, Duncan, La Prairie, Lower Sackville, Port Alberni, Keswick, Varennes, Clarence-Rockland, Truro, Westmount, Kirkland, New Glasgow, Cole Harbour, Glace Bay, Huntsville, Terrace, North Battleford, Beaconsfield, Mont-Royal, Beloeil, Corner Brook, Cranbrook, Port Colborne, Riviere-du-Loup, Dieppe, Thorold, Miramichi, Cobourg, Dorval, Oak Bay, Amos, Spruce Grove, Pitt Meadows, Deux-Montagnes, Fort St. John, Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures, Conception Bay South, Saint-Lazare, etc.
Delivery to the Canadian cities: Sainte-Catherine, L'Assomption, Edmundston, L'Ancienne-Lorette, Cochrane, Lutes Mountain, Sainte-Catherine, Salmon Arm, Rayside-Balfour, Petawawa, Fort Erie, Candiac, Lloydminster, Yellowknife, Collingwood, Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Camrose, Yorkton, Saint-Basile-le-Grand, Leduc, Pembroke, Magog, Greater Napanee, Kenora, le Plateau, Fort Saskatchewan, Okotoks, Gaspe, Matane, Summerside, Prince Rupert, Swift Current, Colwood, Rosemere, Williams Lake, Saint-Lin-Laurentides, Simcoe, Quesnel, Bay Roberts, Mont-Laurier, Portage la Prairie, Dolbeau-Mistassini, Powell River, Brooks, Bathurst, Kentville, Elliot Lake, etc.
Delivery to other Canadian cities: Thompson, Aldergrove, Canmore, Hawkesbury, North Perth, Grand Falls-Windsor, Parksville, Beauharnois, Ingersoll, Montmagny, Cold Lake, Sainte-Marie, Uxbridge, Fall River, Amherstburg, Sainte-Marthe-sur-le-Lac, Wetaskiwin, Pincourt, Paris, Becancour, North Saanich, Cowansville, Dawson Creek, Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines, Lambton Shores, Sainte-Adele, Les Coteaux, Whistler, Smiths Falls, Sylvan Lake, Temiskaming Shores, Rawdon, Labrador City, Angus, Prevost, Mercier, Lacombe, Strathmore, Hanceville, South Huron, Bells Corners, L'Ile-Perrot, Estevan, Hinton, Notre-Dame-de-l'Ile-Perrot, High River, etc.
Delivery to the towns of Canada: Nelson, Carleton Place, Trail, Selkirk, Lorraine, Arnprior, Steinbach, Lachute, Val-des-Monts, La Tuque, Weyburn, Amherst, Dorchester, Roberval, Saint-Raymond, Huron East, Kapuskasing, Saint-Sauveur, Oromocto, Kitimat, La Malbaie, Stony Plain, Mont-Tremblant, Binbrook, Whitecourt, Lavaltrie, Ladysmith, Pont-Rouge, Castlegar, Otterburn Park, Dauphin, Bois-des-Filion, Winkler, Concord, Bracebridge, Notre-Dame-des-Prairies, Dryden, Taber, Morinville, Silver Berry, Saint-Felicien, Saint-Hippolyte, Bridgewater, Goderich, Wild Rose, Renfrew, Edson, Fort Frances, Chandler, Kirkland Lake, Slave Lake, etc.
Delivery to other towns of Canada: Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Wasaga Beach, Chibougamau, Revelstoke, Aylmer, Pont Rouge, Camlachie, Banff, Yarmouth, Carignan, Campbellton, Beaumont, Innisfil, Delson, Sydney Mines, Baie-Saint-Paul, Hanover, La Sarre, Asbestos, Merritt, Bluewater, Coaticook, Hampstead, Olds, Greenwood, Gibsons, Carbonear, Saint-Zotique, Kincardine, Plessisville, Brownsburg-Chatham, Ponoka, Mont-Joli, Rocky Mountain House, Kimberley, Perth, Parry Sound, Pointe-Calumet, Morden, Coaldale, Summerland, Stephenville, Amqui, Beauceville, Saint-Joseph-du-Lac, Sooke, Iqaluit, Drayton Valley, Farnham, The Pas, Bromont, Saint-Felix-de-Valois, Bonnyville, Flin Flon., etc.
Delivery to the United Kingdom: London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Bristol, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Edinburgh, Cardiff, Leicester, Stoke-on-Trent, Bradford, Coventry, Nottingham, Kingston-upon-Hull, Belfast, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Sunderland, Brighton, Derby, Plymouth, Wolverhampton, Southampton, Swansea, Salford, Portsmouth, Milton Keynes, Aberdeen, Reading, Northampton, Luton, Swindon, Warrington, Dudley, York, Bolton, Stockton-on-Tees, Preston, Bournemouth, Norwich, Middlesbrough, Peterborough, Southend-on-Sea, Walsall, Colchester, Mansfield, Telford, Ipswich, Huddersfield, Dundee, Oxford, Doncaster, Chelmsford, Cambridge, Maidstone, Slough, Poole, Blackburn, Chesterfield, Blackpool, Newport, Birkenhead, St Alban's, Hastings, Bedford, Gloucester, West Bromwich, Worcester, Sale, Nuneaton, Watford, Exeter, Solihull, Chester, High Wycombe, Gateshead, Southport, Rotherham, Cheltenham, etc.
Delivery to other cities of the UK: Olathe, Thornton, Waco, Murfreesboro, Denton, West Valley City, Midland, Carrollton, Roseville, Warren, Charleston, Hampton, Surprise, Columbia, Coral Springs, Visalia, Sterling Heights, Gainesville, Cedar Rapids, New Haven, Stamford, Elizabeth, Concord, Thousand Oaks, Kent, Santa Clara, Simi Valley, Lafayette, Topeka, Athens-Clarke, Round Rock, Hartford, Norman, Victorville, Fargo, Berkeley, Vallejo, Abilene, Columbia, Ann Arbor, Allentown, Pearland, Beaumont, Wilmington, Evansville, Arvada, Provo, Independence, Lansing, Odessa, Richardson, Fairfield, El Monte, Rochester, Clearwater, Carlsbad, Springfield, Temecula, West Jordan, Costa Mesa, Miami Gardens, Cambridge, College Station, Murrieta, Downey, Peoria, Westminster, Elgin, Antioch, Palm Bay, High Point, Lowell, Manchester, Pueblo, Gresham, North Charleston, San Buenaventura (Ventura), Inglewood, Pompano Beach, Centennial, West Palm Beach, Everett, Richmond, Clovis, Billings, Waterbury, Broken Arrow, Lakeland, West Covina, Boulder, Daly City, Santa Maria, Hillsboro, Sandy Springs, Norwalk, Jurupa Valley, Lewisville, Greeley, Davie town, etc.
Delivery to the UK cities: Loughborough, Halesowen, Royal Tunbridge Wells, Bebington, Aldershot, Livingston, Kettering, Royal Leamington Spa, Littlehampton, Gravesend, Corby, Canterbury, Barry, Christchurch, Keighley, Hamilton, Brentwood, Ewell, Beeston, Bootle, Esher, Kingswinford, Neath, Clacton-on-Sea, Crosby, Kirkcaldy, Dunfermline, Carlton, Wellingborough, Torquay, Sittingbourne, Smethwick, Shoreham-by-Sea, Welwyn Garden City, Inverness, Lancaster, Horsham, Ayr, Perth, Cwmbrân, Banbury, Llanelli, Kilmarnock, Barrow-in-Furness, Sutton-in-Ashfield, Cheshunt, West Bridgford, Northwich, Ashton-under-Lyne, Winchester, Havant, Salisbury, Greenock, Coatbridge, Wallsend, Merthyr Tydfil, Jarrow, Whiteley, Middleton, Lytham St Anne's, Kirkby, Wokingham, Bexhill-on-Sea, Hoddesdon, Fareham, Grantham, Worksop, Andover, Dover, Braintree, Caerphilly, Boston, Bridgwater, Bury St Edmund's, Ramsgate, etc.
Delivery to other UK cities: Irvine, Cleethorpes, Trowbridge, Swadlincote, Glenrothes, Castleford, Leyland, Newbury, Eccles, Fleet, Great Yarmouth, Tonbridge, Ilkeston, Herne Bay, Abingdon-on-Thames, Canvey Island, Camberley, Bishop's Stortford, Long Eaton, Hatfield, Leighton Buzzard, Blyth, Port Talbot, Chester-le-Street, Airdrie, Newark-on-Trent, Redcar, Whitley Bay, Eccles, Chorley, Wilmslow, Borehamwood, Accrington, Chadderton, Romiley, Coalville, Redhill, Skelmersdale, Exmouth, Billericay, Hitchin, Tyldesley, Hyde, Haywards Heath, St Helier, Wickford, Bromsgrove, Brighouse, Letchworth Garden City, Huyton, Chippenham, Strood, Glossop, Dumfries, Lichfield, Stroud, Bicester, Pudsey, Hucknall, Whitstable, Motherwell, Prestwich, Barnstaple, Spalding, Wisbech, Epsom, Brierley Hill, Rutherglen, Warwick, Pitsea, Loughton, Stanford-le-Hope, Burgess Hill, Beverley, Wishaw, Colwyn Bay, St Neot's, Harpenden, etc.
Delivery to Australia: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Canberra, Newcastle, Wollongong, Logan City, Geelong, Hobart, Townsville, Cairns, Toowoomba, Darwin, Rockingham, Launceston, Bendigo, Ballarat, Mandurah, Mackay, Bundaberg, Bunbury, Maitland, Armadale, Rockhampton, Adelaide Hills, South Brisbane, Reservoir, Tamworth, Wagga Wagga, Albury, Berwick, Port Macquarie, Queanbeyan, Orange, Blacktown, Shepparton, Caloundra, Hoppers Crossing, Werribee, Melton, Castle Hill, Saint Albans, Nowra, Frankston, Frankston East, Rowville, Warrnambool, etc.
Delivery to the cities of Australia: Baulkham Hills, Albany, Mount Waverley, St Albans, Auburn, Bathurst, Pakenham South, Point Cook, Dubbo, Epping, Wodonga, Kalgoorlie, Bankstown, Mill Park, Gladstone, Kwinana, Lismore, Mildura, Preston, Sunbury, Hurstville, Narre Warren South, Noble Park, Southport, Kellyville, Port Stephens, Banora Point, Liverpool, Doncaster East, Croydon, Geraldton, Maroubra, Coffs Harbour, Mosman, Richmond, Narre Warren, Randwick, Strathfield, Bundoora, Alice Springs, Quakers Hill, Palmerston, Endeavour Hills, Coburg, Dandenong, Fremantle, Ferntree Gully, Campsie, Kew, Hampton Park, etc.
Delivery to other cities of Australia: Canning Vale, Glen Iris, Mount Gambier, Marrickville, Northcote, Granville, Mount Isa, Keysborough, Armidale, Morphett Vale, Dianella, Forest Lake, Mornington, Thornlie, Ashfield, Traralgon, Dandenong North, Busselton, Cabramatta, Greystanes, Tarneit, Maryborough, Caboolture, Kirwan, Langwarrin, Carlingford, Liverpool, Caringbah, Brighton, Glenferrie, Hawthorn South, Hawthorn, Goulburn, Boronia, Woodridge, Booval, Thomastown, Cheltenham, Punchbowl, Prospect, Greensborough, Gawler, Burnie, Balwyn North, Lalor, Brunswick, Hornsby, St Clair, Springvale, Wheelers Hill, etc.
Delivery to Australian cities: City of Parramatta, Craigieburn, Whyalla, Glenroy, Camberwell, Malvern East, Murray Bridge, Echuca, Devonport, Roxburgh Park, Glenmore Park, Epping, Ballajura, Essendon, Cherrybrook, Altona Meadows, Cranbourne, Katoomba, Surfers Paradise, Parramatta, Broken Hill, Doncaster, Eltham, Fairfield, Morayfield, Engadine, Eastwood, Saint Kilda, Highton, Mulgrave, Forster, Wantirna South, Dee Why, Thornbury, Wahroonga, Frankston South, Wyndham Vale, Gosnells, Mount Eliza, Willetton, Carrum Downs, North Ryde, Mount Martha, Wangaratta, Sunnybank Hills, Cronulla, Sunshine West, Taree, Earlwood, Sunnybank, etc.
Delivery to other Australian cities: South Grafton, Cessnock, Hillside, Westmead, Carnegie, Nerang, Narangba, Deer Park, Taylors Lakes, Deception Bay, Umina, Seaford, Burwood, Yagoona, West Pennant, Paralowie, Lilydale, Moe, Clayton, Lara, Griffith, Bracken Ridge, Eight Mile Plains, Parafield Gardens, Prestons, Buderim, Brighton East, Carindale, Port Hedland, Duncraig, Pascoe Vale, Rochedale South, Coorparoo, Meadow Heights, Mitcham, Casula, Bossley Park, Cranbourne North, Caulfield North, Lakemba, Kingston, Grovedale, Horsham, Bentleigh, Ballina, Kingsford, Lidcombe, Carlton, Wantirna, Manly, etc.
Delivery to the towns of Australia: Ingleburn, Burleigh Waters, Elwood, Cleveland, Victoria Point, Yarraville, Singleton, Bongaree, Raymond Terrace, Mount Druitt, Bacchus Marsh, Newtown, Moonee Ponds, Palm Beach, Ascot Vale, Morwell, Port Melbourne, Yeppoon, Keilor East, Port Augusta, Port Pirie, Williamstown, Footscray, Sale, Coogee, Templestowe Lower, Brunswick West, Surrey Hills, Hawthorn East, Port Lincoln, Doonside, Concord, Toongabbie, Dulwich Hill, Balwyn, Miranda, Toorak, Beaumaris, Port Kennedy, Broome, Fawkner, Scarborough, St Kilda East, Inala, Warwick, Rosebud, Hampton, Como, Ashwood, Chadstone, etc.
Delivery to other towns of Australia: Marsfield, Kiama, Leichhardt, Mayfield, Springvale South, Goonellabah, Port Augusta West, Geelong West, Lavington, Doreen, Newport, Greenvale, Blackburn, Burwood, West Ryde, Penrith, Kingswood Park, Varsity Lakes, Donvale, Muswellbrook, Taylors Hill, Bateau Bay, North Melbourne, Wynnum West, Karratha, Charlestown, Wynnum, Penshurst, Mentone, Paddington, Caringbah South, Clayton South, Happy Valley, Diamond Creek, Redfern, North Fitzroy, Warnbro, Vermont South, Sandy Bay, East Maitland, South Perth, Lithgow, Bayswater, Manly West, Parkdale, Caulfield South, Gympie, Bairnsdale, Bowen, Nunawading, etc.
Delivery to small towns in Australia: Wanneroo, Samford Valley, Mount Gravatt East, Altona North, Caroline Springs, Bulleen, Kensington, Gladesville, Menai, Bondi Beach, Wellington Point, Mount Lawley, Annerley, Tewantin, Box Hill North, Sunshine North, Yokine, Batemans Bay, Camp Hill, Marangaroo, Dapto, Maylands, Drummoyne, Melton West, Bondi, Sydenham, Keilor Downs, Neutral Bay, Highett, West Footscray, Nambour, Rutherford, Maribyrnong, Hallam, Hillarys, Burwood East, Blackburn South, Darlinghurst, Hamilton, Dingley Village, Glenorchy, Forest Hill, Kilsyth, Parkes, Nedlands, Moranbah, Broadmeadows, Grafton, Altona, Vermont, etc.
Delivery to New Zealand: Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Manukau City, Waitakere, North Shore, Hamilton, Dunedin, Tauranga, Lower Hutt, Palmerston North, Rotorua, Hastings, Nelson, Napier, Mangere, Porirua, Whangarei, New Plymouth, Invercargill, Wanganui, Upper Hutt, Gisborne, Ashburton, Papakura, Timaru, Blenheim, Paraparaumu, Taupo, Pukekohe East, Masterton, Levin, Whakatane, Taradale, Cambridge, Tokoroa, Richmond, Oamaru, Gore, Hawera, Takanini, Queenstown, Kaiapoi, Greymouth, Pakuranga, Waiuku, Motueka, Thames, Kawerau, Petone, Papatowai, Waitara, Matamata, Otaki, Kerikeri, Ngaruawahia, Waitangi, etc.Abkhazia: Gagra, Gudauta, Lake Ritsa, New Athos, Ochamchire, Pitsunda, Sukhumi, Tsandryphsh, etc.
Afghanistan: Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Taloqan, etc.
Algeria: Algiers, Annaba, Béjaïa, Oran, Tlemcen, etc.
American Virgin Islands: Charlotte Amalie, etc.
Andorra: Andorra la Vella, Arinsal, El Pas de la Casa, Encamp, Grandvalira, Ordino, Pal, Soldeu, Vallnord, etc.
Angola: Benguela, Luanda, etc.
Anguilla: The Valley, West End, etc.
Antigua and Barbuda: Jolly Harbour, Saint John’s, etc.
Argentina: Buenos Aires, Capilla del Monte, Colón, Córdoba, El Calafate, La Plata, Los Glaciares, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Mina Clavero, Neuquén, Pinamar, Puerto Iguazú, Puerto Madryn, Rosario, Río Cuarto, Río Grande, Salta, San Carlos de Bariloche, San Martín de los Andes, San Miguel de Tucumán, San Rafael, Santa Rosa de Calamuchita, Tandil, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Villa Carlos Paz, Villa General Belgrano, Villa Gesell, Villa La Angostura, Villa de Merlo, etc.
Aruba: Eagle Beach, Noord, Oranjestad, Palm Beach, Santa Cruz, Savaneta, etc.
Australia: Adelaide, Airlie Beach, Alice Springs, Bondi Beach, Brisbane, Byron Bay, Cairns, Canberra, Coffs Harbour, Darwin, Daylesford, Fremantle, Geelong, Gold Coast, Great Barrier Reef, Hervey Bay, Hobart, Hyams Beach, Jervis Bay, Launceston, Logan City, Mackay, Mandurah, Maroochydore, Melbourne, Mooloolaba, Mount Gambier, New South Wales, Newcastle, Noosa Heads, Northern Territory, Perth, Port Douglas, Queensland, Redland City, Rockhampton, South Australia, Surfers Paradise, Sydney, Tasmania, Toowoomba, Townsville, Ulladulla, Victor Harbor, Victoria, Western Australia, Wollongong, etc.
Austria: Abtenau, Alpbach, Austrian Alps, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgastein, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Dürnstein, Flachau, Fugen, Graz, Hallstatt, Innsbruck, Ischgl, Kaprun, Kitzbühel, Klagenfurt, Klosterneuburg, Kufstein, Lech, Leogang, Lienz, Linz, Maria Alm, Mayrhofen, Neustift im Stubaital, Obergurgl, Saalbach-Hinterglemm, Saalfelden, Salzburg, Schladming, Seefeld, Serfaus, St. Anton, St. Johann im Pongau, Sölden, Tux, Tyrol, Vienna, Villach, Wachau, Wagrain, Zell am See, etc.
Azerbaijan: Baku, Ganja, Lankaran, Quba, Qusar, Shahdag, Sheki, Stepanakert, etc.
Bahamas: Andros, Eleuthera, Exuma, Freeport, Grand Bahama, Nassau, New Providence, Paradise Island, etc.
Belgium: Antwerp, Ardennes, Blankenberge, Boom, Bouillon, Bruges, Brussels, Charleroi, De Haan, De Panne, Durbuy, Flanders, Ghent, Hasselt, Kortrijk, La Louvière, Leuven, Liège, Mechelen, Namur, Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Spa, Ypres, Zeebrugge, etc.
Belize: Ambergris Caye, Belize City, Caye Caulker, Placencia, San Pedro, etc.
Benin: Cotonou, etc.
Bermuda: Hamilton, etc.
Bhutan: Paro, Thimphu, etc.
Bolivia: Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz, Oruro, Quillacollo, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sucre, Uyuni, etc.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Bihać, Jahorina, Medjugorje, Mostar, Neum, Sarajevo, Travnik, Trebinje, etc.
Botswana: Gaborone, Maun, etc.
Brazil: Amazon River, Amazonia, Angra dos Reis, Arraial do Cabo, Atlantic Forest, Balneário Camboriú, Belo Horizonte, Belém, Bombinhas, Brasília, Búzios, Cabo Frio, Camaçari, Campinas, Campos do Jordão, Caraguatatuba, Copacabana, Costa do Sauípe, Curitiba, Duque de Caxias, Fernando de Noronha, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, Gramado, Guarujá, Guarulhos, Iguazu Falls, Ilha Grande, Ilhabela, Ilhéus, Ipanema, Itacaré, Maceió, Manaus, Morro de São Paulo, Natal, Niterói, Osasco, Ouro Preto, Paraty, Petrópolis, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Praia do Forte, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Santos, São Gonçalo, São José dos Campos, São Luís, São Paulo, São Sebastião, Trancoso, Ubatuba, Vila do Abraão, etc.
British Virgin Islands: Tortola, etc.
Brunei: Bandar Seri Begawan, etc.
Bulgaria: Albena, Apriltsi, Arbanasi, Balchik, Bansko, Blagoevgrad, Borovets, Burgas, Byala, Chepelare, Chernomorets, Dobrinishte, Gabrovo, Golden Sands, Haskovo, Hisarya, Kavarna, Kazanlak, Kiten, Koprivshtitsa, Kranevo, Lovech, Lozenets, Nesebar, Obzor, Pamporovo, Pazardzhik, Pirin, Pleven, Plovdiv, Pomorie, Primorsko, Ravda, Razlog, Rila, Ruse, Saints Constantine and Helena, Samokov, Sandanski, Sapareva Banya, Shumen, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofia, Sozopol, Stara Zagora, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Targovishte, Tryavna, Tsarevo, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, Velingrad, Vratsa, Yambol, etc.
Cameroon: Bafoussam, Bamenda, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Limbe, Maroua, Yaoundé, etc.
Canada: Alberta, Banff, Brampton, British Columbia, Burnaby, Calgary, Charlottetown, Edmonton, Fort McMurray, Gatineau, Halifax, Hamilton, Jasper, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kingston, Kitchener, Laval, London, Longueuil, Manitoba, Markham, Mississauga, Moncton, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal, Nanaimo, New Brunswick, Niagara Falls, Niagara on the Lake, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Ottawa, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Regina, Richmond, Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Surrey, Toronto, Vancouver, Vaughan, Victoria, Whistler, Whitehorse, Windsor, Winnipeg, Yukon, etc.
Cape Verde: Boa Vista Cape Verde, Sal, etc.
Caribbean Netherlands:, etc.
Cayman Islands: George Town, Grand Cayman, West Bay, etc.
Central African Republic: Bangui, etc.
Chad: N'Djamena, etc.
Chile: Antofagasta, Arica, Atacama, Coquimbo, Easter Island, Hanga Roa, Iquique, La Serena, Patagonia, Pucón, Puerto Montt, Puerto Natales, Puerto Varas, Punta Arenas, San Pedro de Atacama, Santiago, Torres del Paine, Valdivia, Valparaíso, Villarrica, Viña del Mar, etc.
Colombia: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín, Pereira, San Andrés, Santa Marta, Villa de Leyva, Villavicencio, etc.
Comoros: Moroni, etc.
Costa Rica: Alajuela, Jacó, La Fortuna, Manuel Antonio, Monteverde, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Puntarenas, Quepos, San José, Santa Teresa, Tamarindo, Tortuguero, etc.
Croatia: Baška Voda, Baška, Bibinje, Biograd na Moru, Bol, Brač, Brela, Cavtat, Cres, Dalmatia, Dubrovnik, Fažana, Hvar, Istria, Ičići, Karlovac, Kolocep, Korčula, Kožino, Krk, Kukljica, Lopud, Lovran, Lošinj, Makarska, Mali Lošinj, Malinska, Medulin, Mlini, Nin, Novi Vinodolski, Novigrad, Omiš, Opatija, Orebić, Pag, Pakoštane, Petrčane, Podstrana, Poreč, Povljana, Privlaka, Pula, Rab, Rabac, Rijeka, Rovinj, Slavonski Brod, Split, Stari Grad, Starigrad, Sukošan, Supetar, Sveti Filip i Jakov, Trogir, Tučepi, Umag, Vir, Vrsar, Zadar, Zagreb, Čiovo, Šibenik, Šipan, etc.
Cuba: Baracoa, Camagüey, Cayo Coco, Cayo Largo, Cayo Santa María, Cienfuegos, Guantánamo, Havana, Holguín, Pinar del Río, Remedios Cuba, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara Cuba, Santiago de Cuba, Trinidad, Varadero, Viñales, etc.
Curaçao: Sint Michiel, Westpunt, Willemstad, etc.
Cyprus: Ayia Napa, Coral Bay Cyprus, Famagusta, Kouklia, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Paralimni, Peyia, Pissouri, Polis, Protaras, etc.
Czech Republic: Bohemia, Brno, Děčín, Františkovy Lázně, Frymburk, Frýdek-Místek, Harrachov, Hradec Králové, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Kladno, Krkonoše, Kutná Hora, Liberec, Lipno nad Vltavou, Marienbad, Mikulov, Mladá Boleslav, Mělník, Olomouc, Ostrava, Pardubice, Plzeň, Poděbrady, Prague, Teplice, Třeboň, Zlín, Znojmo, Ústí nad Labem, České Budějovice, Český Krumlov, Špindlerův Mlýn, Železná Ruda, etc.
Dominican Republic: Boca Chica, Bávaro, Cabarete, La Romana, Las Terrenas, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo, Sosúa, etc.
East Timor: Dili, etc.
Ecuador: Baños, Cuenca, Galápagos Islands, Guayaquil, Manta, Otavalo, Puerto Ayora, Puerto López, Quito, Salinas, etc.
Egypt: Abu Simbel, Al Qusair, Alexandria, Aswan, Cairo, Dahab, El Alamein, El Gouna, El Hadaba, Faiyum, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Marsa Alam, Mersa Matruh, Naama Bay, Nabq Bay, Nile, Nuweiba, Port Said, Red Sea, Safaga, Sahl Hasheesh, Scharm asch-Schaich, Sharks Bay, Sinai, Suez, Taba, Valley of the Kings, etc.
El Salvador: La Libertad, San Salvador, etc.
Equatorial Guinea: Malabo, etc.
Eritrea: Asmara, etc.
Estonia: Haapsalu, Kuressaare, Narva, Pärnu, Saaremaa, Tallinn, Tartu, etc.
Indonesia: Bali, Balikpapan, Bandung, Batu, Bintan, Bogor, Borobudur, Denpasar, Jakarta, Java, Jimbaran, Kalimantan, Kuta, Lombok, Makassar, Malang, Mataram, Medan, Nusa Dua, Padang, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Sanur, Semarang, Seminyak, Sumatra, Surabaya, Surakarta, Ubud, Yogyakarta, etc.
Iran: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tehran, etc.
Iraq: Baghdad, Basra, Duhok, Erbil, Karbala, Sulaymaniyah, etc.
Lebanon: Baalbeck, Beirut, Byblos, Faraya, Jounieh, Mzaar Kfardebian, Tripoli, etc.
Lesotho: Maseru, etc.
Liberia: Monrovia, etc.
Libya: Benghazi, Tripoli, etc.
Liechtenstein: Schaan, Vaduz, etc.
Lithuania: Druskininkai, Kaunas, Klaipėda, Nida, Palanga, Panevėžys, Trakai, Vilnius, Šiauliai, Šventoji, etc.
Luxembourg: Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg City, Vianden, etc.
Macedonia: Bitola, Mavrovo, Ohrid, Skopje, etc.
Madagascar: Antananarivo, etc.
Malawi: Blantyre, Lilongwe, Zomba, etc.
Malaysia: Borneo, George Town, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Johor, Kedah, Kota Bharu, Kota Kinabalu, Kuah, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Terengganu, Kuantan, Kuching, Langkawi, Malacca, Penang, Putrajaya, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Shah Alam, etc.
Maldives: Kaafu Atoll, Malé, etc.
Mali: Bamako, etc.
Malta: Birżebbuġa, Buġibba, Gozo, Gżira, Mellieħa, Paceville, Pembroke, Qawra, Sliema, St. Julian's, St. Paul's Bay, Valletta, etc.
Martinique: Fort-de-France, La Trinité, Le Diamant, Les Trois-Îlets, Sainte-Luce, etc.
Mauritania: Nouakchott, etc.
Mauritius: Port Louis, etc.
Mexico: Acapulco, Akumal, Cabo San Lucas, Cancún, Chetumal, Chichen Itza, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Cozumel, Cuernavaca, Guadalajara, Guanajuato, Guaymas, Isla Mujeres, Ixtapa, Los Cabos, Manzanillo, Mazatlán, Monterrey, Mérida, Oaxaca, Playa del Carmen, Puebla, Puerto Aventuras, Puerto Escondido, Puerto Morelos, Puerto Peñasco, Puerto Vallarta, Querétaro, Riviera Maya, San Carlos, San Cristóbal de las Casas, San Francisco de Campeche, San Miguel de Allende, San Miguel de Cozumel, Teotihuacan, Tijuana, Toluca, Tulum, Zihuatanejo, etc.
Moldova: Bălți, Chișinău, Tiraspol, etc.
Monaco: Monte Carlo, etc.
Mongolia: Darkhan, Erdenet, Ulaanbaatar, etc.
Montenegro: Bar, Bečići, Bijela, Budva, Cetinje, Dobra Voda, Dobrota, Herceg Novi, Igalo, Kolašin, Kotor, Miločer, Nikšić, Perast, Petrovac, Podgorica, Prčanj, Sutomore, Sveti Stefan, Tivat, Ulcinj, Žabljak, etc.
Myanmar: Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Nyaung Shwe, Yangon, etc.
Namibia: Rundu, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Windhoek, etc.
Nepal: Chitwan, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Lukla, Lumbini, Mount Everest, Nagarkot, Namche Bazaar, Patan, Pokhara, Tengboche, etc.
Netherlands: 's-Hertogenbosch, Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Arnhem, Breda, Delft, Domburg, Dordrecht, Eindhoven, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Maastricht, Nijmegen, Noordwijk, Rotterdam, Texel, The Hague, Utrecht, Valkenburg aan de Geul, Wijk aan Zee, Zandvoort, etc.
New Caledonia: Nouméa, etc.
New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Gisborne, Hamilton, Hastings, Invercargill, Kaikoura, Lower Hutt, Napier, Nelson, New Plymouth, North Island, Palmerston North, Porirua, Queenstown, Rotorua, South Island, Taupo, Tauranga, Waiheke Island, Wanaka, Wellington, Whangarei, etc.
Nicaragua: Granada, Managua, etc.
Nigeria: Abuja, Benin City, Calabar, Enugu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jos, Kaduna, Lagos, Owerri, Port Harcourt, Uyo, etc.
Philippines: Angeles City, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bacoor, Baguio, Batangas, Bohol, Boracay, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Caloocan, Cebu, Coron, Dasmariñas, Davao, Dumaguete, El Nido, General Santos, Iloilo City, Kalibo, Lapu-Lapu City, Las Piñas, Luzon, Mactan, Makati, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Mindanao, Muntinlupa, Olongapo, Palawan, Panglao, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Galera, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Valenzuela, Visayas, Zamboanga, etc.
Saint Lucia: Anse La Raye, Castries, Gros Islet, Soufrière, etc.
Saint Martin:, etc.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon: Saint Pierre, etc.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Kingstown, etc.
Samoa: Apia, etc.
San Marino: City of San Marino, etc.
Saudi Arabia: Abha, Al Khobar, Buraydah, Dammam, Jeddah, Jizan, Jubail, Mecca, Medina, Riyadh, Ta'if, Tabuk, Yanbu, etc.
Senegal: Dakar, M'Bour, Saly Portudal, etc.
Serbia: Belgrade, Kopaonik, Niš, Novi Sad, Palić, Stara Planina, Subotica, Zlatibor, etc.
Seychelles: La Digue, Mahé, Praslin, etc.
Sierra Leone: Freetown, etc.
Singapore: Changi, Sentosa, etc.
Sint Maarten:, etc.
Slovakia: Bratislava, Jasná, Košice, Liptov, Tatranská Lomnica, Vysoké Tatry, Štrbské Pleso, etc.
Slovenia: Bled, Bohinj, Bovec, Kranjska Gora, Ljubljana, Maribor, Piran, Portorož, Rogaška Slatina, etc.
Solomon Islands: Honiara, etc.
Somalia: Mogadishu, etc.
Somaliland: Hargeisa, etc.
South Africa: Ballito, Benoni, Bloemfontein, Boksburg, Cape Town, Drakensberg, Durban, East London, George, Johannesburg, Kempton Park, Kimberley, Knysna, Kruger National Park, Marloth Park, Mossel Bay, Nelspruit, Pietermaritzburg, Plettenberg Bay, Polokwane, Port Elizabeth, Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Rustenburg, Sandton, Stellenbosch, Umhlanga, etc.
Spain: A Coruña, Alcúdia, Algeciras, Alicante, Almería, Altea, Andalusia, Antequera, Aragon, Asturias, Ayamonte, Baiona, Balearic Islands, Barbate, Barcelona, Basque Country, Benalmádena, Benidorm, Benissa, Besalú, Bilbao, Blanes, Buñol, Cadaqués, Cala d'Or, Calella, Calonge, Calp, Calvià, Cambados, Cambrils, Canary Islands, Cangas de Onís, Cantabria, Cartagena, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Chiclana de la Frontera, Costa Blanca, Costa Brava, Costa Dorada, Costa del Maresme, Costa del Sol, Cádiz, Córdoba, Dénia, El Puerto de Santa María, Empuriabrava, Estepona, Figueres, Formentera, Fuerteventura, Galicia, Gijón, Girona, Gran Canaria, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez de la Frontera, L'Escala, L'Estartit, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Pineda, Lanzarote, Las Palmas, Llançà, Lleida, Lloret de Mar, Madrid, Magaluf, Malgrat de Mar, Mallorca, Marbella, Maspalomas, Menorca, Mijas, Mojácar, Moraira, Murcia, Málaga, Navarre, Nerja, O Grove, Ourense, Oviedo, Palma Nova, Palma de Mallorca, Pals, Poio, Pollença, Pontevedra, PortAventura, Portonovo, Ronda, Roquetas de Mar, Roses, Salamanca, Salou, San Sebastian, Sant Antoni de Portmany, Santander, Santiago de Compostela, Santillana del Mar, Sanxenxo, Seville, Sidges, Sierra Nevada, Tarifa, Tarragona, Tenerife, Toledo, Torremolinos, Torrevieja, Torroella de Montgrí, Tossa de Mar, Valencia, Vigo, Vélez-Málaga, Xàbia, Zaragoza, etc.
Syria: Aleppo, Damascus, Deir ez-Zor, Latakia, Palmyra, Tartus, etc.
Taiwan: Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei, etc.
Tajikistan: Dushanbe, Isfara, Khujand, etc.
Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti, Zanzibar, etc.
Thailand: Ayutthaya, Bangkok, Cha-Am, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chonburi, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Karon, Khao Sok, Ko Chang, Ko Lanta, Ko Phangan, Ko Samui, Krabi, Pai, Patong, Pattaya, Phi Phi Islands, Phuket, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, River Kwai, Udon Thani, etc.
Togo: Lomé, etc.
Tonga: Nukuʻalofa, Tunis, etc.
Trinidad and Tobago: Port of Spain, etc.
Tunisia: Djerba, Hammamet, Midoun, Monastir, Port El Kantaoui, Sousse, etc.
United States: Akron, Alabama, Alaska, Albany, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Anaheim, Anchorage, Ann Arbor, Arizona, Arkansas, Arlington, Aspen, Atlanta, Aurora, Austin, Bakersfield, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, Beaver Creek, Berkeley, Big Bear Lake, Billings, Biloxi, Birmingham, Boca Raton, Boise, Boston, Breckenridge, Brooklyn, Buena Park, Buffalo, California, Carlsbad, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Chandler, Charlotte, Chesapeake, Cheyenne, Chicago, Chula Vista, Cincinnati, Clearwater, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Columbus Georgia, Columbus, Connecticut, Corpus Christi, Costa Mesa, Cupertino, Dallas, Dana Point, Daytona Beach, Death Valley, Delaware, Delray Beach, Denver, Des Moines, Destin, Detroit, Durham, El Paso, Estes Park, Fargo, Fayetteville, Florida, Fontana, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Fort Walton Beach, Fort Wayne, Fort Worth, Fremont, Fresno, Galveston, Garland, Georgia, Gilbert, Glendale, Grand Canyon, Grand Rapids, Grand Teton, Great Smoky Mountains, Greensboro, Gulfport, Hawaii, Henderson, Hialeah, Hollywood, Honolulu, Hot Springs, Houston, Huntington Beach, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indianapolis, Iowa, Irving, Jackson Mississippi, Jackson Wyoming, Jacksonville, Jersey City, Juneau, Kansas City, Kansas, Kentucky, Key Largo, Key West, La Jolla, La Quinta, Laguna Beach, Lahaina, Lake Tahoe, Laredo, Las Vegas, Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Louisiana, Louisville, Lubbock, Madison, Maine, Malibu, Mammoth Lakes, Manhattan, Marathon, Maryland, Massachusetts, Memphis, Menlo Park, Mesa, Mexico City, Miami Beach, Miami, Michigan, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Moab, Modesto, Montana, Monterey, Montgomery, Moreno Valley, Mount St. Helens, Mountain View, Myrtle Beach, Napa, Naples, Nashville, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New Orleans, New York City, New York, Newark, Newport Beach, Newport, Norfolk, North Carolina, North Dakota, North Las Vegas, Oakland, Ocean City, Oceanside, Ohio, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Omaha, Oregon, Orlando, Oxnard, Palm Coast, Palm Desert, Palm Springs, Palo Alto, Panama City Beach, Park City, Pasadena, Paso Robles, Pennsylvania, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Plano, Pompano Beach, Portland, Portland, Providence, Raleigh, Redwood City, Reno, Rhode Island, Richmond, Riverside, Rochester, Rocky Mountains, Sacramento, Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Mateo, Sanibel, Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Monica, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, Savannah, Scottsdale, Seattle, Shreveport, Silicon Valley, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Lake Tahoe, Spokane, Springfield, Squaw Valley, St. Augustine, St. Louis, St. Petersburg, Steamboat Springs, Stockton, Sunny Isles Beach, Sunnyvale, Syracuse, Tacoma, Tallahassee, Tampa, Telluride, Tennessee, Texas, Thousand Oaks, Toledo, Tucson, Tulsa, Utah, Vail, Vermont, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Waikiki, Walnut Creek, Washington D.C., Washington, West Palm Beach, West Virginia, Wichita, Winston-Salem, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yellowstone, Yonkers, Yosemite, Zion, etc.
Uruguay: Colonia del Sacramento, La Barra, La Paloma, Maldonado, Montevideo, Piriápolis, Punta del Este, Salto, etc.
Uzbekistan: Bukhara, Fergana, Khiva, Kokand, Navoiy, Samarkand, Tashkent, Urgench, etc.
Vanuatu: Port Vila, etc.
Venezuela: Caracas, Isla Margarita, Maracaibo, Porlamar, etc.
Vietnam: Cát Bà Island, Cần Thơ, Da Lat, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Huế, Hạ Long, Hội An, Long Hải, Mỹ Tho, Nha Trang, Ninh Bình, Phan Thiết, Phú Quốc, Qui Nhơn, Rạch Giá, Sa Pa, Tuần Châu, Vũng Tàu, Đồng Hới, etc.
Yemen: Aden, Sana'a, etc.
Zambia: Livingstone, Lusaka, etc.
Zimbabwe: Bulawayo, Harare, Mutare, Victoria Falls, etc.